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VIRGINIA Bl-ACH, VIRGINIA 23455 



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Face Design of Norfolk Coiiiiiieiiiorative Half Dollar 

Executed by William Marks Simpson, 

a Native Son of Norfolk, 

Director, Rinehart School of Sculpture, 

Baltimore, Maryland 



•: /■ 



NORFOLK, VIRGINIA 

1636-1936 



Echoes of the other years, three centuries now 

Still ring through hallowed streets from shore to shore, 

Resounding in the stillness of the night 

Like distant chants of years that are no more. 

There is a certain charm that lives within 

These gates where romance walked and dreams were born, 
Where sturdy men with hearts afire with hope 

Looked to the He'vens with faith and trust at dawn. 

Each foot of ground had worn its cloak of blood 
Shed by brave men who saw in Heaven's light 

The star of faith, which led to virgin lands, 

New destines where rule would be by right. 

This is a shrine bejeweled with history's lore. 
The very air we breathe bears on its wings 

The memories of so many troubled days 

When altar fires were built with living things. 

Age cannot dim the scroll of deeds well done, 

Nor can the march of time, though rapid pace 

Erase from Norfolk streets the sound of feet 

That moved in martial tread each foe to face. 

No, no as long as there is breath to sing 

Praise chants to Him for sires whose eyes could see 
Beyond the oceans wide, this garden spot 

That held within its breast, serenity. 

And down through centuries three. Fate's gentle hand 
Has weaved her wondrous pattern, never done, 

Creating colors bright that blend at dusk 
So perfectly with that of setting sun. 

— Charles Day. 



^ijrousj) tfte gears; 3n i^orfolfe 



BOOK I 

HISTORICAL NORFOLK — 1636 to 1936 

By W. H. T. SQUIRES, M.A.,D.D.,LiTr.D. 

BOOK II 

THE MAKING OF A GREAT FORT 
NORFOLK, PORTSMOUTH AND ENVIRONS TODAY 

By F. E. TURIN 

B B 

BOOK III 

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL NORFOLK 

Bv M. E. BENNETT 



Published by 
Norfolk Advertising Board 

Affiliated wilh 

Norfolk Association of Commerce 

FOR THF. 

TRI-CENTENNIAL OF NEW NORFOLK COUNTY 

AND THE 

BI-CENTENNIAL OF NORFOLK BOROUGH 

1936 






CoPVRIGHT, 1!).'!7 

By 

F. E. Turin, Manager, 

Norfolk AnvF-KTisiNG Board, Inl 



Printed by 

I'rintcraft Press, Inc. 

Portsmouth, Va. 



T, 



his hook is dedicated to\i I I 
sons cind da n<shtcrs ic/io 
Thron'^/i the Years 'ui \orfolk 

labored unselfishlx in the 
interest of their conunu/iitx 



-The F^ditors 

\V. H. I'. Sri IRES 

F. F.. TiiRtN 
M. F. Bennett 



1636^ '^^^' NORFOLK 

9 

5 
6 






Table of Contents 



GENERAL 



PAGES 



Poem — Norfolk, ^'IRGINIA, //y Charles Day .... Facing Title 

Historical Noriolk, by lf\ H. T. Squires . . . . 1 to 86 

Norfolk's Ban'ks and Bankers, by IV. H. T. S(fiires . 87 to 101 

The Makixg of a Great Port, by F. E. Turin . . . 10,) to 153 

Norfolk and Environs Today, by F. E. Turin . . . 15-I' to 215 

The Norfolk Public Library, by Mary D. Pretlow . . m to '228 

Norfolk Public Schools, by C. JV. Mason .... 216 to 252 

Commercial and Industrial Norfolk, by M. F.. Bennett . 256 to 358 

Sponsors 331 to 333 

Ad\'ertisers . . . . . . . . . 331 to 358 



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1656 THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



Contents — Book 1 






Part One 

I. Ski-co-ak. Indian Norfolk . 

II. Ralph Lane. The City of Ralegh 

III. Cape Henry. April 26^ i6oj 

IV. Adam Thorowgood. AVtt Norfolk County 
V . Tho.mas Willoughby. The First Grant 

VI. Bacon's Rebellion. The Enabling Jet 

VII. Land Purchased. The Deed 

VIII. Land Adjoining. Anthony If'alke 

IX. First Citizens. A Village . 

X. King William's War. Norfolk-town . 

XI. A Royal Borough. Mayor and Aldermen 

XII. Early Norfolk. Streets and B''ells 

XIII. A Seal Presented. Robert Dinwiddle 

XIV. Streets Named. Famous Men . 
XV. The Mace. Early Mayors 

XVI. The Stamp Act. Rev. Thomas Davis . 

XVII. Colonial Prosperity. Tobacco . 

XVIII. The Earl of Dunmore. John Holt . 

XIX. The First Proclamation of Emancipation 

XX. Battle of Great Bridge. December 0, 1775 



PAGE 

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6 

7 

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11 

14 

16 

17 

IS 

21 

22 

22 

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26 



Part Two 

XXI. Norfolk. Rebuilt. Church and Lighthouse 29 

XXII. The French Revolution. War Prosperity 32 

XXIII. War OF 1812. "Chesapeake'" and" Leopard" 33 

XXIV. Battle of Craney Island. June 21, iS/ji . 35 

XXV. LaFayette's Visit. October 22, 1S24 36 

XXVI. The First Centennial. September 75, r8j6 39 

XXVII. Senator Tazewell. Napoleon III 41 

XXVIII. A City. April 24, 1S45 42 

XXIX. Brighter Skies 42 

XXX. The Pestilence. iS§^ 4:i 

XXXI. The Customs House. December jo, 1857 45 

XXXII. Trouble Threatened. Lincoln Elected 45 

XXXIII. Confederate Norfolk. Farragut's Farewell 46 

XXXIV. The Navy Yard. A Navy Lost 47 

XXXV. The Blockade 48 

XXXVI. The Merrimac-Virginia. March 9, 1S62 48 

XXXVII. Norfolk Surrendered. May 10, 1S62 49 

XXXVIII. The Blackest Days. "Sign or Starve" 50 

XXXIX. Emancipation. David M. Wright 51 

XL. Benjamin F. Butler 52 

XLI. Edward A. Wild. The Clergy 53 



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XLII. 






XIJII, 






XLIV. 






XLV. 






XI. VI. 




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XLVIII. 






xr.ix. 






LI. 






Lll. 






I.III. 






1,1V. 


4. 


I.V. 


T^U* 


l.VI. 


IrajT 


I.\ll. 


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l.VIH. 


w 


I.IX. 


s 


LX. 


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I. XL 


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l.XII. 


^ 


l.XIII. 


w 


I.XIV. 


M 


LXV. 


"7 


f 


I.XVI. 



THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



Coyitents- Book I — Continued 



Part Three 

The Coxfederates Retur.n 
Civil. Rich is Bui. 
The Cri.sis. July 6, iSdg 
The Press .... 
.-Alexander Galt. Hugh Blair Grimsby 
RoBERi E. Lee. April 30, iSjo 
\ (iRiP OF Steel. Self-Contrnl 
Steady Improvement. The '~n's 
Railways. IVilliajn Mahone 
The Depression of the '70's 
Substantial Growth. I'nurteen Years 
.\ Great Year. rSSj 
The Suburhs. The 'ijn's 
The Monument. IVilliani Coitper 
Great Buildings. ,i Xeiii Centiir 
The Jamestowne Exposition 
The World War 
Norfolk Soldiers 
The .\rmy Base . 
The Naval Base 

The .'\rmistice. Xuvemher 11, miS 
The City's (Government. (Aty Managers 
The Aviation Race. Xovemher /?, /qj6 
Norfolk ToDA^•. (avic Leaders 
The Manager and Council 



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Norfolk's Banks and Bankers 
The Last Leaf 



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^Ijrougt) tl^t ^cars 3n iSorfolfe 



1636 — 1736 — 1936 



Norfolk is a Queen, seated by her rivers of ivater, 
H'hose diadem is a cluster of sei'en stars: 

1. Here the City of Ralegh ivas to become the capital of all British America. 

2. At Cape Henry the Nation was horn. 

3. The only Colonial Mace, held by an .-Imcrican city, is Norfolk's own. 

4. The First Proclamation of Emancipation was issued at Norfolk. 

5. The only -American city completely destroyed and rebuilt. 

6. Here the H'ar of 1S12 began. 

7. Here the M erritnac-l'irginia changed for mankind the naval architecture 
of the world. 



% 



I — Ski-co-ak 

The hand of Sir Walter Ralegh lifted the curtain of obscurity 
that veiled the Western World. To him, Captain Arthur Barlow, 
one of the earliest British sea-captains to visit America, reported 
(1584), a year before the first P^nglish colony was sent to Roanoke 
Island: 

"Six days from the same (referring to Roanoke Island) 
is situated their greatest city called Ski-co-ak, which this 
people affirm to be very great; but the savages were never 
at it, only they speak of it by the report of their fathers and 
other men whom they have heard affirm it to be about an 
hours' journev about it." 

This vague sentence from Barlow's official report is certainly 
the first reference to the site of Norfolk in recorded historv; and we 
judge that it is the first reference to any Anglo-Saxon citv in America. 

Ski-co-ak was six days' journey by oar and foot from Roanoke 
Island — but it would not require an hour to walk around it. It would 
take an Indian in a typical dug-out fully an hour to paddle around 
it. Allowance must be made for exaggeration, especially as it is said 
the report was hearsay. 

II — Ralph Lane 

The second reference to Norfolk is found in the report of Cap- 
tain Ralph Lane to Sir Walter Ralegh, one year after Captain 
Barlow's report (1585) : 

"To the northward our farthest discovery was to the 
Ches-i-pe-ans, distant from Roanoke about 130 miles. The 

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passage to it was very shallow and most dangerous, by reason 
of the breadth of the Sound and the little succor that upon 
thaw was there to be had. The territory and soil of the 
Ches-i-pe-ans, being 15 miles from the shore, for pleasant- 
ness of seat, for temperature of climate, for fertility of soil 
and for the commodity of the sea, besides multitudes of 
bears, being an excellent good victual, and great woods of 
sassafras and walnut trees, are not to be excelled by any 
other whatsoever. There be sundry kings whom they call 
wcrowanccs." 

This involved paragraph needs comment. The Chesapeake 
tribe lived in Norfolk and Princess Anne Counties, not one hundred 
and thirty but sixty miles north of Roanoke Island. To be sure Ralph 
Lane may not have come directly, or he may have referred to the 
length of the entire journey. They crossed the broad and sunlit 
waters of Albemarle Sound, which are shallow, and then sailed up 
Currituck Sound, which is narrow, and into Back Bay, beyond 
which navigation was impossible. A "thaw" was a storm, and with 
high winds might prove disastrous to small boats along strange shores 
and in an hostile country. Lane does not mention Ski-co-ak, which 
was a trirte more than fifteen miles from the "shore" (the Atlantic). 
His description of the soil, climate, trees, and even the bears, is ac- 
curate, t 

Another report says that Ski-co-ak was protected by a palisade 
and 

"a certain King's country, whose province lyeth upon the ■ 

sea, but his place of greatest strength is an island situate, 
as he described unto me, in a bay, the water around about 
the island very deep." 

We have no authority for the pronunciation of Ski-co-ak, but 
arguing from analogy, we judge that it was pronounced "She-coy- 
ak", with the even accent the Powhatans preferred. It may have 
been shortened to "She-queek". (War-as-coy-ak was pronounced 
"War-ris-queek".) 

Nor can it be proven beyond cavil that Ski-co-ak was the pro- 
posed site of The City of Ralegh, the capital for all British America, 
yet it is likely, for the southern shore of Chesapeake Bay was the 
only section of Tidewater Virginia Captain Ralph Lane visited. 

Ill — Cape Henry 

Twenty-two years later noble Sir Walter was laid by the heels 
in the gloomy Tower of London. His charter and his plans were I 

the property of the London Company, whose colonists established "" 

[ 2 ] 



1936 



rt^ 



THPODGH THF YFAP5 IN 



) 



) the first permanent English settlement in America, landing at Cape 

Henry, Sunday morning, April 26, 1607. Captain Christopher 
Newport gave the southern shore of the Chesapeake not the slightest 
consideration. He crossed to Old Point Comfort (April 30), ex- 
plored the Powhatan (James) , and finally selected the worst possible 
location for Jamestown, then a marish peninsula (May 14). 

Captain Newport left the "Discovery" in Virginia when he 
sailed away, and in it the redoubtable Captain John Smith explored 
a remarkably wide area, and explored it well. He paid a brief and 
unsatisfactory visit to Chesapeake (P^lizabeth) River: 

"So setting sail for the southern shore (from Old 
Point) , we sailed up a narrow river up the country of Ches- 
a-peack; it had a good channel but many shoals about the 
entrance (Craney Island). By that we had sailed six or 
seven miles, we saw two or three little garden plots with 
their houses, the shores overgrown with the greatest pine 
and fir trees we ever saw in this country. But not seeing 
nor hearing any people and the river very narrow, we re- 
turned to the great river (Hampton Roads) to see if we 
could find anv of them." 

Early historians estimate that the Chesapeake tribe had ap- 

proximately one hundred warriors, which would indicate a popula- lU 

tion of less than five hundred people. Some calamity had evidently 
overtaken this tribe since the days of Capt. Arthur Barlow. 

IV — Adam Tmoro\\'good 



f 



One of the first to make his home upon the southern shore, per- 
haps the very first, was Adam Thorowgood (Thoroughgood) . This 
remarkable man was the seventh son of William Thorowgood of 
Grimston, King's Lynn, Norfolk, England, and a brother of Sir 
John Thorowgood, a friend of Charles I. Born in 1602, Adam was 
only nineteen years old when he arrived in Virginia (1621) seeking 
fame and fortune; and he found both. His first home was at Ke- 
coughtan (Hampton), just before the First Massacre (Good Friday, 
March 22, 1622). That terrible day crafty Opechancanough (pro- 
nounced O-pe-can-u) let loose the furies, and one-fourth the white 
population of Virginia were mercilessly murdered. The Massacre 
had a direct influence upon the settlement of Norfolk County and 
City. Instead of making his home on the troubled and dangerous 
frontiers far up the James, Adam Thorowgood turned eastward, 
into the heart of the forests, upon the green shores of Lynnhaven 
Bay, so near Cape Henry that the roar of the waves was heard dis- "T 

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tinctly when tempests drove in from the northeast. On these inhind 
waters, as cahn and inscrutahle as the stars, which were reflected 
each night in their bosom, Adam made his home. 

On Smith's map it was Morton's Bay, but Adam called it 
"Lynnhaven", for his native town of King's Lynn, and Lynnhaven 
it is. His grant, 5,350 acres (dated June 20, 1635), was given him 
"at especiall recommendation of him from their Lordshipps and 
others, his Ma'ties most Hon'ble privie Councell to the Governor 
and Councell of State for Virginia", and the land was due him for 
importing one hundred and five persons into the Colony to inhabit. 

Ambitious young Adam represented Elizabeth City in the 
House of Burgesses (1629-30). Governor John Harvey united 
the scattered plantations into eight shires ( 1 634) , and Elizabeth City 
extended from Gosnold's Bay (Back Bay) to the unknown wilds of 
the South (North Carolina). As this was too vast a county Adam 
Thorowgood secured the passage of an Act (1636) creating a new 
county along the southern littoral, to be known as New Norfolk 
County. With the passage of that Act the fine, old English name 
"Norfolk" took its place in the geography of Virginia, the nation 
and the world. 




Adam 1 hiii invgcKid rctcivcil a fjram uf 5,35ii al■lc^ iiii L\ iiiilia\ cii Ha> June 20, 1635. 
There he made his home — the oldest residence in .Xnglo-Saxon .America. He gave Lynn- 
haven Bay its beautiful name and secured the erection of New Norfolk County (1636). 



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m. 



1 



One year after New Norfolk County was organized (1637), 
King Charles I made a grant of the county to Lord Maltravers, son 
of the Duke of Norfolk. He directed in the grant that the Nanse- 
mond River should be called Maltravers River (which it never 
was), and that the county be called "Norfolk" (which name it had 
already received by act of the Virginia legislature). There was 
never a prince more shifty than Charles I. 

V — Thomas Willoughb^' 

Thomas \\^iIloughbv, like Adam Thorowgood, a colorful char- 
acter, came to Virginia in 1610, at the age of twenty-three (some 
authorities say at the age of ten). Like Adam he, too settled at 
Kecoughtan (Hampton). 

Lieutenant Pippet and P>nsign Thomas Willoughby were 
ordered to chastise the Chesapeake Indians (July 4, 1627) ; the 
reason does not appear. Perhaps they were getting restless again 
five years after the First Massacre (1622). The Virginians were 
alert to protect themselves from another massacre. No doubt P^nsign 
Tom Willoughby was attracted by these fertile lands. ALigniHcent 
forests, mentioned by the earliest explorers, covered the fertile shore!^ 
with a robe of verdure. Tall oaks and pines, indigenous to the soil, 
flung giant shadows across the placid waters. At their very roots 
the little waves whispered the secrets of the parent sea. 

On February 13, 1636, Thomas Willoughby secured a patent 
for 20(1 acres of land. It was the year that ihorowgood secured the 
organization of New Norfolk County. The ^^'illoughby patent in- 
cluded the site of ancient Ski-co-ak, gone and forgotten, and ex^ 
tended from the river to Bute Street. He also took up one hundred 
acres across the river, which included the present site of the NavaT, 
Hospital (old Fort Nelson). 

No one knows when Thos. Willoughby moved to the southern 
shores of Hampton Roads, but he was appointed a Justice of Lower 
Norfolk County (March 11, 1639), and later (1646) High Lieu- 
tenant. He lived much longer than his friend and neighbor, Adam 
Thorowgood, and died in England (1658). 

Thomas Willoughby was, in a sense, the first citizen of Norfolk, 
altho his home was not on the grant referred to above. 

He allowed the grant to escheat to the colony, and it was held 
successively by John \^^itkins, John Norwood and Peter Michaelson. 

Governor William Berkeley granted two hundred acres of land 
(December 18, 1649) to Peter Michaelson & Co., owners of a ship 

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called "Huls Van Nassau", of Ullsinger, Zealand, Holland. The 
land lay between Elizabeth River, the Eastern Branch and Dun-in- 
the-Mire. This fantastic, if not beautiful name, Dun-in-the-Mire, 
became Newton's Creek, still later Lake Mahone, and is now Jackson 
Park. 

Lewis Vandermull, evidently another Dutch tobacco trader, 
owned the site (1662), and sold it to Nicholas Wise, at whose death 
it passed to his son, Nicholas Wise, Jr. 

These names, from Thorowgood and Willoughby to Wise, are 
only names to us, of characters practically unknown; but they ap- 
pear, if indistinct, as names in a shining mist. Chance has made 
them memorable. A modest breast-works called a "fort" was built 
on the Wise farm (West Main Street) 1673, just before Bacon's 
Rebellion. It was dismantled when Fort Norfolk \\as built (1793). 

VI — Bacon's Rebellion 

How intricate are the tangled threads of destiny! Bacon's Re- 
bellion (1676) was an indirect, but potent cause that led to the 
establishment of Norfolk. That zealous but futile attempt to secure 
just government for the Colony, and to save the infant Dominion 
from tyranny, reduced Virginia to such abject depths of misery that 
some earnestly proposed the abandonment of the Colony altogether. 
Others suggested that it be transferred from the utter inefficiency of 
Stuart England to the righteous rule of Holland and the House of 
Orange. Fortunately plans less drastic prevailed. Charles II was 
at last aroused by the misery of "His Old Dominion". He would 
bring peace and prosperity to Virginia by the simple method of 
passing a law! He ordered the establishment of twenty towns in the 
twenty counties. Just how the inhabitants of the towns were to earn 
a living was a detail that did not enter the royal head. 

He sent over 7"homas, second Lord Culpepper, as our new 
governor — and one of the worst. Tom ordered the servile Burgesses 
to establish the twenty towns, and the legislative rubber stamps im- 
mediately complied (June 6, 1680). The law ret]uired the planters 
in every county to haul their tobacco over a road (that did not exist) , 
to a town (that did not exist), and to load the ships from wharfs 
(that did not exist). Be it remembered that many planters had 
wharves on their land and ships standing off ready for cargo. Those 
who did not own a waterfront had neighbors who gladly granted 
the loading privilege as a courtesy. Yet, strange as it may seem, 
this unjust and unreasonable law gave birth to Norfolk. Norfolk's 
seal carries the date 1682, we believe the date should be 1680. 

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THROUGH THE YEAP*^ in nopfoLK 



^ VII — Land Purchased 

** The paper town, to serve the planters of Lower Norfolk 

J County, was to be established on the site of long-forgotten Ski- 

co-ak, where the Elizabeth River sleeps with her two arms em- 
bracing a great boundary of land. History was here to weave her 
romance, for decades and centuries to come, into every mile along 
these sinuous shores. 

The fifty acres of the Wise tract were queer, as to shape, re- 
sembling somewhat a mushroom, hanging to the mainland by a nar- 
row ridge, along which a road jolted into the countryside. 

For three centuries the history of Virginia (and to a degree 
the nation) has hovered around this quaint peninsula. To these 
shores the memory of momentous events cling like driftwood in the 
flowing tide. Every inlet and point has a tale to tell, of strange 
events and a glamorous past. 

The purchase was made August 16, 1682, and the deed reads, 
in part, 

"For and in consideration of the sum of ten thousand 
pounds of good merchantable tobacco and caske to Capt. 
William Robinson and Lieutenant-Colonel Anthony Law- 
son, feoffees in trust for the said county" 

bought one-fourth of the Wise tract. 

On the whole, as money went and as land went, we think 
Nicholas Wise, Jr., made a very good real estate deal. His deed 
reads, as follows: 

"To all Christian people to whom these presents shall 
come .... I hold myself well satisfied contented and paid 
and for divers other considerations mc therefore, moving, 
having given, granted, bargained, sold, alienated, enfeoffed 
and conformed bv these presents, for myself, my heirs, 
exor's and adm're, do give, grant, bargain, sell, alienate, 
enfeoff and confirm . . . (the land) . . . running partly across 
an old field and partly through some points of woodland, 
it being a small nick of cleared ground and woodland, etc." 

Nicholas Wise probably lived on the eastern extremity of the 
land he sold, "where the bridge to Berkley and the Norfolk and 
Western freight stations are now located". Much of the shallow 
water has been filled, so that the area of the original fifty acres has 
been greatly extended. 

VIII — Land Adjoining 

Nicholas Wise, Jr., sold the remaining one hundred fifty acres 
of his patrimony to Charles Winder, who sold it to "William Porten, "T 

[ 7 ] 



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Clerk of the County Court", who sold it to Anthony Walke, a grand- 
son of Colonel Anthony Lawson, the feoffee. All of the tract, once 
an open field and spreading forest, is now in the very heart of the 
older section of the city. 

Colonel Anthony Lawson, two years after he purchased the 
famous fifty acres of land ( 1684) , entertained Rev. Francis Makemie, 
the Apostle of Presbyterianism in Virginia. Makemie wrote: 

"Colonel Anthony Lawson and other inhabitants in 
the parish of Lynnhaven in Lower Norfolk County pre- 
vailed with me to stay .... Direct your letters to Col. An- 
thony Lawson at the Eastern Branch of Elizabeth River." 

IX — First Citi/exs 

Now it came to pass that we had the law and the land, but not 
one customer to buy a half-acre lot, although the feoffees offered 
the lots for one hundred pounds of tobacco ($4.00) if the patron 
would build a home or store. At last Peter Smith bought a lot; 
William Porten, Clerk of the Court, bought six lots, on Main, a short 
distance east of Church, at the peninsula's widest point, and built a 
house. By 1690 there were probably five or six houses, for a number 
of lots had been sold along .\Lun Street, or the "road that leadeth 
to the Court House", as it was described in some of the oldest deeds. 

In 1691 Lower Norfolk County was divided into Norfolk and 
Princess Anne Counties. In April of that year a visitor wrote that 
the village "had several dwellings and storehouses". In 1693 a house 
and garden sold for nine pounds sterling ($45.00), but the value of 
money was vastly greater than now. The Court House for Norfolk 
County was located on Main Street where the "road that leadeth to 
the water" (Commercial Place) intersected, (directly opposite the 
site of the Confederate Monument). 

In 1695 a road was opened to the Public Spring, which was 
public property. It was located about 200 feet north of Main and 
200 feet west of Church Street. Church Street was the "road that 
leadeth out of town", and a Town Bridge was built over a branch 
of Dun-in-the-Mire (Church and Charlotte Streets) about 1695. 

Norfolk-town was wisely located, and continued to grow. 
Broad avenues of water invited commerce to center here. The 
Eastern Branch and Broad Creek led into the heart of the 
country. The Southern Branch and Deep Creek beckoned trade 
from Dismal Swamp and the new cohmy of Carolina. The Western 
Branch opened into land as fertile as the Garden of the Lord. 

Among the first to buy lots besides Peter Smith and ^^^illiam 



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Porten were Richard Whitley (Whitby) and Henry Spratt. In ten 
years we find Samuel Boush, Malachi Thurston, William Knott, 
Peter Hobson, Bryant Cahill, Thomas Nash, Thomas Walke, Francis 
Simpson, John Dibbs, Peter Cartwright, Peter Malbone, Thomas 
HButt, Peter Blake, William Heslett, Thos. Hodges, Edward Archer^ 
Benedictus Horsington, Fergus Thompson, William Boswell, Na- 
thaniel Newton, Jno. Tabor, Samuel Sizemore, Cornelius Tully, 
William Cook, Richard Hill, Samuel Smith, William Wallis 
(Wallice), William Crawford, Arthur Moseley, Samuel Powers, 
James McCoy, Matthew Godfrey, Jeremiah Langley, Joseph Lee, 
John Mirphee, Nathaniel Tatum, Joseph Church, Robert Tucker, 
Henry Gristock, John Redwood, Owen Jones, Thomas Wright, and 
many others. 

In the county there were some rich and influential planters, for 
howsoever tight times may be, there be those who can make money. 

Thomas Willoughby, Cornelius Lloyd, Adam Keeling, Capt. 
John Sibsey, Francis Emperor, Henry Woodhouse, William Mose- 
ley. John Okeham, Lewis Connor, John Machcn, Rcibert Hodg£S 
and Lawrence Phillips, were prominent citizens. These were the 
first ephemeral actors in the commercial life of the village. How 
dim they seem; but, no doubt, thev were vital enough in their day. 

X — King Willi.am's W.ar 

The prosperity of Norfolk has always pulsed to the tide of 
European politics. Kings, parliaments and courts have held the 
destiny of our citizens largely in their hands, though they knew it not. 

The English Revolution was as distinct a blessing to Virginia, 
as to Great Britain. William HI was constantly engaged in a 
desperate struggle to protect Holland and England from the clutches 
of his haughtv cousin, Louis XIV. For five years (1692-97) war 
raged upon the plains of Europe. Countless ships here sought food- 
stuffs, tobacco, naval supplies and evervthing that America had to 
sell. Norfolk-town, as it was always called, awoke at the magic 
touch of commerce. Realty no longer went begging. Fortunes were 
in the making by benevolent patriots who bought at the lowest and 
sold at the highest. 

We know but little of the village of Norfolk-town at the turn 
of the Eighteenth Century (1700). There were probably more 
than thirty homes (probably less than fifty). Nevertheless that was 
a good beginning for a town in this exceeding rural colony. 

On the neck of land by the side of the "road that leadeth out of 
town" a chapel-of-ease was built (1698-1700), and benevolent 



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Samuel Boush gave a chalice for the Communion service. The 
chalice is still carefully preserved by the vestry of Christ Church. 

Princess Anne became Queen Anne at the death of King 
William III (1702). The Duchess of Marlborough ruled the 
Queen, and the Duke ruled the army, the nation and, to a large ex- 
tent, the world (1701-11). Virginia was growing rich. Norfolk- 
town and Hampton vied each with the other for the lucrative trans- 
Atlantic trade. Carpenters, painters, shipbuilders, chandlers, mer- 
chants, exporters and brokers, were as busy as proverbial bees. 
Prosperity smiled upon the Dominion like the sunshine of spring, 
and gold leaped into the large, colonial pockets of the planters as the 
waves leaped upon the sands by the shore. Norfolk-town and Vir- 
ginia blossomed as a flower in the sun, for commerce spins strong 
threads of silver, and draws all peoples into closer union. 

Rev. Francis IMakemie wrote (1705), 

"There are beginnings of towns at Williamsburg, 
Hampton and Norfolk, particularly in Norfolktown, at 
Elizabeth river, who carry on a small trade with the whole 
bay." 

Norfolk was recognized legally as a "town": — 

"Begun at the Capitol in the City of Williamsburg, the 
23 day of October, 1705, Edward Nott, Esqr., Governor 
in the fourth year of our Sovereign Lady Anne, Queen . . . 
Defender of the Faith, etc. 

"Be it enacted : 

"That the places hereinafter named shall be the ports 
meant and intended by this act and none other or places 
whatsoever (vizt.) ... on Elizabeth River . . . Norfolk- 
town . . . That Norfolktown to be called Norfolk and to 
have Tuesday and Saturday in each week for market days 
and the third day of October and four following days, ex- 
clusive of Sundays, annual their fair." 

It is interesting to note the logic of the ancient Burgesses — when 
Norfolktown was not a town, it was called Norfolktown, but when 
it became legally a town it was no longer to be called Norfolktown! 
The town remained for all judicial and administrative purposes 
still a part of Norfolk County and the County Court House re- 
mained in the town. 

There were at least four streets, if narrow unpaved lanes might 
be called streets. Main bisected the town, following the height oi 
land and dodging wet and marshy places. Back Street (Bermuda) 
faced Newton's Creek, or Dun-in-the-Mire to use its fancy name. 
Market Sc]uare led to the ferries as today, and Church Street was 

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"V 



the only road to the country. The school land was probably located 
next the chapel, as that was always the custom in Virginia. 

William Bvrd of Westover gives a glimpse of the growing 
town (1728) : 

"Two dozen ships might be seen anchored at any time 
before the town. The two cardinal virtues which make a 
place thrive, industry and frugality, are here seen in per- 
fection. So long as the people can banish luxury and idle- 
ness, the town will remain in a happy and flourishing con- 
dition." 

XI — A Royal Borough 

Exactly a century had passed since Adam 'I'horowgood secured 
the erection of New Norfolk County, and since Captain Thomas 
Willoughby took a -grant to the site of ancient Ski-co-ak (1736). 
Norfolk, the largest town in Virginia, was to become a Borough, 
with the privileges and appertinances appertaining thereunto. Sir 
William Gooch, the Governor of Virginia, wrote: 

"Norfolk is a healthy and pleasant place, commodious 
for trade and navigation, and has greatly increased in the 
number of the buildings and inhabitants." 

The houses at that time extended out Church Street to "Town 
Bridge" (Church and Charlotte). Probably one thousand people 
lived here, but almost as many made their homes in the countryside 
adjacent. 

The petition addressed to King George II stated: 

"Of late years there has been a very greatly increased 
number of inhabitants and buildings; many people have 
seated themselves upon the adjoining land." 

The charter was granted, September 15, 1736. Samuel Boush 
was appointed Mayor; Sir John Randolph, Knight, Recorder; 
(Jeorge Newton, Samuel Boush, the younger, John Hutchings, 
Robert Tucker, John Taylor, Samuel Smith, the younger, James 
Ivey and Alexander Campbell, aldermen. 

The first council met November 18, 1736. As they sit about 
the mahogany table in the Court House, which served Borough and 
County, let us meet them. They are worthy men, and true, well 
fitted to become the forebears of a dominant race. 

The chair at the head of the table was vacant. Mayor Samuel 
Boush had died since his appointment. His home was in a large 
lot fronting Church and Main Street, the yard extending to swampy 

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ground (Cove Street), beyond which were the small "Chapel-of- 
ease", as the village church was called, and a small God's acre for 
the dead to sleep around about. The village school w^as probably 
next beyond the chapel. 

Samuel Boush was much interested in building a better church 
for the Borough, and a larger school. His son, Samuel Boush, Jr., 
and others bought a large piece of land across the road (Church and 
Holt Street), and it is our guess (but we cannot prove) that he gave 
the former school land for enlarging the church and God's acre. 
Samuel Boush contributed liberally to the fund for building the 
Borough Church. He did not live to see these plans materialize; 
but the vestry wrought his initials "S. B." into the fabric of the 
walls, from which they have looked, silently and enigmatically, 
across the troubled years of two centuries (1739). 

Samuel Boush was a worthy man; his life was his masterpiece. 
His father, Maximilian Boush, lived in a rambling, Colonial home- 
stead, which is still in use at Kempsville. He was Queen Anne's coun- 
cillor for both counties, and was at this time a member of the House 
of Burgesses (1734-40). Boush Street, in the far west end of the 
new Borough, is a perpetual memorial to this distinguished family. 

As George Newton was the first of the eight aldermen appointed 
by Governor Gooch, he was called to^he chair, and was, in fact, our 
first Mayor. 

Sir John Randolph, the Recorder, was not^JtsHtizen of Norfolk, 
but he attended this first meeting. His ofYice was iNsinecure. The 
work was done by a deputy named David Osheall. I suppose Sir 
John Randolph, the only colonial gentleman ever knighted, was the 
most influential Virginian of that day after Commissary James Blair. 
He had just been elected Speaker of the House of Burgesses. He 
was the son of a distinguished father, William Randolph of Turkey 
Island on the James; and the father of a distinguished son, Peyton 
Randolph, first President of the First Continental Congress. His 
grandson, Edmund Randolph, was one of Virginia's ablest governors 
(1786-88). Sir John died the following year (1737). 

Six of the original eight aldermen served Norfolk as Mayors. 
All were gallant men, good knights and stainless gentlemen, who 
left marks, wide and worthy, on the pages of our local history. 

George Newton represented Norfolk County in the House of 
Burgesses (1723-26), and his family was famous for a century in 
the Borough. 

Samuel Boush, Junior, was Clerk of Norfolk County for thirty- 
two vears (1742-74), and served as a Burgess three years (1752-55). 

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He was one of the trustees who bought the land on Church Street 
for Norfolk Academy (1728). 

John Hutchings, a wealthy merchant, was thrice Mayor (1737, 
1743 and 1755). He was a Burgess from 1738 to 1756. 

John Tucker, merchant, was a member of the House of Bur- 
gesses (1753-55), and served as Mayor of Norfolk (1748) and sherifif 
of the County. 

John Taylor was Mayor (1739-40). 

Samuel Smith, a wealthy merchant and large land-owner, whose 
name remains in Smith's Point and Smith's Creek, was Mayor 
(1740-41). 

James Ivey was probably the son of Thomas Ivey, the neighbor 
of Col. Anthony Lawson, on the Eastern Branch. Rev. Josias Mackie 
used Thomas Ivey's home for Presbyterian worship from 1692 to 
1716 He was never our mayor, nor was Alexander Campbell, who 
lies now in a tomb south of South Norfolk, and whose name remains 
in "Campbell's Wharf". He was a wealthy merchant of Scotch- 
Irish extraction. Archibald Campbell, Mayor (1763), was, we 
judge (but cannot prove), the son of Alexander Campbell. 

These were the men of the Borough, who did well their part 
and, passing, yielded their places to others. 

Norfolk Borough was to elect one member to the House of 
Burgesses. Only "freeholders" could vote; and a "freeholder" was 
a citizen who paid minimum taxes, to the extent of £50 ($250.), 
or who had served five years as an apprentice in some gainful trade. 
Loafers had no vote in Colonial Virginia. 

The charter provided that the Aldermen should elect a Common 
Council, which board should, thereafter, be self-perpetuating. The 
two chambers meeting jointly were called "The Common Hall". 
Their annual meetings were held on the Feast of St. John the Baptist 
(June 24). 

The charter provided for three markets each week, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays. Two fairs, which were huge "markets", 
were to be held the first Monday in April and the first Monday in 
October. Those who attended the fairs were exempt from arrest, 
attachment or execution of various processes. The fairs were a 
distinctly British feature brought to Virginia, and they flourished 
until the Revolution. 

The Hustings Court was an important provision. Its duties 
correspond, roughly, to the Corporation Courts of today. On the 

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Hustings sat the Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen. The Council 
and Hustings were responsible for life and property. They must 
keep the King's peace, regulate trade, issue licenses, oversee build- 
ings, care for the streets, fine and punish offenders, hold an annual 
fair and keep full records of the Borough. 

The boundaries of the Borough were considerably enlarged 
when the charter was given. They were extended out the "road 
that leadeth out of town" (Church Street) as far as the Town Bridge 
(at Charlotte Street) then the line was drawn north-westward to 
the "head of Boush's Creek" (near Monticello Avenue) then down 
the west side of that creek to Back Town Creek (City Hall x\venue) . 

xn — E.ARLY Norfolk 

Let us visit the new Borough, two hundred years before our 
time. Everyone came to Norfolk by water, and the rolling years 
work no changes in ocean, bav or river. The tides rise and fall in 
rhythmic pulsations today as when the wooden wharves of the 
planters thrust out into the channel, extending a welcome to ships 
and sailors at anchor or coming up the river in a smacking breeze. 
The shoreline of the Borough was lined with warehouses, huge, 
sprawling, ugly; some brick, but most of them frame — and innocent 
of paint. They were filled to capacity with all kinds and shapes of 
barrels, hogsheads, boxes and bales; tobacco, cotton, foodstuffs, naval 
stores and products of the farm, awaiting shipment to Europe, New 
England or the West Indies. Many packages, too, had arrived and 
were to be delivered bv boat to the planters up one of Virginia's 
innumerable rivers. 

Ihe waterside population was rough to brutality, though no 
worse than similar classes in London, Amsterdam or Antwerp. The 
farmer, especially if there was silver in his pocket, had best watch 
his step. Wild men and desperate women were alwa\s alert for 
human prev. Low dance halls and music halls, saloons and vicious 
taverns were scenes of endless fights, quarrels, brawls, robberies and 
even murders. 

The Virginia (Jazette ( 1767) tells the stor\ of Captain Jeremiah 
Morgan (no worse we dare say than many of his kind), who com- 
manded H. B. yi. S. "Hornet" (a good name for such a vessel). 
He was short of men, so he brought thirty of his godless crew to 
town one dark night, fortified them with plenty of liquor, and started 
forth to "impress into His Majesty's service" every sailor, or other 
man, whom they found on the streets, in the taverns, dance halls or 
saloons. They even broke into lodging houses and pulled their vic- 

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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 






tims out of bed. Fortunately the alarm was sounded. Mayor Paul 
Loyall with many citizens came to the rescue of the "impressed" 
sailors, and even jailed some of Captain Morgan's crew. 

If the visitor picked his way among the mud holes, he would 
come forth upon Main Street, no better paved but wider and more 
attractive than the narrow lanes which led into it. At the "head of 
Market Square" retail business thrived. The Confederate Soldier 
of today looks down from his lofty pillar upon the business centre 
of Norfolk two hundred years ago. 

The market house, an ugly frame building, none too clean, was 
thirty feet long and half as wide. Before five in the morning men 
were there, buying and selling, and housewives, too. Hucksters from 
the small farms backed up their wagons on either side (where the 
curb and sidewalk were not) and sold to the crowding, jostling 
pedestrians, much as they do on Brewer Street today. Small mer- 
chants were busy on either side of Market Square, from Main to the 
ferries. Many of them catered to the ships and sailors; "ship 
chandlers", they called themselves. Manv Norfolk fortunes were 
built upon this waterside trade. 

In the crowds along Market Square were the aristocratic 
planters, their families and servants from the plantations; the mer- 
chants from the city and their families and servants; bankers, pro- 
fessional men, artisans, sailors, soldiers; new arrivals just in from 
long voyages; visitors, beggars, free negroes; slaves, some just from 
Africa, or more likely just from the West Indies; and no end of 
small farmers from the counties around about, the Eastern Shore, 
Albemarle and Currituck Sounds. On the whole the scene at Market 
Square was as fantastic as any in North America. 

East Main, out Church and up Granby and Bank; especially 
beyond Back Town Creek (City Hall Avenue), the more prosperous 
made their homes. Always there were spreading lawns, tall trees 
and beautiful gardens. Over the walls the flowers and vines nodded 
to those who walked or drove along the dirt road called a street. 
While none of the old homes were palatial, they were solid and com- 
fortable, and many were elegantly furnished, in mahogany, old silver, 
rare tapestries and brasses. Many Norfolk homes today are rich in 
precious heirlooms which have come down from the Colonial homes 
of that era. 

Water was supplied from wells, and brought in by hand, as in 
the davs of the patriarchs in Palestine. There were no cisterns. The 
wells were only ten or twelve feet deep. For two centuries the water 
supply was for Norfolk both a problem and a menace. Yet the 

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epidemics that swept the town from time to time (yellow fever and 
small pox) did not come from polluted water. 

The streets were first lighted in 1763 and a watchman employed 
on account of manv robberies at night. 

XIII — A Seal Presented 

The world was rapidly drifting into one of the bloodiest strug- 
gles of all time. The immense development of British commerce, 
wealth and power, due largely to British colonial expansion, aroused 
the intense jealousy of France and forebaded the ultimate collapse 
of the Spanish empire. Three continents, half the world, were the 
prizes at stake — America, Africa and India. 

War was declared in 1740. The high-hearted Virginians leaped 
to the aid of the mother country, and attacked the Isthmus of Panama 
(called Darien), but, at Carthagena, Admiral Edward Vernon sus- 
tained an ignominious defeat. Four hundred young Virginians were 
with Governor William Gooch, under Vernon. 

The combined French and Spanish fleets might at any time 
enter the Chesapeake in retaliation. A^orfolk was alive to that 
danger, for she has always been a focal point in history. 

"At a Common Council held the 7th day of July, 1741, 
it was Resolved: That in future the white male inhabitants 
of the Borough (to prevent any invasion or insurrection) 
shall be armed at the church upon Sundays or other days 
of worship or divine service, under the penalty of five shill- 
ings, to be recovered before the mavor or any one of the 
aldermen." 

The rector of the Borough Church held service with a pistol 
lying conveniently beside the Bible. 

The enemy's fleet, so constantly expected, never arrived. 

At the same meeting of the Common Hall this interesting reso- 
lution was adopted: 

"Hon. Robert Dinwiddle, Esq., having made a present 
of a seal for the use of the Borough, as a grateful recom- 
pense for his being created a burger, the same is gratefully 
accepted of. 

"Resolved and ordered that the Clerk take the same 
into his possession and that the Mayor in the name of him- 
self and this Community return thanks to the said Robert 
Dinwiddle with a grateful acceptance." 

Ten years thereafter Robert Dinwiddle came to Virginia as 
our Governor, and twelve years later ordered the Mace (1753), 



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9 

^N from London which was presented (April 1, 1754) thirteen years 

^ later. 

^\ The victory of William, Duke of Cumberland, at Culloden 

Moor, over Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender and his 
devoted if fanatical followers, brought great rejoicing to Virginia. 
The first, great celebration in this city was staged (July 23, 1746) 
three months after the battle. "Bonnie Prince Charlie" was carried 
through the streets in ellfigy and burned by the applauding multitude, 
to the accompaniment of much hard drinking. A new street, just 
opened, was named Cumberland. It leads from one cemetery to 
another. 

XIV — Streets Named 

As the town was growing many new streets were opened between 
1760 and 1775. The names recall the loyalty and patriotism of that 
day. 

Granby was named for John Manners, the Marquis of Granby 
(1721-70), who won a series of slashing victories in the Seven Years' 
War (1760-62). 

Bute was called for John Stuart, third Earl of Bute, Secretary 
of State to George III (1761) and Prime Minister (1762-3), a good 
Scotch Tory. 

Duke and York are two memorials for the infant Duke of York, 
second son of George III and Queen Charlotte, born August 16, 
1763. 

Wolfe (now Market) was named for James Wolfe, the Hero 
of Quebec, who fell at the moment of victory (September 13, 1759). 
It is not to Norfolk's credit that "Market" was substituted for 
"Wolfe". 

Other streets honor the Governors of Virginia and their families. 
Sir William Gooch, the most efficient of our Colonial executives, 
who ruled for twenty-two years with moderation, wisely and well, 
(1727-49), was a native of Yarmouth, Suffolk, England. A street 
in Norfolk and a pleasant town in Nansemond were called for him. 

Norbonne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, was the most popular 
of our governors (1768-70) . We have a short street commemorating 
his short term, a time when Virginia was a-thrill with thought and 
feeling. 

Three streets in the business section of the city recall John 
Murray, the Earl of Dunmore, the last and most unpopular of our 
royal governors; Dunmore, Catherine and Charlotte. W. S. Forrest 
is authority for the statement that the Earl left Norfolk for the last 
time at the foot of Dunmore Street; hence the name. His two 

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9 

5 daughters, Ladies Catherine and Charlotte, gave their names to 

Catherine (now Bank) Street and Charlotte. Good Queen Char- 
^ lotte, consort of George III, has cities named for her in Virginia, 

North Carolina and other states. Some authorities claim Charlotte 
Street as her memorial, which we would prefer to believe. Queen 
Street was certainly named for her. 

Freemason has a story. It is contended that the first Masonic 
lodge in the Western World was instituted at Norfolk by some of 
our Scotch gentlemen, and chartered, June 1, 1741, "St. John's Lodge 
No. 117". Until the Masonic Hall was erected the Lodge met in 
the Baylor residence, on Freemason Street between Church and 
Cumberland; hence the name. 

A4agazine Lane retains its name from a magazine for powder 
built by the Borough, 1772. 

Randolph Street is probably a memorial to Sir John, the Re- 
corder. ^sv> 

Bermuda Street was so called because Colonel Hutchings, the 
first Bermudean settler lived at the end of it (Dr. Wertenbaker 
quotes the "Norfolk Herald" as authority for this statement). 

XV— The Mace 

Robert Dinwiddle spent seven unhappy years in Virginia (1751- 
57). The people did not like the new Governor, and he did not like 
them. His Excellency presented to/ Norfolk the beautiful and 
treasured Mace, although he never se|t foot in this city. 

The minutes of the Borough for April 1, 1754, make interest- 
ing reading: 

"At a Common Council held this 1st day of April, 
1754, the Honorable Robert Dinwiddie, Esq., His Majesty's 
Lieutenant-Cjovernor and Commander-in-Chief, this day 
presented to the Borough of Norfolk a very handsome silver 
mace, which was thankfully received. 

"Resolved, That the humble thanks of this Borough be 
made to the Honorable Robert Dinwiddie, Esq., His Ma- 
jesty's Lieutenant-Ciovernor and Commander-in-Chief of 
this Dominion, for his valuable present, assuring his honour 
that the same was received as a token of his great regard 
and afifection for the said Borough. 

"Ordered, That a committee be appointed to return the 
thanks of this hall to the governor, and that it be referred 
to Josiah Smith, Robert Tucker, Christopher Perkins, 



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Archibald Campbell, Alexander Rose and Richard Scott, 
Gents, to draw up the same. 

"Norfolk Borough: 

"At a Common Council held this day, 9th of April, 
1754, the committee appointed to draw up the thanks of the 
borough to the Honorable Robert Dinwiddic, Esq., re- 
ported that thev had drawn, which was read and approved 
of. 

"Resolved, That the same be fairly transcribed and that 
the mavor sign the same in the name of the corporation, 
24th June, 1754. 

"Resolved, That it is the opinion of this hall that a 
mace-bearer be appointed, and that he be allowed the sum 
of three pounds per year." 

The iMace is of pure silver, and weighs approximately one 
hundred and four ounces (six and a half pounds avoirdupois) . There 
are nine sections, articulated to form a complete whole, forty-one 
inches in length. The head has three sections, the staff six, bearing 
the hall-mark F. W. and a lion rampant. The staff, elaborately 
ornamented with leaves and scrolls, measures twenty-eight inches, is 
of irregular size, averaging two and one-half inches in diameter. 
The bowl or head of the Mace is cylindrical, seven inches long and 
five and one-quarter inches in diameter. The top is slightly rounded, 
and on it, under the open crown work, are the Royal Arms of Cireat 
Britain in the reign of Cieorge II, the letters G and R and the usual 
mottoes between the lion and unicorn. Fhe emblems of England, 
Scotland, Ireland and France are engraved each in a separate panel, 
with the combined quarterin'gs of Great Britain. The rose of 
Enti:land and thistle of Scotland growing from the same stem, the 
fle'iir tie lis of France and harp of Ireland, and a crown over each 
panel are significant embellishments. 

The bowl is surmounted bv an open crown eight inches across, 
formed bv four bands united at the top to support a globe, on which 
rests a cross. In graceful lines around the base the inscription in 
Roman letters reads: "'I'he (iiftof the Hon. Robert Dinwiddie, Esq., 
Lieut. Governor of Virginia, to the Corporation of Norfolk, 1753." 
(Robert Prentis Beaman is authority for these figures.) 

During the colonial period, as we suppose, the iMace, the symbol 
of authority, was handed to each mayor when installed, with due 
and becoming ceremony. Doubtless it appeared in circumstances high 
and significant. Such is British custom. Forrest assures us that "it 
was formerly carried before the mayor on going to court and in all 
public processions." The first mayor to use the Mace was probably 

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9 

5Josiah Smith. He was followed by George Abyvon (June 24, 1754), 
who gave place in eight months to John Hutchings (February, 
/^ 1755). Richard Kelsick, elected June, 1755, served a year; then 

Josiah Smith became mayor again. John Phripp, elected in 1757, 
served one year; then John Tucker, elected in 1758, and Robert 
Tucker in 1759; then Wilson Newton in 1760, and Christopher 
Perkins in 1761. 

Paul Loyall was elected in 1762, and Archibald Campbell in 
1763. Lewis Hansford followed Campbell (1764). Maximilian 
Calvert was mayor in the troubled year 1765 and in the spring of 
1766, when the Sons of Liberty protested the Stamp Act (March 
31). James Taylor followed Calvert, then George Abyvon was 
again mayor ( 1767) . Cornelius Calvert followed Abyvon for a year. 
Maximilian Calvert was again elected (June, 1769). Charles 
Thomas served a year and gave place to George Abyvon, the third 
time. Paul Loyall took a second term in 1775, and "the records do 
'1 not show the length of his troubled term," for Norfolk was destroyed 

in 1776. As Paul Loyall was then mayor, we suppose he buried the 
Mace at Kempsville . . . but have never seen the statement made. We 
suppose that Mr. Loyall also restored the Mace to the city when 
rebuilt. It was no longer used, but became a relic, half forgotten. 
To quote Robert P. Beaman: 

"Chief of Police C. J. Iredell (1894-96) discovered 
the mace, in a state of disrepair, Iving in a heap of letters 
and old records at the police station. The city officials re- 
t]uested the Norfolk National Bank to become its custodian 
after it was reconditioned. Since that time (more than 
forty years ago) the Norfolk National and the National 
Bank of Commerce have guarded this priceless possession 
of the community." 

The Mace is now fully appreciated. On occasions of state^ 
celebrations of Armistice Day, the annual Memorial Day parades 
and other patriotic observances, the Mace leads the processions 
and is fittingly honored. It is the one relic redolent of our colonial 
era, of the Revolution, the W\xr Between the States and the present 
years of growth and prosperity. 

The bank has provided for the Mace a crystal vault set with 
mirrors. It may be visited and closely inspected any day during 
banking hours. "It may be seen under circumstances in keeping 
with its splendid history and the fine symbolism of the unique object." 

The Mace has survived wars, pestilence, conflagration, careless- I 

ness and neglect. It is the only civic mace in America; for a mace 



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which belonged to the City of New York long since disappeared. 
The State of South Carolina has a mace which is carefully guarded 
in the capitol at Columbia. 

XVI— The St.amp Act 

The Tories returned to power in Great Britain with the corona- 
tion of young George III. They demanded enforcement of the finan- 
cial laws, which the Whigs had allowed to lie dormant. The Sugar 
Act, for an instance, placed a tariff of threepence (6c) a gallon on 
molasses. One William Smith reported to Edward H. Moseley, 
the surveyor for Elizabeth River (customs' officer), that certain 
ships were smuggling molasses into port. The town went wild with 
indignation against tattling Billy. To enforce the Sugar Act was 
to cut off valuable trade from Norfolk. Unfortunate William was> 
tied to a cart, given a coat of tar and well feathered, ducked from the 
town's ducking stool, marched through the streets to beating drums 
and finally flung into the river. He was dragged out by a passing 
boat — and no doubt learned to hold his tongue ever after. 

Next came the Tory Stamp Act. Thirty influential citizens 
spent an entire night discussing the matter, at the home of Mayor 
Calvert. Two days later (March 31, 1766) the Sons of Liberty were 
organized at the Court House. Norfolk was a Tory town. Only 
fifty-seven signed the Protest. It read: 

"We will by all lawful means defend ourselves in the 
full enjoyment of, and preserve inviolate to posterity, those 
inestimable privileges of all free-born British subjects, of 
being taxed only by representatives of their own choosing. 
If we quietly submit to the Stamp Act all our claims to 
civil liberty will be lost, and we, and our posterity, become 
absolute slaves." 

We do not know who penned the Protest, but guess that it was 
Rev. Thomas Davis, rector of the Borough Church, a true and 
courageous patriot, devoted to the cause of his country. As many of 
his congregation were bitter Tories, one cannot but admire the 
courage of this clergyman. He remained with the parish until town 
and church were destroyed, ten years later. 

The Stamp Act was repealed, and the Sons of Liberty fore- 
gathered to the Borough Church, to return thanks to Almighty God 
(May 22, 1766) and hear a sermon by Rev. Thomas Davis. Houses 
were decorated, toasts drunk and at deep twilight bonfires blazed 
forth. 

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^J Infortunatcly the lories did not Icarn their lesson — it is the sad 

6 experience of government that Reactionaries never learn. Charles 

Townshcnd invented new taxes destined to cost (ireat Britain half 
her empire. The tax on tea was one such. 

The "Alary and John" sailed into port with nine chests of tea 
(August 1774). A mass meeting in Norfolk decided that the tea 
must be returned. It was! 

XVII— CoLONi.Ai, Prosperity 

Virginia was rich and prosperous during the last decade of our 
colorful, colonial era, and Norfolk, now the metropolis of the Do- 
minion, reflected the golden glow. English, Scotch and Dutch buyers 
were forever bidding against each other for fragrant tobacco piled 
high in our huge warehouses. 

The prosperity of these happy days is reflected in many minor 

•"^^^ items. Captain Thomas Talbot opened a new street, called by his 

:S name, from Main to Back Creek, and over the Creek (Citv Hall 

'p Avenue) to the suburbs beyond; and, what is more, the progressive 

c^ captain paved the street, unheard of before in Norfolk! 

An earnest Methodist, one Robert Williams, came here and 
preached on the Court-house steps, in private residences, in ware- 
houses and any other place people would listen. The Methodists 
had made a great stir in P>ngland, but Norfolk was as cold to Meth- 
odists as it was to Whigs. William Watters wrote of the Norfolk 
converts: "Their convictions were slight and their desires very faint. 
Such Methodists I have never seen". But the people of Portsmouth 
heard Robert Williams gladly, and there he established a church 
which flourishes to this dav (Monumental). 

Those Scotch Presbyterians who came to Norfolk left their re- 
ligion behind. Francis Makemie brought an earnest and faithful 
pastor. Rev. josias .Mackie, to Norfolk. He preached for over 
twenty years (1692-1716), but when he died the church died with 
him. 

XVIII — The E.\rl of Dunmore 

When at last the smouldering discontent of three million people 
was fanned into flame by the determined tyranny of the Tory gov- 
ernment, the Earl of Dunmore fled his stately palace in W'illiams- 
burg and raced along sequestered roads to Yorktown. When the 
great, red sun rose from the calm waters of the Chesapeake (July 8, 
1775) the Earl was safely aboard H. B. M. S. "Fowey". 

Despite the Burgesses' efTorts he declined to return, and £ 



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anchored a month later in the Elizabeth River between Norfolk, and 
Portsmouth. 

His dismal prospects improved. One hundred and sixty British 
veterans arrived from St. Augustine, Fla. Tory gentlemen, who 
sympathized with the royal governor, resorted to him, and he did 
not despise the aid of runaway slaves. 

During the summer the "Otter" and "Kingfisher" arrived, and 
the Earl made himself comfortable on the "William", a merchant 
vessel. His Excellency now commanded a motley army and navy, 
English and Tory, sailors and civilians, white and black, eight hun- 
dred strong, with ships, guns and ammunition, a formidable com- 
pany. 

But men must be fed. 

Food there was, and plenty, on the fertile plantations along the 
Chesapeake and the winding river shores. The Earl sent Captain 
Matthew Squires, of the "Otter", his ablest lieutenant, to plunder 
the plantations and bring in the forage. 

There was one newspaper in Norfolk, a modest sheet, "The 
Virginia Gazette or Norfolk Intelligencer", wholly consecrated to 
the patriotic cause. The editor, John Holt, denounced the Tories 
in no gentle terms; he denounced the Earl of Dunmore for his 
cowardice and tyranny, and he especially denounced Captain 
Matthew Squires for raiding the plantations. The Earl warned the 
bold editor, but his attacks continued. The last morning in Septem- 
ber (1775) a squad — twelve soldiers and five sailors — landed at the 
ferry. The British frigates moved nearer shore and covered Market 
Square with ugly guns. The squad completely wrecked Holt's Print 
Shop, located on the eastern side of the Square, half way to Main. 
They arrested two printers and marched to their boats, giving three 
cheers as they pulled off. 

The citizens protested this drastic work of destruction, but the 
Earl made a characteristic reply: 

"I could not do the people a greater service than to de- 
prive them of the means of having their minds poisoned 
and of exciting in them the spirit of rebellion and sedition." 

Three weeks passed, and the Earl sent Captain Squires to punish 
Hampton (October 24, 1775). Two British sailors were killed and 
two wounded. This was the first bloodshed of the Revolution m 
Virginia, but before that war was won every section of the Common- 
wealth was seared by fire and drenched with precious blood. 

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9 

O XIX — The First Proclamation of Emaxltpation 

A Captain McCartney, of H. B. \l. S. '^Mercury", had difficulty 

in procuring water and other supplies. He wrote Mayor Paul 
Loyall : 

"I shall, the first opportunity, place His Majesty's 
ship under my command abreast the town, and if it becomes 
necessary I shall use the most coersive measures in my 
power". 

I suppose, he meant cannon, shot and shell. 

Mayor LoyalFs reply was worthy the finest traditions of Vir- 
ginia : 

"This corporation, notwithstanding their exposed and 
defenceless situation, which cannot be remedied; unbiased 
by fear, unappalled at the threats of unlawful power, will 
never desert the righteous cause of their country, plunged 
as it is into dreadful and unexpected calamities". 

;;:^' British sailors were busy picking up other things besides hams ^ 

^T' and chickens. Captain Leslie sailed up the Southern Branch, doubt- 

j less on a tip from a Tory (October 12, 1775), and returned with 

nineteen cannon, which he found hidden in the thickets of Dismal 
'. Swamp. 

The Earl himself sailed up the Eastern Branch to Newtown (be- 
yond Elizabeth Park), and crossed to Kempsville with a strong force 
of sailors, soldiers and marines. They played havoc in the village, 
breaking into stores and homes, collecting such arms as they could './ 

find. The Minute Men, under Captain Matthews, fled as the British 
advanced. 

Two days later, October 19th, a force raided the Tanner's Creek 
section (now in the midst of the city), and captured twenty cannon. 
By the end of October Dunmore had gathered in seventy-seven can- 
non and manv small arms, swords and much ammunition. 

The Earl heard that the "Shirtmen", as the Virginians were 
nicknamed, were gathering in force at (ireat Bridge. He sailed up 
the Southern Branch to disperse them, but they were not there. The 
militia of Norfolk and Princess Anne Counties, about two hundred 
strong, were at Kempsville. The Earl sent his boats back to Norfolk 
and marched across country to Kemp's. The "Shirtmen", under 
Colonel Anthony Lawson, fired one volley. The British were sur- 
prised, and twice surprised, for the untrained militia, having de- , 
livered their fire, became panicky and fled precipitately. The British ' 
returned the fire. One "Shirtman", John Ackiss, was killed; two ^ 



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others were drowned as they attempted to escape, and fourteen were 
taken prisoner, among them Colonel Joseph Hutchings. 

Colonel Lawson is of especial interest to Norfolk, for he was 
the grandson and namesake of that earlier Colonel Anthony Lawson 
who was one of the two feofifees appointed to buy the famous fifty 
acres of land on which the city was located. He had been the Sheriff 
of Princess Anne County for fifteen years (1760-1775). He was 
captured by the British and sent to Florida, but returned to die at 
home (1785) ten years later. 

Colonel Joseph Hutchings was a Burgess for Norfolk Borough 
many years ( 1761-1775). His was a wealthy and distinguished local 
family. 

The British marched back to Norfolk in great triumph. Thev 
had covered a great triangle — Great Bridge, Kempsville and Nor- 
folk. Many took the oath of allegiance and pinned on the red badge. 
As the Negroes came in thev were formed into an "P^thiopian 
Corps". The Tories were known as the "Queen's Own Loyal Vir- 
ginians". 

After these easy and encouraging conquests the Earl made bold 
to issue the First Proclamation of Emancipation in America. He 
declared martial law, summoned all the "rebels" in Virginia to lay 
down their arms or to train under his standard, and proclaimed 
freedom for all slaves who would enlist. The Proclamation had 
very considerable results. Before the war was done it is estimated 
that thirty thousand likely young Negroes were drawn from the 
plantations of Virginia. But their freedom was a doubtful benefit. 
Smallpox raged among them in camp, and those who did not die of 
it were ultimately shipped to the West Indies. 

The Earl made his report to (ieneral William Howe (Novem- 
ber 30). in these words: 

"Immediately upon this (his victories) I issued the 
enclosed proclamation, which has had a wonderful effect, 
as there are no less than three hundred who have taken and 
signed the enclosed oath. The blacks are also flocking 
from all quarters, and I hope will oblige the rebels to 
disperse to take care of their families and propertv." 

The F>mancipation Proclamation of the tyrannical Earl of Dun- 
more, the last royal governor of Virginia, was issued eighty-eight 
years before a similar proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln 
(January 1, 1863), seventy-three years ago. I have no idea that 
Lincoln ever heard of Dunmore's proclamation, yet the two offer a 

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9 

^j striking parallel. Both proclamations were strictly war measures. 

6 Both were issued for political effect. The object of each was to 

punish the stubborn slave-owners for ther "rebellion". Both execu- 
il tives had previously defended slavery as an institution. Dun- 

more's last veto was to a law passed by the House of Burgesses 
taxing the future importation of slaves. In his campaign for 
the presidency, Lincoln declared from every stump that slavery 
should be protected where it legally existed (but not in the terri- 
tories). -Both Dunmore and Lincoln expected the slaves to rise 
against their masters and to embarrass the "rebels" by inter-racial 
warfare. In neither case did that reaction follow. Both executives 
armed the slaves and used them against their former masters. It is 
of great interest to know that the first Proclamation of Emancipation 
was issued from Norfolk, Va., November 7, 1775. 

XX — B.^TTLE OF CiRE.AT BRIDGE 

Edmund Pendleton was "Chairman of the Committee of 
Safety"; in other words, Governor of Virginia. He sent Colonel 
William Woodford of Caroline County to Tidewater to drive the 
British out of Norfolk, the very day Captain Squires attacked 
Hampton (October 24). The Virginia forces crossed the James at 
Sandy Point, marched to Surry C. H., thence to Smithiield, and 
hastened to Sufifolk at the earnest request of Captain Willis Riddick, 
where fortv gentlemen on horseback rode in as volunteers (Novem- 
ber 25). 

Colonel Woodford moved his army, six hundred and eighty- 
seven strong, to the southern bridgehead at Great Bridge. He com- 
manded a part of the 2nd Virginia Regiment, Minute Men from 
Culpeper and Fauquier and Riflemen from Augusta, magnificent 
men all, of fine physique; grim, stern, deadly in earnest, accustomed 
to Indian warfare and inured to the hardships of a campaign. 

The Virginians adroitlv drew the British and Tories into battle 
(December 9, 1775). 

The victory at Great Bridge has not received the credit it de- 
serves. It was pregnant with consequences of first importance to 
the patriot cause, and epochal in the blood-red annals of Virginia. 

Immediately after the battle, the Virginians were reinforced 
by five hundred and eighty-eight North Carolinians under Colonel 
Robert Howe; who, as superior officer, assumed command. 

(The number of men under Woodford and Howe has been 
variously estimated.) 

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9 

^ Howe came into Norfolk by way of Kempsville (December 14, 

6 10 p. m.), five days after the victory at Great Bridge and five weeks 

after Dunmore's Proclamation of Emancipation. He at once offered 
amnesty to all who would swear allegiance to the "Commonwealth 
of Virginia". 

Meantime H. B. M. S. "Liverpool", mounting twenty-eight 
cannon, stood within our capes. Dunmore at once made the "Liver- 
pool" his flag ship. 

Christmas Day brought a warlike gesture from Dunmore. His 
fleet of seven ships covered Norfolk with their guns from what is 
now Berkley Bridge to the western end of Main Street. The "Liver- 
pool" lay off Church Street, flanked on either side by the "Otter", 
the "Kingfisher", the "Eilbeck", "Dunmore", "Mercury" and 
"William", armed and feadv. 

At three in the afternoon the guns opened. Bar shot, chain shot 
"* and grape tore through the trees and wrecked many warehouses and 

dwellings, lender a smoke screen which floated in from the ships Wi"^ 

on the southern breeze, Dunmore landed parties who Hred many L-^- 

dwellings. The flames spread rapidly. Colonel F^dward Stephens ;> 

and two hundred Culpeper Minute Men charged through smoke 
and shell, driving the British to their ships. 

./ "It is singular that during the whole cannonade the 

-< Americans lost not a man, and only seven were wounded. 

.?• The civilians were equally fortunate. An aged woman was 

w killed, by a spent cannon ball. 'I'he highest praise was be- 

y Stowed on the cool and steady courage of the young troops 

' in the midst of a scene which would have shaken the reso- 
lution of veterans." 

The battle of Christmas Dav was the prelude to the total de- 
struction of Norfolk a week later. 

When the memorable year 1776 was but two hours old the Earl 
sent sailors to start fires, wherever possible, along the waterfront. 
A strong south wind whipped the flames into fury, and by daybreak 
billows of hre and showers of sparks swept the town. Despite heroic 
efforts of soldiers and citizens Norfolk was doomed, for there was 
no way to fight the flames save by the tedious drawing of water from 
wells or bringing water from the river. 

Aroused from their sleep, the terror-stricken inhabitants, white 
and black, old and young, rich and poor, fled into the countryside, 
a wild and frenzied multitude. They fought their way through 
smoke, flame and burning cinders. Those more fortunate fled by "7 

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1636 THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

^ boat, carts, or other vehicles, alonj^ the one crowded road that led 

6 out of town. 

To the Earl's eternal shame be it said, he opened all his guns on 
the stricken town. Shot and shell hissed and shrieked through bil- 
lows of smoke and roaring flame. The hailstorm of deadly pro- 
jectiles from belching cannon, the monotonous guns punctuating the 
winter day with hideous roar, vast columns of smoke ascending from 
warehouses and homes, rolling far over land and water — these in- 
famies set their seal on Dunmore's memory. 

From red dawn until the sun set in a canopy of smoke and blood, 
the work of destruction continued with tragic completeness, and when 
at last the fire burned itself out only the walls of the Borough Church 
remained, lifting a piteous appeal to heaven above the dead who 
slept on, undisturbed by these dire disasters. 

For five weeks after the terrible conflagration of New Year's 
Day, 1776, occasional skirmishes took place between the P^arl, who 
ruled the waters, and Colonel Robert Howe, who held tenaciously 
to the ruined city. Colonel Howe, at the direction of the Committee 
of Safety, completed the work of destruction and marched away, 
February 6, 1776, leaving only blasted ruins, sunk in the silence of 
death, where so lately the metropolis of Virginia flourished. 

Had Norfolk not been destroyed the British would certainly 
have returned and made the town a fortified base, from which to 
harry Virginia. Many efforts have been made of late to shift the 
responsibility for the Borough's destruction from Dunmore to Howe. 
Such arguments are not conclusive. The Earl of Dunmore was as 
responsible for the destruction of Norfolk as if he had set the fires 
with his own hand. 




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PART TWO 



I 






XXI — Norfolk Rebuilt 

Long before the Earl of Dunmore destroyed the Borough, many 
realized that destruction was impending. Two-thirds of the popu- 
lation fled before Christmas, taking with them such valuables as 
they might. Others resorted to the ancient trick of burying their 
treasures; one of whom, William Goodchild, tilled a chest with 
Spanish dollars and dropped it into a deep hole he excavated under 
the floor of his home. Two weeks later the house was burned. 
William frequently returned to the deserted Borough and watchea 
the ashes carefully. When all was safe he dug up the chest and re- 
covered his treasure intact! 

With £45 ($255.) he bought a large lot on Main running back 
to Cove Street, and built a tavern, the first house in resurrected 
Norfolk. 

Others returned, but slowly. There were enough people after 
six years (1782) to secure an amendment to the charter, permitting 
the people to elect the Common Council. There were twelve houses 
in the town by 1783. 




For many years the Borough Church (St. Paul's) was not appreciated. It was but little 
better than a wreck, although the roof was replaced upon the church in 1785. Not until 1832 
was St. Paul's parish organized. This picture, reproduced from a view taken about 1800, 
shows the Borough church as neglected. 

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Beautiful old St. Paul's, Norfolk's Borough Church, is \'enerated and thuroughl) appreci- 
ated b\' all citizens of all classes and creeds. 

It is now the home of an active and prosperous parish. 

After the Treaty of Peace (1783) many Scotch and English 
tobacco buyers arrived, lured bv the profit that always attaches to 
the weed. James Madison wrote (1785) : 

"Our trade was never more completely monopolized 
by Great Britain. Our merchants are almost all connected 
with that country, and that only. We have neither ships 
nor seamen of our own." 

The General Assembly of Virginia authorized the vestry of 
the Borough Church (1785) to repair and rebuild the Church. The 
sum was not to exceed £700, and was to be raised by a lottery. 

The (General Assembly of V^irginia (November 13, 1789) 
authorized Governor Beverley Randolph to convey two acres of 
land at Cape Henry to the I'nited States, that a lighthouse be built, 
provided the tower be finished in seven years. If the tract ceased 
to be used for that purpose, it should revert, after seven years, to 
the Commonwealth. The Burgesses had authorized the building 
of a lighthouse as earlv as 1752; if built it had fallen into decay. 

Congress acted promptly (March 26, 1790). The engineer 
selected a lofty dune near the Cape and built the tower, seventv-two 
feet high, using "Potomac sandstone", transported sixteen years be- 

[ 30 ] 






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fore from "Brooke Bank" on the Rappuhannock. It was the Hrst 
structure of the kind erected in the United States by the Federal 
government. It is certainly one of the oldest National structures 
in the country, perhaps the very oldest. 

The ancient artisans did their work thoroughly, for the old 
tower stands intact and will likely defy the storms of future centuries. 
A modern lighthouse, nearer the shore, throws a powerful beam 
far across the dark waters, the gigantic guns of Fort Story rise be- 
hind the dunes and bid defiance to all our foes, a matchless shrine of 
white granite commemorates the Cross originally erected by Rev- 
erend Robert Hunt and a State Park adjoining preserves for pos- 
terity the natural beauty of primeval Virginia, unspoiled by mankind 
even after 300 years. From the top of the old lighthouse all this 
may be seen, and of a fine April day the beauty of spring lies upon 
the tranquil sea and sandy shore as it did that memorable April 26, 
1607, v.'hen the first Virginians and the Hrst Americans established 
here civil government for the nation. The blue of the water below 
reflects the blue firmament of the heavens above. Tawny moun- 
tains of sand roll like the waves of a sea, fi.xed by the wand of an 
enchanter. The dunes are a desert in a world of water, thirsty hills, 
hot and sullen, Iving in the arms of the ocean. 







The Myers House, for three generations the home of that distinguished family, on the 
corner of Freemason and Bank Streets, is now known as Colonial House. It was built soon 
after Norfolk began to rise from the ashes of the Revolution (about 1791). 

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^\ The census of 1790 gave Norfolk two thousand, nine hundred 

^ and fiftv-ninc inhabitants. After fifteen years the city had recovered 

\^ half her colonial population. But it was a sprawling town, aimlessly 

and hurriedly built, inconvenient and utterly uncomfortable, with 

all the raw unloveliness of haste and confusion. 

XXII — The French Revolution 

Europe was rapidly drifting into one of the longest and 
perhaps the bloodiest of world wars. The fall of the Bastile, July 
14, 1789, is usually considered the beginning of that chaotic era 
known as the French Revolution. From that day until Napoleon's 
I defeat at Waterloo, twenty-live years later (June 18, 1815), the 

world was convulsed and civilization rocked upon its foundations. 

As always, these events reacted upon Norfolk. Cargo worth 
". a million dollars was exported from Norfolk in 1792. Three ^ 

-'^■"j) years later (1795) the figure was two million. Ships of all nations f^-- 

crowded into Hampton Roads; small craft by the thousand brought 
the produce of a million farms from Virginia and Carolina. "North 
Carolina", wrote one, "crowds the products of her soil and rich 
forests of pine and oak upon our wharves", as did the farmers of 
Virginia. These narrow, muddy streets were thronged with eager 
buyers. Everything was in demand at any price. 

Amidst these busy scenes a fleet of one hundred thirty-seven 
vessels, flying the tricolor of France, stood into Hampton Roads. 
The decks were crowded with refugees who had escaped the servile 
insurrection in San Domingo. Many, once wealthy, were absolutely 
destitute. I'hey escaped only with their lives. Popular subscrip- 
tions, taken in Norfolk and all over the country, relieved their dire 
necessities. The (General Assembly of Virginia voted a fund. More 
than two thousand of these refugees lived in N<irfolk. Some re- 
mained and prospered here; and others located elsewhere. They 
proved a valuable addition to city, state and nation. 

The famous French author La Rochefoucauld visited Norfolk 
in 1795, and wrote: "Norfolk is the only port in the southern part of 
this great state. Small boats only can go to Richmond and Peters- 
burg. This port practically monopolizes the commerce of Virginia 
from the Rappahannock to the Roanoke in N. Carolina." 

The first Customs House was located on West Main near the 
water (Boush Street). William Davies, a personal friend of Wash- 
ington and a son of the famous divine, Samuel Davies, was Collector 
of Customs. 



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9 

^\ Someone counted 700 to 800 houses in Norfolk (1796). Four 

^ years later there were 1,000 or more. 

\\ The Federal census of 1800 found six thousand, nine hundred 

and twenty-nine people. There were four shipbuilding plants in 
Norfolk and two in Portsmouth, and thev could not get enough labor. 
"In the Borough of Norfolk", wrote William Wii^t (1803), "every 
drone feels the pressure of business". 

The growing town was not wholly materialistic. There were 
fine influences. Christ Church had just been erected on Church 
Street. Next to it Norfolk Academy, long the only educational in- 
stitution in the Borough and one of the oldest schools in America, 
was incorporated. The Bell Church (Presbyterian) completed a 
commodious building on the corner of Catherine (Bank) and Char- 
lotte Streets. The Baptists were using the old Borough Church (St. ' 
Paul's), and the Methodists had a huge barn-like meeting-house on , 
Fenchurch Street. 4" 

Thomas Moore, the Irish poet, visited the Borough, but did not 
like it. He wrote a poem about the Dismal Swamp; unfortunately 
one of the poorest products of his gifted pen. 

Stephen Decatur appears in the picture, with an early passion 
for fame and fighting. As the most popular young man in America, 
a worthy hero, Stephen Decatur, visited Norfolk, and married Susan, ^ 

the daughter of a wealthy merchant, the mayor, Luke Wheeler. Rev. ^^ 

Benjamin Porter (irigsby, the pastor and builder of the Bell Church, 
married the popular couple, March 8, 1806. 

A Directory of Norfolk was issued in 1806 by Chas. H. Sim- 
mons. "At present", the editor wrote, "notwithstanding the great 
fires in the years 1799 and 1804, which consumed the most extensive 
commercial part of the town, there are about 1200 houses and this 
number is fast increasing, in good buildings, mostly brick. 'I'he 
suburbs have already 200 buildings." 

XXITI -W.AROF 1812 

Two centuries had passed since the first colonists landed at Cape 
Henry and journeyed up the Powhatan to Jamestown. A celebration 
was held at Jamestown, in which the citizens of Norfolk, Ports- 
mouth, Hampton and Williamsburg took part. Captain Peter 
Nestell with a local company of artillery represented Norfolk. 
James O'Connor, editor of the "Norfolk and Portsmouth Herald"; 
Thomas Blanchard and his son, C. K. Blanchard, and Major John 
Saunders, U. S. A., in command at Fort Nelson, were also present. 

[ 33 ] 



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1636™ 'THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK =^— 

9 

■^ Unfortunately our country was steadily drifting into war — an 

^ unpopular war, certainly in Norfolk, New England and all shipping 

Q^. centres. 

The U. S. S. "Chesapeake", in Norfolk harbor making up her 
crew, enlisted three American citizens who had previously been im- 
pressed into the British Navy. One was a Negro from North Caro- 
lina, another was born on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The British 
minister protested to the Navy Department at Washington. The 
naval authorities presented these facts, which they considered satis- 
factory. Although the "Chesapeake" was wholly unprepared for 
sea, much less for action, the Department ordered her to the Medi- 
terranean. Captain James Barron weighed anchor accordingly 
(June 22, 1807). 

H. B. M. S. "Leopard", carrying fifty guns, with an expert crew, 
awaited the "Chesapeake" just within the Capes. The commanding 
officer signalled her to stop. Barron was astonished when he de- 
manded the surrender of the three former British sailors in the 

,'_-g^ name of Vice-Admiral Berkeley, and refused. The "Leopard" 

opened fire, and for fifteen minutes riddled the "Chesapeake". Three 
men were killed and eighteen wounded, including Captain Barron. 
The Stars and Stripes were lowered, and the three Americans in 
question taken aboard the "Leopard", which sailed for Halifax. > 

The "Chesapeake" limped back to Norfolk, and the country went / 

wild with excitement and indignation. It was really the beginning 
of the Second War with Great Britain, although Congress did not '^■ 

declare war for five years. '^ 

l^pon the heels of this indignity President Thomas Jefferson, in 
a vain effort "to keep us out of war", signed the famous Embargo 
Act, December 22, 1807. That stroke of the Presidential pen proved 
the ruin of Norfolk. Hundreds of ships, instead of carrying our 
trade and Hag to the seven seas, rotted at delapidated wharves. 
Thousands of sailors were hopelessly idle. Where once the broad 
Elizabeth was whitened by hundreds of sails, now the water retfected 
only the blue vault of heaven. American trade to the extent of 
$246,000,000 was lost. Of all blunders Thomas Jefferson made as a 
statesman, this was the most serious. New F^ngland, deprived of her 
shipping, turned to manufacturing; but Norfolk had neither water 
power nor coal. There was nothing for it but to carry on a small, 
local trade. 

As war approached Norfolk, exposed and wholly unprotected, ? 

was bitterly opposed to hostilities. The cities feared total destruction, | 

as in 1776. 



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1636— THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 

9 
5 
6 



XXIV — Battle of Cr.aney Island 
President Madison declared war, June 18, 1812. A British fleet 



blockaded Chesapeake Bay (February 5, 1813), and the American 
frigate, "Constellation", fled to the protection of Forts Norfolk and 
Nelson. Not until June did the British fleet enter Hampton Roads. 

Fourteen ships of the line dropped anchor off Pig Point, at the 
estuary of the Nansemond (Sunday, June 20), a second division 
anchored off Newport News Point. The flanking of Norfolk began 
at dawn, June 22. General Sir Sidney Beckwith landed 2,600 men, 
and the twenty ships moved closer to Craney Island. 

How utterly unprepared we were! There were 737 Virginians 
behind the earthworks on the island, 400 militia and perhaps 100 
regulars at Fort Norfolk. The British attempted to carry the island 
from the rear, but the concentrated fire of the Virginians behind the 
deep, though narrow, channel saved the day. 
^-^ The assault from land having failed action was shifted to the 

water. On the north or exposed side of Craney Island General Wade 
Hampton, of South Carolina (the father of the famous Confederate 
chieftain of the same name) and Colonel George Armistead of Caro- 
line County, Virginia (who also built Fort McHenry at Baltimore) 
had several years before thrown up stout breastworks. 

The British approached over shallow water in barges. The 
"Centipede", the handsome boat of Admiral Warren, with seventy- 
five men aboard, led fifty barges and an army of 1,500 men to the 
assault. Captain Arthur Emmerson, of Portsmouth, reserved fire 
until the barges were in close range. He then let fly a volley with 
irresistable force and fury. The graceful "Centipede" was cut in 
twain and sank. Many of the barges fared likewise. Others became 
unmanageable. The action was sharp, brief, bloody and decisive. 

The victory at Craney Island, like that at (ireat Bridge, was 
won without the loss of a man! 

It is worthy of note that the victory at Craney Island took place 
six years to the day after the humiliating defeat and surrender of 
the V. S. S. "Chesapeake". (It is quite astonishing how the num- 
ber "six" recurs constantly in Norfolk's varied history, running 
through our story as the liet mortif through an opera.) 

Norfolk's hero was Robert Barraud Taylor, lawyer and orator, 
who prepared the defense and carried it to such matchless conclusion. 
Without military training. General Taylor resembled Napoleon 
in at least one respect — he won his battles in his head before he at- 
tempted to meet the enemy in the field. Every detail had his personal 
and punctual attention. f 

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THROUGH ■^"'" YEARS IN NORFOLK 



The British came no more, but shifted their attack to Washing- 
ton and Baltimore. 

When the British fleet again returned to the vicinity of Cape 
Henry, the militia of these counties were called to arms, but Admiral 
Sir George Cockburn hoisted anchors and disappeared into the mists 
of the vast Atlantic. The citizens of Norfolk did not know that New 
Orleans was his objective. It was our uninvited guest. Sir George 
Cockburn who two years later sailed to St. Helena with the most 
famous of political prisoners. Napoleon Bonaparte. 

XXV — L.aFavette's Visit 

After the Treaty of Ghent came the piping times of peace — but 
it was a peace of stagnation, not of prosperity, for Norfolk. Great 
Britain promptly closed her West Indian colonies against American 
ships, but the law was not strictly enforced, and some of the old trade 
returned. After three years Congress retaliated bv closing American 
ports to British ships (1818). The object of our brilliant statesmen 
was to force Britain to her knees. Instead of that it forced the sensa- 
tional development of all British colonies and completely ruined 
': American commerce overseas. Norfolk was for thirty years (1820- 

50) ground between the upper and nether millstones, Washington 
and Westminster, and there was no relief. 
Vf Norfolk registered vigorous, if ineffectual, protests. William 

-^ Maxwell, a poet whose verses fluttered for a while and then took 

3, their way down the stream of forgetfulness, a brilliant orator and 

^ erudite lawyer as well as a poet, voiced the city's opposition to these 

oppressive treaties and tariff's. It is rather strange that George 
Newton, the Congressman from this district for twenty years, voted 
for these measures! 

In 1817 Norfolk's exports dwindled to two million dollars; in 
the 1820's they fell under $200,000. What more need be said? 

The shipping interests of New England suffered as did Norfolk. 
But New England harnessed her splendid and abundant water power 
and became industrial. The shipping interests of New York suf- 
fered, but the great city was saved by construction of the Erie Canal, 
opened October 26, 1825, which brought the enormous and ever ex- 
panding commerce of the Great Lakes and Middle West to the 
banks of the Hudson. 

In 1790 the foreign commerce of New York and Virginia were 
about the same. In 1832 New York's commerce was $57,000,000, I 

and Virginia's just one million. 



36 ] 



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1656 THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOL,, 

9 

^ During these static years of disappointment, when no one came 

6 to Norfolk to reside; on the contrary when Norfolk-born men must 

seek employment North and West, there were some local items of 
interest. 

The Treaty of Ghent had hardly been signed before a boat pro- 
pelled by steam came up the Elizabeth (May 23, 1815). 

The growing antagonism between Captains James Barron and 
Stephen Decatur supplied Norfolk with gossip for years. It is one 
of the dark spots in our social and moral history. Barron felt that 
Decatur had been unjust to him and too severe in his punishment 
which followed the surrender of the V . S. S. "Chesapeake". In that 
he was justified. Decatur was too proud to explain and too much 
of a disciplinarian to retreat. The misguided friends of each ofificer, 
instead of acting as peacemakers, continued to foment trouble be- 
tween these two gallant sailors and stainless gentlemen. The 
.--4 situation became intolerable. Decatur left Norfolk (January 1, 

1819), to make his home in Washington. Whether the quarrel moti- 
vated this change of residence no one knows. 
^ At last Captain Barron challenged Decatur to a duel, which 

, Decatur felt he could not decline. The two brave men met at 

i Bladensburg, March 22, 1820, and both fell. Decatur died in agonv. 

^ After long months Barron recovered, but the mark was upon him, 

f and even a century of oblivion has not obliterated it. It was, first i'j 

0^ and last, an unfortunate and unjustifiable feud. 

V The visit of the Marquis de la Favette was an event of great 

Y social interest. At Yorktown (October 19, 1824), General Robert 

Barraud Taylor spoke the welcome of Virginia, in an address, the 
memory of which still pleasantly lingers. On Friday, October 22, 
1824, aboard the Steamer "Petersburg", the General landed at the 
foot of Market Square, amidst the salute of guns and the plaudits of 
a great multitude. Mayor John E. Holt received him officially, and 
under a huge arch (where the Confederate Monument now stands) 
the Mayor and William Maxwell delivered eloquent addresses to the 
distinguished visitor. Above his head, on the arch, "Welcome La- 
Fayette" was done in bold letters with flowers and autumn leaves. 
Processions, receptions, banquets and balls, in both Norfolk and 
Portsmouth, left no doubt of popular enthusiasm and appreciation. 
After four glad days the Marquis took up his journey to Petersburg. 
The most famous of all Norfolk's citizens was a lieutenant in 
the Navy — David Glasgow Farragut, who married twice in the city, I 

and made his home here continuously until the War Between the 
States. To the young ofificer was assigned the duty of returning the / 

[ 37 ] 






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f 



Marquis de la Fayette to France, in 1825, aboard the U. S. S. 
"Brandywine". 

When Farragut returned to Norfolk in 1826, he established a 
naval school, certainly the first in America, perhaps the first in the 
world, aboard the U. S. S. "Alert". Samuel Lewis Southard, the 
Secretary of the Navy in the Cabinet of President John Quincy 
Adams, inspected the school, and gave it "one of the few, the very 
few, compliments I ever received from the Navy Department or its 
Chief", to quote Admiral Farragut. 

When the young officer was ordered to sea, after two years, the 
School was closed (1828). Unfortunately, no effort was made by 
the business or political leaders of the city to save the nascent insti- 
tution. But it was reopened years later; not at Norfolk, but at An- 
napolis, Maryland, the United States Naval Academy. 

The Dismal Swamp Canal was opened the last day of 1827, 
after it had been building (or should we say digging) 40 years! 
It was begun in 1787. The Borough secured the canal though it lost 
the great Naval Academy. 

The day after the canal was opened (January 1, 1828), a great 
dry dock, the first in America and the largest in the world, brought 
hope for renewed prosperity and progress. 




This picture, reproduced from one made in 1825, shows the Gosport (Norfolk) Navv 
■S'ard in its earlier days. The huge barn to the right was the "Boat Shed." When a frigate 
was hiiilt within, the front was removed and the ship launched. 

[ 38 1 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



V 




For two centuries the business life of Norfolk centered in Market Square (Commercial 
Place). This photograph shows the old Square as it appeared in 1836, one hundred years 
ago. It is taken from the site of the Confederate Monument. The market stalls and dis- 
tant ferries are plainly seen. See pajje 73. 

The Virginia State Marine Hospital, located (1787) at Wash- 
ington Point (Berkley), was moved to the site of old Fort Nelson, 
where it has grown to magnificent proportions as a great Federal 
Naval Hospital. 

America became railway-mad. It must be confessed it was 
a worthy madness had the exploiting of so fine an invention not be- 
come the opportunity of an innumerable company of financial sharks 
and charlatans. The thrifty people of America were now to be 
fleeced out of millions; sutificient, if properly applied, to build 
three times the mileage the nation now enjovs; and Norfolk was the 
victim of much financial fleecing. 

The first railway in Tidewater Virginia was the Portsmouth 
and Weldon, for the stock of which this city subscribed $100,000 
(1833). The story of that road to the Roanoke Valley; its building, 
failure, battles with legislatures and competitors; rebuilding and 
completion, November 27, 1851, is too long here to be told. 
It is sufficient to say that it was twice rebuilt, the second time after 
the War Between the States, and has now grown into a great system, 
serving innumerable towns and cities. It is today the Seaboard Air 
Line Railwav, and no doubt it is worth to the business interests of 
Norfolk and the South, all it cost. 

XXVI — The First Centennial 

The First Centennial of the Borough's Royal Charter called 
forth the most elaborate celebration seen in Norfolk to that time. 

[ 39 1 



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5 
6 



At sunrise, September 15, 1836, ;i salute of twenty-six guns awoke 
the town. Church bells rang a call to "exercises of prayer, 
thanksgiving and praise". A procession formed at the old Court 
House on Main Street, led by Mayor Miles King, the aldermen and 
other ofificcrs of the Borough. The clergv, various lodges and so- 
cieties followed; then the schools, and last of all private citizens. 
"There was a military parade at the same hour", and the volunteer 
companies joined the gathering at the Court House. Captain John 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^HHr^ <*' 1^§ 


^H 


^^K'' ^^ 


^^^1 




i^^l 











Pholo hv H P Cook. 



Littleton" Waller Tazewell 
1 40 1 



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1636— THROUGH THE YEARS IK NORFOLK^— 

9 

^J Capron, the marshal, "preserved excellent order". Thomas Newton 

6 acted as standard bearer. William Wilson Lamb carried "the bright 

and beautiful silver Mace", on one side of Mr. Newton; and John 
Williams, Clerk of the Court, carried "the original charter with its 
ancient signet" on the other side. 

The streets were gaily decorated and thronged with enthusiastic 
spectators. At the "new Presbyterian Church, nearly completed," 
opposite the ancient Borough Church, the march halted, and Wil- 
liam Maxwell delivered an eloquent Centennial Address. 

In the afternoon young Norfolk took to the water. Captains 
Jacob Vickery, James Cornick and Thomas Ivey led a regatta. 
Bands played on the decks of ships in harbor, and the happy day 
closed "without loss or accident". 

XXVII — Sex.ator Tazewell 

^^\^^ Certainly the most sensational guest who ever came to Norfolk, 

if not the most distinguished, socially speaking, arrived without 
observation, remained in painful quiet, and left without creating a 
ripple of excitement. He was Louis Napoleon, then an exile, nephew 
of great Bonaparte, son of Louis Bonaparte, former King of Hol- 
land, and grandson of the Empress Josephine. None could have 
guessed, as the future is withheld from mortal vision, that Napoleon 
III, Emperor of France, was in town! Had that been known, how 
different would his reception here have been (April 19, 1837). 

The visit of Henry Clay (April 24, 1844) eclipsed the visit of 
Prince Louis Napoleon. The people knew who Henry Clay was, 
and they did not know who Louis Napoleon was to become. 

A baby boy was born to Matthew Ryan and Mary Coughlin, 
his wife, September 15, 1839, Abram J. Ryan, the beloved poet- 
priest. 

The worst depression since the hard and bitter days of Bacon's 
Rebellion settled like a black and ominous cloud over country, 
state and city. The dreariest years of a long and dreary interlude 
were now at Norfolk's threshold. When the I'nited States Bank 
failed (October 10, 1839), the wheels of industry stood still, and 
gaunt hunger crept forth to claim uncounted victims in all the cities 
and towns of America. 

The election of 1840 swept the Old Line Whigs into power after 
the sensational and picturesque "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" cam- 
paign. 

When the electoral college assembled to cast and count the 

[ 41 ] 

% 




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1636 THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

-^ country's votes, the electors of South Carolina gave that state's eleven 

6 votes to Littleton Waller Tazewell of Norfolk, Virginia. Never 

before nor since has such a signal honor been conferred upon a 
Norfolk citizen. Hugh Blair Grigsby has drawn for posterity the 
finest portrait of this great man. Here may it be said, bricHy, that 
he served as the United States Senator from Virginia (1824-33), and 
as the Governor of the Commonwealth (1834-36). His home was 
a large and comfortable frame house, in an elegant garden, on what 
is now Tazewell Street. When the Tazewell residence was removed 
to Edgewater, where it may still be visited, the Colonial Theatre was 
built upon the site. 

Senator Tazewell died just before the War Between the States 
(May 7. 1860). He was a true scholar, ripe with the product of the 
ages, a statesman too conscientious and too bold to be bound by 
ties of political expediency. He sleeps beside the members of his 
family under a fine, old, table tomb in Elmwood Cemetery. 

xxvni— A ciTv 

William D. Delany, the city's 118th Mayor, presented a me- 
morial to the General Assembly of Virginia, asking a charter for a 
"City" (December 1844). Robert E. Taylor urged the passage of 
' the bill (February 1 1, 1845), and an enabling Act was passed which 

directed that the people vote on the proposition (x-\pril 24). The 
poles opened at 10 a. m., and closed at sunset. Voting was done by 
voice, freeholders only having suffrage. 627 votes were cast; 355 
afifirmative, 272 negative. 

Standing on the steps of the old Town Hall, the Mayor made 
proclamation, and the ancient Borough became a City. The charter 
was amended (March 20, 1850) to permit the city to establish a 
system of public schools, one of the first systems in the state and the 
South. 

XXIX — Brighter Skies 

The spirit of progress appeared in Norfolk in the mid-century. 
The winter of our discontent broke into cheerful spring. The Mexi- 
can War stirred nation-wide, industrial activity; that aided Norfolk. 
Shipping revived. Houses were built, new streets opened, new banks 
established. The "Herald" declared (February 11, 1854): 

"A new spirit has been enthused into our people. 
Business establishments have nearly doubled in number. 
Wherever we go we are gladdened by the thriving aspect 
of our City." 

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1636— THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK™! ^. 

Q ^^ 

^ Perhaps the editor was thinking of such items as: j! 

/^ — The U. S. S. "Powhatan" launched at the Navy Yard, Febru- 

ary 14, 1850, with great ceremony. Commodore Sloat, Captain Far- 
ragut, and Lieutenant Glisson opened their homes in honor of the 
occasion. 

— The new City Hall was used for the first time. May 20, 1850. 

— The Seaboard and Roanoke offered service as far as Suffolk, 
November 9, 1850, and then to Weldon, November 27, 1851. 

— Two newspapers appeared on the streets for the first time, the 
"Southern Argus" (1848), and "Daily News" (1850). 

— The City Gas Works were completed October 1, 1849. 

— A line of "packets", steamships, began service from Norfolk 
to New York, December 1, 1852. 

— The City took $200,000 worth of stock in the proposed rail- 
way to Petersburg, December 10, 1852. 
"J" ; — The census found 14,320 people here, against 10,920 in 1840. 

^^ As enlisted men were counted in 1840 and not in 1850, the city regis- 

tered a gain of 50%. 

— Contracts were signed for a new Federal Building, at the 
corner of Main and (iranby, May 18, 1853. Work was begun, but 
later suspended. 

— Eight years before the mid-century (1842), two young 
farmers from Connecticut began shipping vegetables from their 
farms on the Western Branch to northern cities. This was the modest 
beginning of the trucking industry. 

— Business conventions with florid oratory and many resolutions 
were the order of the day. Much was mere noise, but the meetings 
achieved some substantial reactions. 

There were optimists who hoped to see again the golden days, 
when one might walk from Norfolk to Portsmouth on the decks of 
ships, had they been properly placed. 

Unfortunately a macabre procession of calamities was impend- 
ing, pestilence (1855), Civil War (1861-65), martial law (1862-65), 
and the diabolical poison of Reconstruction (1865-70). The wealth 
and culture of a century was to disappear, as the fleeting clouds of 
heaven. Fifteen tragic years cast shadows of death, disaster and 
despair over this unhappy city. 

XXX— The Pestilence 

All cities, European and American, have been the victims of 
epidemics. Smallpox and yellow fever visited Norfolk at long in- T^ 



I 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 





tervals. In 1795 an epidemic of yellow fever carried 500 victims 
to their graves (one-fifth the population of the town). 

The r. S. S. "Benjamin Franklin", in from St. Thomas, Danish 
West Indies, dropped anchor at Old Point, June 7, 1855. She had a 
cargo of pestilential mosquitoes, though none knew it. Two of the 
crew died on the voyage. The passengers were panic-stricken and 
left at the earliest possible moment. Then her crew deserted. The 
unfortunate ship was anchored ofi' (josport for repairs, and a young 
mechanic from Richmond, working on her, died (July 8). Other 
cases appeared in the crowded tenements nearby, then in various 
parts of Portsmouth. A clerk, who worked near her, but lived in 
Norfolk, died (July 25) . He was the first victim in Norfolk. Seven 
died the following week, all of whom lived in a crowded row ol 
buildings between Main and Water Streets. Some "philanthropist" 
set fire to the tenements, but the plague spread rapidly to all parts 
of the city. AH classes were stricken w'ith frightful thoroughness, 
precision and impartiality. Hundreds fled — half the population 
disappeared by August 10. Neighboring towns declared quaran- 
tines and refugees could not enter. Physicians and nurses hurried 
here with noble Christian fortkiide, half of whom died. 

By the middle of August the city was a living tomb. The 14th 
was observed as a day of fasting and prayer. The streets were silent 
and deserted. None save an occasional physician or clergyman 
passed. All stores and residences were closed. 

The river was as lonely as the land. Not a vessel approached 
these once-crowded shores, save a small boat which ran once daily 
from Old Point, bringing the mail, medicines, sometimes a physician 
or nurse, and often with her decks piled high with coffins. Cofifins 
were the only article now in demand, and the demand could not be 
supplied. So deep a hush lay along the riverside that the waters 
scarcely whispered of the time when the sea shall give up her dead. 
August dragged death-laden hours. Sometimes 100 died in one 
day. September was as cruel as August; but when the first frost fell, 
the plague disappeared as promptly as it began. The survivors took 
a dismal inxentory. "Kverv man, woman and child almost without 
exception had been stricken, about 2000 died." Two-thirds the 
total white population and one-third the colored were stricken. 
Among the dead were the Mayor, Hunter \\'oodis; the President 
of the Select Council, J. (i. H. Hatton; the proprietor of the 
National Hotel, B. B. Walters; the postmaster, Alexander Gait; 
prominent bankers, John D. Gordan, Josiah Wills and Alexander 
Feret; the former mayor, William D. Delany; ten of the city's physi- 

1 44 1 



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19 



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l636==THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK— 

9 

^ cians; four of the eight pastors and 26 physicians from other cities. 

^ Forty-five who answered the call for help were dead. 

\\ There was a lad living in Virginia, the son of a Methodist 

clergyman, born in Gloucester County thirteen years before .... 

his name was Walter Reed! 

XXXI — The Customs House 
Slowly and painfully the currents of life began to flow again. 
People were dazed, but gradually became normal. Not until De- 
cember 30, 1857, was the new Federal Building finished. It was 
used by the Customs and the Postal Departments. It is an elegant 
and classic example of architecture, perhaps the finest in Norfolk. 
Forty years later the post office demanded larger quarters and a 
handsome new building was erected on the corner of Plume and 
Atlantic. Thirty years later the costly new Federal Building was 
erected on Granby Street (1933-35). 

XXXII — Trouble Threatened 
The fatal effects of the epidemic had not been negotiated before 
the horrors of civil strife burst forth. The Democratic party ruled 
the nation almost without interruption since the term of Thomas 
Jefiferson. It split over the vexed question of slavery in the terri- 
tories. 

Norfolk was always a Whig citadel in a dominantly Demo- 
cratic state. In the bitter election of 1860, Norfolk cast 986 votes 
for Bell and Everett, the "Constitutional Union Party", as the Old 
Line Whigs called themselves. Breckenridge and Lane, the slavery- 
extension Democrats, received 438 votes, and Stephen A. Douglas 
and Johnson, the Squatter Sovereignty Democrats, received 232 
' votes. Abraham Lincoln did not receive a vote, but he picked up 
four in Portsmouth. Lincoln was a minority President by a million 
votes. He was elected by the stubborn factional contest which 
divided the Democrats. South Carolina "danced crazily out of the 
Union" (as the "Norfolk Herald" said). The Gulf states followed 
her tragic precedent. The situation was aquake with internal dis- 
sention and uncertainties. Slavery and secession should have been 
fought out under the dome of the Capitol at Washington. Ballots, 
not bullets, were the ammunion required. "All they who take the 
sword shall perish with the sword" (Matthew 26:52) is a lesson 
mankind is slow to learn. 

Those who appreciated the gravity of the situation, and who 
were not deceived by the plausible propaganda of politicians, ob- 
served a day of fasting and prayer, January 4, 1861. 

[ 45 ] 



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•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 




A constitutional convention was called to decide upon Virginia's 
future course. James R. Hubard, the avowed Secessionist candidate 
for the Convention, was decisively beaten by General George Blow, 
the Unionist candidate (992 to 442). 

The Unionists in Virginia (and they were a substantial ma- 
jority) were bitterly disappointed in President Lincoln's inaugural 
address. The new President had not one word of comfort or en- 
couragement for the Union men who were holding four great states, 
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas, in the Union, 
despite the frantic eflforts of Secessionists to draw them into the Con- 
federacy. Without these great, border states the Confederacy was 
doomed to speedy extinction. Lincoln's attitude played directly into 
the hands of the radical Secessionists. After the fall of Fort Sumter, 
instead of an olive branch he called for 75,000 troops (these four 
states included) to put down a "rebellion", which vast multitudes 
believed then and believe now was not rebellion, but a right 
guaranteed by the Constitution and fully endorsed by the historic 
precedents of a century. 

President Lincoln was like a householder who would quench 
an ominous blaze by pouring gallons of gasoline upon it. The Union 
must be preserved, by bayonets; and sealed with fratricidal blood. 

Even under such drastic provocation a change of 16 votes would 
have held Virginia (and that included West Virginia) in the Union. 
Had the President gone to Richmond and conferred with a few of 
the leaders, whom as a former Whig he knew personally, the state 
would not have seceded. Or had he invited the I nionists to a con- 
ference at Washington and treated with them as conscientious men 
and true citizens, Virginia would not have seceded; nor would the 
other states that followed Virginia's lead. 

This is the supreme political blunder in American history. A 
blunder that cost oceans of blood and flooded all the land with bitter- 
ness and tears. History walks by devious paths, but in the end simple 
truth must prevail. The Democratic demagogues who deliberately 
tore their party asunder are directly responsible for the secession of 
the Gulf states. President Lincoln's cold indifference to the Unionists 
of the South was responsible for the secession of the four border 
states. Both parties must stand condemned before the bar of history. 

XXXni — Confederate Norfolk 

The fatal Ordinance of Secession was adopted by the Constitu- 
tional Convention of Virginia, April 17, 1861, and the Secessionists 

[ 46 ] 



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1656 THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

^ of Norfolk went wild with joy. Many with cooler heads shook them 

^ with apprehension. Among them Captain David Glasgow Farragut, 

\^ who had been a citizen of Norfolk all his life, in so far as a naval 

officer has a home. In discussing the situation the day after the 
Ordinance of Secession was passed (April 18), he expressed his 
opinion that the President acted wisely in calling for 75,000 troops 
to "put down the rebellion." A neighbor and friend told Captain 
Farragut that one who held such opinions "could not live in Nor- 
folk." "Very well," replied the Captain, "I can live somewhere 
else." As a young lieutenant, Farragut married Susan Caroline, the 
daughter of Jordan Marchant, a wealthy Norfolk merchant. After 
her death he married Virginia, the daughter of William Loyall, of 
an ancient and distinguished Norfolk family. With his wife and 
son he took passage that evening for Baltimore. 

Once only did he return to this city. Four years after his de- 

; _ parture, he commanded a fleet in James River, and visited Norfolk 

as one of the heroes of the war. He was given a banquet and re- 

.& ception by the naval and military officers. It was his last visit, for x^^ 

^ he died in Portsmouth, N. H., August 14, 1870, sixty days before 

the death of General Lee. 

XXXIV— The Navy Y.ard 

General William Booth Taliaferro commanded this district at 
X the beginning of the war. The Richmond Grays and six companies 

^ from Petersburg reached Norfolk April 18. General Taliaferro's 

duty and opportunity were two-fold, to protect the Navy Yard from 
' destruction, and to secure the ships in the harbor — in both he failed. 

The U. S. S. "Pawnee", crowded with troops from Fort Monroe, 
sailed to the Navy Yard and aided in the work of destruction. At 
2:00 A. M., Sunday, April 21, the "Pawnee" and "Cumberland" 
slipped quietly back to Hampton Roads. At 3:00 A. M. there was 
a series of explosions and most of the buildings at the Yard burst 
into flames. The Virginia troops rushed in, but it was too late to 
save much. The U. S. S. "Plymouth", "Columbus" and "Delaware" 
were scuttled and sunk in the Southern Branch. The "Merrimac" 
and "Germantown" were burned and sunk. The "New York" was 
totally wrecked. The "Pennsylvania", "Dolphin" and "Columbia" 
burned to the water. In those crowded three hours of an April 
Sabbath morning, the Confederate States lost one of the best ap- 
pointed Navy Yards in the world and a fleet (one might say a navy). 
To be sure something was salvaged. 

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XXXV— The Blockade 



Bulwarks of defence were hurriedly thrown up to protect Nor- 
folk. Fort Nelson reappeared on the Naval Hospital grounds with 
sixteen guns in place, and it took its ancient name. Fort Norfolk 
mounted fifteen guns; the work at Sewell's Point twenty-nine guns; 
at Pinners Point, eleven; at Lamberts Point, ten. Five guns covered 
the Indian Poll Bridge over Tanner's Creek (Ciranbv Street) ; five 
frowned from Bush Bluff. Cranev Island was manned and fortified. 

The Macon ((ieorgia) volunteers \\ere the first troops from the 
far South to arrive in Norfolk. There was a private soldier among 
them — Sidney Lanier. 

How painfullv superficial were many observers! Editors pre- 
dicted that the "fun" would be over in sixty days. Neither North 
nor South realized the gravity of the conflict into which selfish poli- 
ticians had brought the country. It was spring, like any other spring. 
Little waves lisped upon the strand, touched by the golden fingers 
of the sun. The perfume of lilacs was wafted into the large French 
windows of the mansions on Freemason Street, where happy hostesses 
and pretty girls made merry with the handsome young soldiers in 
natty, gray uniforms. Spring, life, youth and joy abounded! 

President Lincoln proclaimed a blockade from the Chesapeake 
to the Rio Cirande. That, too, was considered a jest. Let Abe 
blockade 3000 miles of shore if he can! But four years later, when 
the Confederate soldiers were marching and fighting on a handful 
of parched corn, as a total ration for a day, it was not so humorous. 

This blockade defeated the Confederacy. If the markets of the 
world had been open to the South, her armies could never have been 
defeated. When Lincoln proclaimed a blockade, and made it in- 
creasingly etifective; and when Davis failed to break it, the end was 
merely a matter of time and attrition. 

\\'ith the Federal fleet in Hampton Roads, and a Federal army 
at Fort Monroe, Norfolk might as well have been located on the 
summit of the Blue Ridge for any real aid she brought the Con- 
federacy. 

XXXVI— The Merrim.ac-Virc;i.\i.\ 

To make the blockade more elifective, to tie up a great section 
of North Carolina, to force the surrender of Norfolk, and to recap- 
ture the Navy Yard, the Federal army took Roanoke Island (January 
11, 1862). The Confederate President and Cieneral Stafif were 
strangely indifferent to this strategic movement; and that despite 

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This rare photograph shows the duel between the Merrimac-Virginia and the Monitor, 
March 9, 1862. In the distance the U. S. S. Cumberland is shown as a wreck, and the U. S. S. 
Minnesota fled to shoal water when the Merrimac-Virginia could not follow. 

constant appeals for help. The back and front doors to this city 
were now in Federal hands. 

At the Navy Yard the Confederate engineers, John Mercer 
Brooke, John L. Porter, William P. Williamson, and others, labored 
against time and discouragement to launch the C. S. S. "Virginia", 
which the people in the South, as well as in the North, continued to 
call by her original name "Merrimac". Her story is much too 
long to be told here. She was invicible to the guns of her day. She 
changed the naval architecture of the world, commercial as well as 
martial, but she failed to break Lincoln's blockade. It is melancholy 
to reflect that those who built her were forced to destroy her, lest 
she fall into the hands of the enemy and her powerful guns be turned 
against those who cast them! 

XXXVII — Norfolk Surrendered 

During the night of Friday, May 9, General John E. Wool used 
the Old Bay Line Steamer "Adelaide" and small boats to ferry 6,000 
men from Old Point to Willoughby Spit. Early next morning they 
took the road to Norfolk under the eyes of President Lincoln and 
Secretaries Edwin M. Stanton and Salmon P. Chase. At Indian 
Poll Bridge the Confederate fire halted the invaders and the bridge 
was burned. The Federal army detoured and reached the limits of 
Norfolk by Princess Anne Road. 

Mayor William Wilson Lamb and members of the Council 
were waiting at Church Street to explain to General Wool that the 
Confederate force had retired. They wished to surrender the city, 
asking that the people and their prc^erty be protected. The General 

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^ replied courteously, and rode to the Court House in the Mayor's 

^ carriage with General Viele and Secretary Chase. 

f\ On the steps of the Court House the Mayor addressed the crowd, 

explaining that the city had surrendered. General Wool spoke 
briefly, advising the people to obey the law, return quietly to their 
homes and go as usual about their occupations. Three cheers were 
given for President Davis; three groans for President Lincoln, and 
the crowd dispersed. 

XXXVni— The Bl.ackest D.ays 

Norfolk has suflfered many misfortunes and triumphed over dire 
disasters, but the blackest era in three centuries were the three years 
under the heel of the Federal army (1862-65). Worse than the ty- 
ranny of Dunmore, worse than the pestilence of 1855, the political 
persecution and personal humiliation of Norfolk's citizens was as 
i- cruel as it was unnecessary. Such Federal commanders as Viele, 

Butler and Wild have left names that must ever disgrace the Army 
of the United States. Their records lour like horrid monsters whose 
shadows have not lifted after three generations. 
[Ti" Historians usually justify the political persecution of recon- 

struction as due to the anger and vengeance that followed the assassi- 
nation of President Lincoln. No such mitigation may here be 
pleaded. Federal tyranny was fiercest in Norfolk long before the 
President was shot. Much of the cruelty here he condoned if he 
did not encourage. We regret to record that President Lincoln was 
deaf to every appeal for justice from Norfolk. 

Our citizens declined to take the iron-clad oath (that they had 
never, or would never aid the "rebellion" in any way whatsoever). 
General Wool insisted. The citizens replied that they regarded 
themselves as a conquered portion of Virginia. While practically 
every son of Norfolk of military age was fighting at the front, should 
their fathers at home become traitors to their country and false to 
their convictions of constitutional government? 

General Wool replied, ''Take the oath, or starve." 

To Norfolk's eternal glory be it said that our people with prac- 
tical unanimity preferred to starve. Some things are more prcci(jus 
than life; honor and patriotism are among them. 

The punishment of the city began when (jeneral Egbert Ludo- 
vickus Viele was placed in command. For eighteen dreary months 
(May. 1962-November '63) that man was Norfolk's tyrant. 

The first year of captivity dragged by slowly. The privacy of 
homes was ruthlessly invaded; and, if the homes were handsome, 

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^\ they were confiscated. Federal officers moved in. Negro soldiers 

^ were urged to enlist, and when uniformed, they paraded the streets 

\^ and were privileged, if not actually encouraged, to insult their 

former masters, who were "rebels". When news came in of General 
Lee's slashing victories, there was great rejoicing in the hearts of 
our people, although none dared express their joy by word or even 
gesture. That would be treason — and the punishment for treason 
was fines, imprisonment, meted out with a relentless hand. There 
was bitter sorrow when a son of Norfolk fell, but they were regarded 
as martyrs for the Constitutional rights of Virginia, and of local 
self-government. 

The press was completely silenced. Every principle of demo- 
cratic government was ruthlessly violated bv those who posed as the 
j champions of liberty and justice. 

'I XXXIX — Emancipation 

Historic accuracy requires that some caustic criticism be passed 
upon the administration and career of President Lincoln, but it 

^ must be said in justice to him that his Proclamation of Emancipation 

issued January 1, 1863, was the shrewdest political strategy in the 

1 history of the nation. By a stroke of his pen he changed a war of 

■A conquest, unjust and unconstitutional, into a crusade for human 

liberty! In that moment he became the champion of freedom, and 
he solved for the nation and especially for the South, the most in- 

\ tricate and difficult problem that could confront anv people. States- ,^ 

^ craft has no more brilliant example. <.^k 

The Proclamation was celebrated by a parade in the streets of 5 

': Norfolk which featured 500 negro soldiers; and two colored women 

in a cart tearing the Confederate dag and trampling it underfoot. 
They marched from Market Square to the residence of Dr. William 
Selden, at the corner of Freemason and Botetourt Streets. The dis- 
tinguished physician and his family had been put out by General 
Viele who moved in and made himself comfortable. The General, 
standing on the front porch, made an address, after which the parade { 

was resumed to the fair grounds (18th and Church Streets), where ' 

an effigy of President Davis was burned with great applause. 

To such depths of humiliation had the once proud and cultured | 

city now descended! Strange and usually hard faces were seen on 
the streets. Homes once happy were silent and darkened. Timid 
women, fearing that worse was yet to come, retired behind bolted 
doors and drawn blinds. The very eaves of the houses dripped deso- I 

I-*: ^„u: I 4.„ » j„,,„ • ] u.-j _!_i_^_ • I 



lation, aching hearts spent days in prayer and hideous nights in 
dread. 

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Six months later the town was shocked by a tragedy not yet 
forgotten. Dr. David M. Wright, a physician beloved for a long 
life of service, especiallv heroic in the recent epidemic, the father 
of a noble young captain in the Confederate army, watched a com- 
pany of colored soldiers as they marched along Main Street, under 
a Captain who was a white man named Sanborn. I'his fresh evi- 
dence of political persecution and crueltv so infuriated Dr. Wright 
that with clenched fists he looked Sanborn in the eye and cried "Oh, 
you coward." 

Sanborn ordered the negro soldiers to arrest him. As thev ap- 
proached, he ripped out a pistol and shot Sanborn twice. The 
wounds were fatal. He was promptly tried and sentenced to be 
hanged. President Lincoln was importuned to interfere, but turned 
a deaf car to all appeals. The Doctor was taken in a cart to the 
fair grounds, October 23, and on the same spot where President 
Davis was hanged in efifigy New Year's Day, Dr. Wright was hanged 
in the presence of 5000 people. Dr. Wright was not justified in 
shooting Captain Sanborn, but he was regarded as a martyr of the 
tyranny persistently practiced by the Federal army upon a prostrate 
and helpless people. It isn't when one dies that really matters — 
but how. 

During General V^iele's stay in Norfolk a son was born to him, 
in the Selden residence. The son is now the famous French sym- 
bolist poet, Francis Viele-Gritfin. 

XL — BENJ.AMIX F. Bl'TLKR 

Kvil as was the reign of General Vide, worse was yet to come. 
General Benjamin Franklin Butler, who voted at Charleston, South 
Carolina, through 58 ballots to make Jefferson Davis the Democratic 
Presidential nominee against Douglas in 1860, succeeded Vielc. His 
crueltv in New Orleans boded Norfolk ill. Fortunately there re- 
mained only seventeen months of war. 

General Butler began with energy. "Disrespectful language" 
to or about an officer or soldier, black or white, in the Federal armv, 
was a "misdemeanor," punishable with fine or imprisonment or both. 
With this encouragement professional spies appeared all over town. 
Spying and informing were lucrative. Butler paid well directly 
and indirectly for all information. "Rebels" deserved to be fined, 
if they had anything, and clapped into prison if they hadn't. 

All permits to trade were revoked. New permits must be bought 
at Butler's prices, and the fees were exorbitant except to the General's 
favorites who had recently arrived from the North. One per cent 
ad valorem was levied upon all goods shipped in, and all vessels sail- 

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1= 



ing must pay $5.00 to $15.00 for that privilege. Oystermen were 
charged a fee of 50c to $1.00 a month. 

The liquor business, the only trade then thriving, was monopo- 
lized by two friends of Cicneral Butler; one from Boston, the other 
from Lowell, Massachusetts. 'I'hey sold $1.00 worth of whiskey for 
$3.00 and all else in proportion. 

Butler confiscated the city gas works, as his subordinates con- 
fiscated any homes they desired. He sold very inferior gas at twice 
the rate good gas was furnished in Washington, D. C. Even the 
dogs were taxed, and if they did not pay General Butler $2.00 each 
per annum, their heads were cut off. 

The General seized the ferries said to be worth about $15,000 
to $18,000 a year. These items and many like them equally cruel, 
dishonest and unreasonable, were laid, not once but often, with full 
proof, before President Lincoln as Commander-in-Chief of the 
Armv. Never in one instance did Lincoln act. 

One Norfolk woman wrote: "I wcnild be willing to be hanged 
for the sake of seeing dear, old Norfolk free. I hope never to sec an- 
other city given up. I would rather see my home laid in ashes than 
to live as we are now living. What is wealth compared with free- 
dom? Mv hand trembles and my blood boils with rage when I think 
of the scenes I saw yesterday at headquarters (Scrap Book of Miss 
Virginia Gordan) . 

XLI — Edw.ari) a. Wild 

General Butler had a comrade after his own heart in General 
Edward Augustus Wild, who also came South to civilize and Chris- 
tianize the "rebels". General Wild was born in Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts (1825) and served as a Captain under McClellan (1862). 
He spent 1863 recruiting colored soldiers and was made a Brigadier 
of Volunteers. In December, 1863, he marched through Princess 
Anne and Norfolk Counties, with two negro regiments. They plun- 
dered every farm, burned every home and barn, drrwc off the live 
stock and left a desert in their wake. 

The story is told (by a Federal officer) of Wild's visit to the 
home of Captain White, who was serving in the Confederate army. 
Wild arrested Mrs. White "as a hostage". As she was in a delicate 
condition, her nineteen-year-old daughter, who later lived for years 
in Norfolk, insisted: "(ieneral, you cannot take my mother; take 
me." He took the brave girl, burned the house and left the farm a 
total wreck. A regiment of New York soldiers met Wild and his 
colored troops on their way to Norfolk. The New Yorkers were 
enraged when they saw the white girl a captive in the negro regiment 

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^ and were about to rescue her. But she begged them to let her go, 

6 declared that she was unharmed. She was imprisoned in the second 

story of General Wild's Headquarters. 

When the atrocities committed by Wild were protested to 
Butler, he merrily replied : "General Wild took, the most stringent 
measures, burning the property of some of the officers of guerilla 
parties, seizing the wives and families of others as hostages for some 
of his negroes that were captured, and he appears to have done his 
work with great thoroughness, but perhaps with too much strin- 
gency." Wild General V\'ild, appointed to command in Norfolk 
and Portsmouth January 18, 1864, must have been wild indeed to 
wring such an apology from an American Attila like Butler. 

In hideous temper General Butler confiscated the churches 
of the two cities (February 1 1, 1864). Two weeks later he arrested 
Rev. S. H. WingHeld, a Portsmouth pastor, because he declined to 
pray for President Lincoln and the success of the Federal armies. 
He was turned over to Colonel Charles Greene Sawtelle, and for 
three months swept the streets of Norfolk. 
,, Rev. G. M. Bain, for years a faithful Portsmouth pastor, was 

rtf thrown into prison and "put to hard labor". Rev. I. W. K. Handy, 

pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Portsmouth, was sent to Fort 
Delaware. He has left a valuable history in "United States Bonds", 

\~} a book of 600 pages. Some of the cruelties he describes are in- 

^;i credible in a Christian country. 

7^ General Butler arrested Dr. George Dodd Armstrong, pastor 

of the Presbyterian Church in Norfolk, a hero of the epidemic ol 

1855, and a native of Connecticut. With a face like a hatchet, and 
a heart as hard as flint, Butler asked Dr. Armstrong if he would ap- 
prove of hanging Jefferson Davis. Dr. Armstrong answered very 
positively in the negative. With a glint in his crossed eyes, Butler 
ordered Dr. Armstrong to Fort Hatteras at hard labor, and reported 
to Secretary Stanton: 

"I do not consider that I am bound to feed and house 
a rebel at the expense of the United States without an 
equivalent, i'herefore I directed that he should be put to 
labor." 

Dismal as were the years of Reconstruction (1865-70), life was 
not so hard nor the town so gloomy as during the frightful years 
under Viele, Butler and Wild. One by one the ghastly evils were 
righted and slowly the cruel generals passed like ugly shadows from 
the horizon, taking with them their rubbish of brutality, insolence, 
egotism and ignorance. "T 

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PART THREE 



i XLII — The Confederates Return 

With the spring of 1865, as the gardens glowed with 
brilliant blossoms and the breeze from the south brought promise 
of a better day, the parolled Confederates began to arrive. Slowly 
and painfully, some walked from the plains of Texas, all were worn, 
many wounded. Some had the pallor of prison on their brows. Yet 
they brought the first, real happiness, peace and sense of security 
since General Wool took possession (May 10, 1862). 

It was noticed that the carpet-baggers, Federal officers and 
soldiers and their colored allies calmed down increasingly as the 
bronzed Confederate heroes appeared. Women no longer hid be- 
hind the blinds, and little children now walked the streets. 
-• Business was dead, yet hope survived and slowly conditions bet- 

Y tered. Thomas C. Tabb, a fine Old Line Whig, a Unionist before 

the war, an excellent lawyer and valuable citizen, was appointed 
Mayor. Francis Harrison Pierpont, the man who did more than 
any other to tear the western counties from Virginia and erect the 
new state of West Virginia, was Governor of Virginia by Presi- 
dential appointment, and he moved into the mansion at Richmond. 
He was, at least, a Virginian, not a radical, but a harmless old man, 
anxious to heal the wounds he had done much to inflict. 

Many valuable citizens came to make their homes in Norfolk 
and brought substantial aid in laying the foundations of future pros- 
perity. They were not carpet-baggers but business men interested 
in real estate, lumber, cotton, tobacco, and every line of commercial 
activity. Many came from the North, some from the West and quite 
a number from Canada, England and other European countries. 
They prospered, and to them and their children Norfolk is indebted 
for much subsequent prosperity. 

Steamers arrived again from Baltimore and New York, as "be- 
fore the war". The railways were being rebuilt. General William 
Mahone returned from Appomattox, now one of Virginia's heroes, 
to weld a chain of steel that ultimately bound Cincinnati and Mem- 
phis to Norfolk and Hampton Roads. 

Farmers were busy in the fields, mails arrived and departed, 
the courts were open. Confederate money disappeared but millions 
of greenbacks circulated on Main Street and along Market Square. / 

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The most delicate and dangerous problem for this city and state 
was a huge army of unemployed freedmen. At least 70,000 of these 
unfortunate refugees, fed by the Federal government, were now 
segregated within twenty miles of Norfolk. 

With these "wards of the nation" the soldiers of the L'nited 
States Army had constant trouble. A riot occurred (June 22, '65) 
soon after the surrender. The blue-coats shot up the negro section 
south of Main and east of Market Square. Next day hundreds of 
negroes armed with sticks, stones and razors charged every soldier 
on the horizon. Pickets were placed all over town and finally re- 
stored order. 

Serious trouble occurred again when a regiment of colored 
troops passed through Norfolk on the way to Baltimore. A pitched 
battle with the 20th New York Regiment in the streets was narrowly 
averted. In such riots Norfolk's citizens were the innocent by- 
standers, but always the sufferers. Following the advice and example 
of Robert E. Lee, repeated in Norfolk bv Colonel Walter Herron 
Taylor and other Confederate officers, the veterans meticulously 
obeyed the laws and refrained from violence. It was extremely 
irritating when the Radical press of the North played up such riots 
as evidence that the "rebels" were making trouble and the South 
must be kept in complete subjection. .Many editors told their readers 
that the rebels were planning to re-establish slavery! 

XLIII— Civil. Rights Bill 

To the consternation of the South, the year I S66 brought the 
XIV Amendment, passed first under the innocent title "Civil Rights 
Bill" (April 16). By it all Negro men were allowed to vote and hold 
office, but no white man who had served or even sympathized with 
the "rebellion" should be allowed to vote or hold office. This "master- 
piece of radical legislation, pushed into a law by Thaddeus Stevens, 
added new wounds to the sorrows of the South. A procession of 
colored people marched from Market Square to Bute Street to cele- 
brate the Civil Rights Bill. A young man, Whitehurst, was set 
upon by the marchers, driven to his home, where his step-mother 
was accidentally shot. Federal troops were called out under Major 
P. W. Stanhope, but even in spite of the soldiers the rioting con- 
tinued all night. 

The Congressional election in the fall of 1866 gave the Radicals 
who insisted upon "punishment for rebels", an overwhelming ma- 
jority. It seemed to the South that all hope was now lost. The 
Commonwealth ceased to exist and Virginia became "Military Dis- 

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trict No. 1". Fortunately the commander of Military District No. 
1, General John M. Schofield, was a brave soldier and true gentle- 
man, anxious to bring peace and restore harmony now that the war 
was over. 

A new Constitution must be prepared and adopted before Vir- 
ginia could again be admitted to the United States. As the white 
population was disqualified the new Constitution must be written 
by the carpet-baggers and their colored allies. In Norfolk 2,049 
colored men registered, but only 1,910 white men. 

The election was held October 22, 1867, and the Underwood 
Convention, as it has always been called, met in the State Capitol 
(December 3, 1867). It was remarked that the most troublesome 
and talkative member of the Convention was a colored member from 
Norfolk named Bayne. 

XLIV — The Crisis 

More and more the Conservative elements of the North and the 
Northern men living in the South realized that even a white man 
who lived in the South had some claim for justice. Gilbert Carleton 
Walker, President of the Exchange National Bank, Norfolk, made 
his home on Granby Street near Freemason. He was a native of 
Binghamton, New York, and a Colonel in the Union Army. Walker 
took part in few if anv battles, and retired from the Army in 1864 
"on account of his health" (which seemed to his neighbors to be 
robust). The Colonel was dceplv interested in the rehabilitation of 
Norfolk. He was a business and personal friend of the famous Con- 
federate General and railway builder, William Mahone. Mahone 
was the shrewdest of politicians, and he determined to unite all Con- 
servatives, Democrats, Whigs, Republicans, Northern and Southern 
men behind Colonel Walker and make him Governor of Virginia. 
He did it! But there are several threads to this story. 

General Grant was the hero of the nation. As victorious soldier 
and presidential candidate he swept the country November 2, 1868. 

At this critical juncture, with the adoption of the Underwood 
Constitution pending, Henry Horatio Wells, the provisional gov- 
ernor, who had displaced Pierpont, a Radical of Radicals, was candi- 
date to succeed himself. If Wells were elected and the Underwood 
Constitution adopted, Virginia would be ruined. Alexander H. H. 
Stuart, a wise and patriotic statesman, formerly a power as an Old 
Line Whig, came forward with the famous Christmas Compromise 
of 1868, published in two Richmond papers, Christmas Day. He 
urged Virginia to accept l^niversal Manhood Suffrage if the Radical 
Congress would grant l^niversal Amnesty. The compromise meant 

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in plain English — \vc will agree to negro suffrage if the Congress 
will permit the Confederate veterans to vote. The suggestion was 
at first bitterly opposed; but the longer it was debated the more 
reasonable it appeared. Congress was determined to pass the 
Fifteenth Amendment (universal suffrage) and force the South t(j 
accept it, whatever Virginia did. 

Mr. Stuart and a voluntary committee, mostly Old Line Whigs, 
called on General Grant in Washington and found him sympathetic. 
In fact, he promised that the people of Virginia should vote on the 
Underwood Constitution and on the clauses disfranchising Confed- 
erates and forbidding them to hold office separately. 

Meanwhile, General Mahone prevailed upon all the Conserva- 
tives to unite on Colonel Walker, the Norfolk banker, and defeat 
Wells. The choice was between a Conservative carpet-bagger against 
Radical carpet-bagger. 

General Grant in his Hrst Presidential message, fulfilled his 
promise to Alexander H. H. Stuart and the Whigs. Congress passed 
the enabling act without opposition and President Grant set July 6, 
1869, for the election. Virginia was to elect a Governor, to adopt 
a Constitution, and to accept or reject the obnoxious clauses forbid- 
ding "rebels" to vote or hold office. 

The campaign was off to an exciting start. Walker toured 
every section of the state and made friends evervwhere. More and 
more the people realized that this election was one of the most vital, 
perhaps the most critical, in our history. The carpet-bag office- 
holders fought to the last ditch to hold their lucrative if disgraceful 
jobs. When at last the sun set and the votes were counted, Virginia 
and Norfolk went wild with joy. Colonel Walker polled a hand- 
some majority, the two obnoxious clauses were defeated and the 
civilization of Virginia saved. 

Wells carried Norfolk by 76 votes, but Walker carried Virginia 
by 18,331 votes. 

The night after the election, July 7, 1869, the city held a spon- 
taneous celebration. Milling crowds, laughing and cheering, 
thronged Market Sc]uare and Main Street. They paused to hear 
an address by Arthur S. Segar, they lit bonfires in the streets, they 
set off fire-works, thev fell in behind a band and called Governor-elect 
Walker to the balcony of the Atlantic Hotel and applauded him to 
the echo. 

Sixty days after this triumphant election the Radical Ciovernor, 
Henry Horatio Wells, resigned. We have no doubt his resignation 
was prompted from \\'ashington, although that has never been stated. 

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Wells passed from the pages of Virginia's history, an ominous figure 
whose departure was by far the most grateful aet of an ignominious 
career. 

President Grant immediately appointed Colonel Walker, Gov- 
ernor-elect, Provisional Governor of Virginia, to serve from Sep- 
tember 21, 1869, to January 26, 1870, at which time he was inaug- 
urated (jovernor by the will of the people. Reconstruction in Vir- 
ginia was over. The Virginians awoke as from an hideous night- 
mare. Now at last, Anglo-Sa.xon civilization saved, men could 
arise and build. 



XLV— The Press 

Perhaps this campaign could not have been won without the 
press. Norfolk has been peculiarly fortunate in its editors. 

It will be recalled that the I^arl of Dunmore wrecked John 
Holt's "Virginia Gazette or Norfolk Intelligencer" before the Revo- 
lution. After that war "The Norfolk and Portsmouth Journal" 
appealed to both towns. "The Norfolk and Portsmouth Chronicle" 
was established in 1788 by J. and A. McLean, two enterprising young 
men from New York, but one of them died and the paper then be- 
came "The Virginia Chronicle and Norfolk and Portsmouth (ieneral 
Advertiser", a very long name for a very small sheet. The next 
evolution brought "The Herald and Norfolk and Portsmouth Ad- 
vertiser" (August 13, 1794), published by Charles Willett. "The 
Herald" continued publication until the War Between the States. 
For years it was edited by T. G. Broughton. It seems to have had 
the field alone until 1804, when William Davis established a Fed- 
eralist paper, reviving the old name, "The Norfolk Gazette and 
Public Ledger". 

After the War of 1812 "The American Beacon" appeared 
(April 7, 1815), and flourished. It was a Whig paper in a Whig 
town. \¥illiam E. Cunningham, for years its editor, died in the 
pestilence of 1855. 

A penny paper, "The Evening Courier", established July 29, 
1844, was edited by William C. Shields. In 1851 it changed its 
name to "The Daily Courier", William Wallace Davis, editor. 

About the time of the Mexican War, the "Southern Argus", 
edited by S. T. Sawyer (January 8, 1848), advocated the extension 
of slavery and, later secession. A. F. Leonard was for years its able 
and influential editor. When the war began (August 2, 1861), the 
"Argus" suspended. 

New Year's Day (1851) brought "The Daily News", a Demo- 

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cratic sheet published by T. F. Brotherly and C. H. Beale, who also 
died in the epidemic (1855). 

"The American" lived a short time, until its plant was de- 
stroyed by fire (November 11, 1 856) . Neither did "The Day Book" 
long survive. It was ably edited and widely quoted (1857-62), John 
R. Hathaway and Thomas O. Wise, editors. 

General Butler, one may be sure, had his cross-eyes on the press. 
He issued a paper called "The New Regime" — it disappeared with 
the General. 

The first paper to appear after the cataclysm was the "Norfolk 
Virginian" (November 21, 1865). William E. Cameron of Peters- 
burg, a brilliant, young Captain in Lee's Army, later Governor of 
Virginia, was the first editor. In his last years the Governor re- 




The Yorktown Celebration of 1881 had its repercussions in Norfolk. A Memorial Arch 
was erected on Main at Market Square (Commercial Place) under which the parade was 
featured. The poem "Arms and the Man" read bv James Barron Hope, soldier, editor, poet, 
of Norfolk was a feature of the Yorktown Centennial. 

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^\ turned to Norfolk and to the same position with the same paper. 

^ Michael Glennan bought the "V^irginian". Of him it was said, 

\^ "He was one of the youngest soldiers that left Norfolk in defence of 

the Confederacy. He entered the army at the age of 16; although 

exempt from service on account of his youth, and on account of 

I lameness. He served gallantly during the entire war. A Norfolk 

Company declined to receive him because of his youth and physical 

disability. He joined the 36th North Carolina Regiment under 

Colonel William Lamb of this city, was captured at Fort Fisher, 

served again with Joseph E. Johnston until his surrender. He re- 

j turned to Norfolk and by his energy and initiative became the sole 

I owner of the "Virginian" (H. W. Burton). 

:! From the first the "Virginian" has been influential because of 

its conservatism and wholesome attitude. In 1898 (March 31) it 
purchased "The Norfolk Pilot" which had been established during 
a reform movement led by Rev. Sam Small. "The Virginian-Pilot" 
has acquired nation recognition. Democratic, politically, it is fair 
and impartial. 

An afternoon paper, "The Norfolk Public Ledger" (August 
3, 1876) made a modest start, consolidated with "The Norfolk Dis- 
patch", and as the "Ledger-Dispatch" has a huge circulation in 
Tidewater Virginia. 

"The Journal" was established December 4, 1866, by Colonel 
J. Richard Llewellyn and others. It became "The Norfolk Land- 
mark", which was for years edited by Captain James Barron Hope. 
His career as a Confederate soldier, poet, editor, and influential 
citizen is well known. The "Landmark" ultimately merged with 
the "Virginian-Pilot". 

XLVI — Alexander G.alt 

Though the state was rescued, the municipal government of 
Norfolk was still controlled by the Radical element. An election 
was called for May 26, 1870, and the bitter campaign was a hght to 
the finish. The Radicals might have won, had not President Grant 
removed the disabilities of some 200 ex-Confederate soldiers. John 
B. Whitehead, the Conservative candidate for mayor, and a ma- 
jority of the Council were successful at the polls. The new Council 
had a radical minority of four, all colored men, among nine mem- 
bers. When Mr. Whitehead took the oath of office July 1, 1870, 
Reconstruction in the city was over. The failures and disasters of 
Norfolk's fifteen tragic years still hung like a ragged cloud upon 
the horizon, but slowly dissolved in the dawn of a brighter day. 

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The Norfolk College for Young La!de^ wa>. on Granhy Street. College Place is 
shown at the extreme left. The dormer roof of this ^nc, old school may still be seen above the 
busy stores that front on Cjraniiy Strcei below it. The Newton residence, once the Bank of 
the I'nited States and in 1S8S the Library Building, was on the corner of College Place just to 
the left of the \'iew. 

Even the darkest era has features that lift the hearts and eourage 
of men. It is pleasant to turn from the sordid mire of fetid polities. 
Hugh Blair Origsbv gave an unusual reception at his home with 
''Sappho" as the guest of honor when at last she arrived. The re- 
ception is of interest because of the prominence of all parties. 

Alexander Gait, son of the postmaster, who died in the epi- 
demic of 1855, was a born sculptor. Even as a lad at Norfolk 
Academy he carved likenesses in chalk. He studied in Florence, 
Italy. His "Virginia" may still be seen at the Art Union of New 
York. Thomas C. Tabb, the mayor, secured for (ialt the order to 
execute the statue "Jefferson", now at the I'niversitv of Virginia. 
The brilliant voung artist contracted smallpox in the camp of Stone- 
wall Jackson, whither he went to prepare a statue of the famous 
(jcneral, and died January 19, 1863. 

Hugh Blair Grigsby (1806-1881), the distinguished son of 
Benjamin Porter Grigsby, who organized and built the Bell Church 
(Presbyterian) in 1802, achieved fame as an editor, author, poet 
and scholar. His was a grand fidelity to truth and his pen a power 
for righteousness. He made his home in East Main Street, corner 
of East, the house in which LaFayette was entertained in 1824. 
Grigsby gave Alexander (jalt an order to carve a statue of "Sappho", 
the Greek poetess. "Sappho" was shipped to New York. As the 
war was raging she was sold to a wealthy gentleman for customs 
and transportation fees. After the war Mr. (jrigsby went in search 
of "Sappho", and found her. Her new owner refused to be reim- 
bursed but shipped her to Norfolk at his own expense. It was one 

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of innumerable courtesies that have helped to heal the hurts of war 
and sectionalism. When "Sappho" arrived, the town gave her an 
enthusiastic welcome. She is now the property of Hugh Blair 
Grigsby Gait, the nephew of both sculptor and patron, and "Sap- 
pho" now has her own pedestal at the Norfolk Museum of Arts. 

XLVII — Robert E. Lee 

St. Vincent's Hospital came to Norfolk in the post-war period. 
Walter Herron, a native of Ireland, left his handsome residence 
and beautiful garden of two acres, in the far suburbs of that day, 
to his niece, Ann Herron Behan, who left it to her brother, James 
Herron Behan. He lived in Norfolk from 1829 to 1861, but re- 
turned to England at the outbreak of war. His will, admitted 
to record after the war, bec]ueathed the property to the Roman 
Catholic Church for an hospital, St. Vincent de Paul. 

Perhaps the most distinguished patient admitted was Major- 
General George Edward Pickett, who died there July 30, 1875. It 
is rather curious that young Pickett was appointed to West Point 
by a Whig Congressman from Illinois — Abraham Lincoln. Pickett's 
charge at Gettysburg has been the inspiration of historians, poets, 
orators and painters. 

In the spring of 1870, General Robert E. Lee, returning from 
the far South, visited Norfolk (April 30). Portsmouth gave him a 




St. Vincent's Hospital in a beautiful garden of two acres was left to the Catholic Church 
by James Herran Behan, who lived in Norfolk many years (1829-61). 

The most distinguished patient, General George Edward Pickett, died here (1875). 
The Hospital today covers nearly all the garden shown in this photograph. 

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Freemason was a quiet, old-fashioned residence street in 1888. Christ Church (now the 
Orthodox Greek Ecclesia) stands on the corner of Cumberland. General Lee attended 
services here during his visit to Norfolk just before his death (1S70). 



royal welcome, although it was known that he preferred to receive 
no ovation. Colonel Walter Herron Taylor met him at the Sea- 
board and Roanoke station in High Street, and brought him safely 
through cheering multitudes to the ferry. As the boat started for 
Norfolk Roman candles were set otif and minute guns fired 
continuously until he landed. He hurried into a carriage and was 
driven to the home of Dr. Selden; even the same residence General 
Viele had confiscated seven years before. 

Six months later (jeneral Lee passed (juietly away at his home 
in Lexington. 

General Lee's host was one of Norfolk's great and worthy men. 
Dr. William Selden was the son of Dr. William Boswell Selden, 
who made his home in Norfolk (1798) at the turn of the last cen- 
tury, and who became, we suppose, the most prominent physician 
of his day. He died in 1849. His son, William Selden, was born 
in Norfolk (August 15, 1808), and educated at Norfolk Academy, 
the Universities of Virginia and Pennsylvania, and the best medical 
colleges abroad. In Norfolk the young physician gained recog- 
nition as one of the best diagnosticians in the country. Although 
an intense Virginian, he was appointed by the Congress, soon after 

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Reconstruction, to examine into tlic causes of yellow fever. Un- 
fortunately his advancing age made such activity impossible. Dr. 
Selden's fame would be more secure had he written more fully. He 
left to posterity, when he died, November 7, 1887, at least two valu- 
able treatises, one of them on yellow fever. 

XLVIII— A Grip of Steel 
One who looks behind the scenes of the comparatively calm 
years following Reconstruction (1870-98), will recognize the grim 
determination of the Confederate veterans who had faced death on 
an hundred battlefields. Their attitude was watchful waiting and 
passive resistance to the political persecution they endured. But 
they were alert to all opportunities that offered. In every 




The busy corner of Main and Granby was peaceful enough in 1878, eight years after 
(Aug. 13, 1870) the first street cars appeared. 

From the balcony of that .Atlantic Hotel to the left. Governor-elect Gilbert Carleton 
Walker responded to the ovation give the night after his election, July 7, 1869. 

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^\ Southern city and state thcv snatched the control of afifairs from the 

6 Radical element. These courteous gentlemen were magnificent in 

self-control of tongue and temper. Like the beloved Lee, they 
were calm in defeat, silent in calumnv, patient in humiliation, and 
dignified in sufifering; but under the velvet glove was a grip of steel. 
Full well they knew that evil is transitory, only justice permanent. 

XLIX — Ste.ady Improvement 

A railway to reach the ^^'est by way of Danville and Bristol, 
called the "Norfolk and Great \\^estern", was much discussed. It 
materialized only in part when the Atlantic and Danville was char- 
tered in 1882, and completed by British capital in 1890. The new 
road was leased bv the Southern Railwav for 50 vears, August 31, 
1899, and has since been a branch of that great system. The name 
was adopted by the present Norfolk and Western. 

Another evidence of development appeared when mules trotted 
along Main Street, for the first time August 13, 1870, and dragged 
"five elegant cars" behind them. The Norfolk of that day then felt t; 

it had secured a metropolitan touch! 

The need of an adequate supplv of water had long been recog- 
nized, and the citizens voted in 1865 to install a svstem. But not 
until 1872 were pipes laid, when the waters flowed in from the 
Citv Lakes in Princess Anne County. The lakes are still an im- 
portant source of supply. 
-'--,' A bridge was thrown over Newton's Creek to George Bramble's 

farmland, and a second bridge over the F^astern Branch to Campo- 
stella, giving the citv a new exit east and south. Newton's Creek 
formerly Dun-in-the-Mire, is now Jackson Park. 

Two other bridges were built (1872) westward, one to Atlantic 
Citv, and one to the Drummond farm-land known as "(ihent" since 
1814. 

Free postal delivery added another civic touch when the post- 
men began calling at homes and ofifices (1873). 

The public school system was improving under General Richard 
Lucien Page, and later under Mayor \\'illiam \^'ilson Lamb. In 
1873 there were six schools, four for white children and two for 
colored. Several of the old school houses, small, cheap, but sub- 
stantial, are still in use. 

An etifort was made (1875) to establish a line of steamers to 
Fredericksburg and the Rappahannock section. Baltimore had long 
monopolized that valuable trade; but the plan did not succeed. T' 



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"A l-.ridKe was thrown over Newton's t^reek to Oeorge Brarnltle's farmland, and a second 
bridge over the Eastern Branch to Carnpostella. " The Campostella Hridye has recenti)- 
(1935) been reluiilt, a niagniHcent structure from Branil>!eton to Carnpostella. Chesterfield 
Heights lies in the background of the photograph. 

L — Rauava'^s 

General Mahone and the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio from 
Norfolk to Bristol were caui^ht in the financial crisis of the 70's, 
and despite the best of efforts the railway passed into the hands of re- 
ceivers (March 14, 1876). The road was reori^anized as the Nor- 
folk and Western, by Clarence H. Clarke of Philadelphia and asso- 
ciates. Fortunately Mr. Clarke developed and even enlarged the 
plans of Cieneral Mahone. He built a great system resting on deep 
water at Hampton Roads. He extended the line to Cincinnati and 
Columbus, tapping immense beds of undeveloped coal in Vir- 
ginia and \\\'St Virginia midway. The wisdom of that policv is 
justified, for it is constantly said that "The Norfolk and Western 
is one of the best managed roads in America todav". 

A month after receivers were appointed for the Atlantic, Mis- 
sissippi and Ohio (April 5), the Princess Anne Railway was or- 
ganized, to build a line to Virginia Beach. The famous resort which 
is so vital to Norfolk's business interests todav, then had its be- 



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^\ The Seaboard and Roanoke made fine progress. In 1867 it 

^ brought 52,000 bales of cotton to Norfolk. Two years later, 137,339 

r^ bales; in 1874, 437,031 bales. Cotton was only one item in the 

wealth the Seaboard brought to N^orfolk. 



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LI — The Depression of the 70's 

The twelfth anniversary of the Battle of the Crater (July 31, 
1876) was celebrated here. The program is of interest because so 
many sons of Norfolk helped achieve that slashing victory, and 
because of the distinguished men on the anniversary program. Gen- 
eral William Mahone was the hero of the hour. Captain William 
E. Cameron, twice an editor in Norfolk and for one term Governor 
of Virginia, was the orator. Mayor John S. Tucker, a captain in 
the Confederate Army, who lost an arm in the battle of Corinth 
(Mississippi), delivered the address of welcome and James Barron 
Hope read a poem, "Mahone's Brigade". * 

Four days after the celebration a modest afternoon paper "The ^ 

Public Ledger", previously referred to. appeared upon the streets 
(August 3, 1876). 

It is to Norfolk's credit that the financial storms of the 1870's 
were weathered in good shape, and substantial progress achieved 
during the seven hard years, which began with the crash of Sep- 
tember 18, 1873. It was a desperate time for the South, coming 
on the heels of war and reconstruction, but the next decade brought 
to the Southern people the first real opportunity to live and labor 
since the Secession days of 1860. 

The census of 1880 was not kind to Norfolk. It reported only 
21,960 people here, against 19,229 ten years before. But there had 
been much development the figures did not reveal. Many citizens 
lived in pleasant suburbs now building on every side. 

LI I — SuBST.AXTi.Ai. Growth 

The fourteen years next succeeding (1879-93) brought sub- 
stantial growth. The nation prospered and Norfolk, no longer the 
sleepy Borough of ante-bellum times, was alert for her share of 
prosperity. All activities were enlarged and developed, the rail- 
ways, steamship lines, trucking, wholesale trade, seafoods, banks, 
overseas shipping, resorts, conventions and government activities, 
especially at the Navy Yard and Fort Monroe. 

The growth of neighboring towns amplified Norfolks' business 
opportunities. Newport News became a busy city when the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio established its terminal there. Hampton, Suffolk, 

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the Eastern Shore towns and numerous communities in North Caro- 
lina now busy and aggressive — all of these interests brought people, 
trade and prosperity to Norfolk. 

A. A. McCullough, whose business flourished at the corner of 
Granby and Back Town Creek (site of the Royster Building), 
ditched the creek, filled the marsh and added acres to Norfolk's 
potential business district. The ditch was covered, in 1884, City 
Hall Avenue appeared and the Old Stone Bridge, a feature of Old 
Norfolk (since May 15, 1818) disappeared. Business timidly 
turned the corner of Main into Granby Street. 

Norfolk Academy thrived under Robert W. Tunstall, who 
(1893) enrolled 163 boys. Rev. Robert Gatewood had opened the 
famous old school as soon as the Federal soldiers departed (1865) 
and gave his life to the education of Norfolk's growing lads. 

A railway to Elizabeth City had long been discussed. Indeed 
a charter was secured (1870), but the plan slumbered. On New 
Year's Day (1881) the first train arrived from Elizabeth City. The 
line was soon extended to Edenton. It became the Norfolk-Southern 
system, and finally (1906) reached Charlotte, North Carolina. 

LI 1 1— A Great Ye.ar 

The year 1883 was of immense significance to Norfolk. The 
first car of Pocahontas coal arrived, a gift to Norfolk from President 
Frank J. Kimball of the Norfolk and Western Railway. The event 
was fully appreciated, for enthusiastic citizens decorated the car 
with flags and bunting and escorted it across town, by way of the 
tracks on Water Street, to the music of bands and cheering. That 
was prophetic of the day when parallel railways were to make 
Hampton Roads the greatest coal mart in the world. 

This same year saw the modest beginning of the valuable 
tourist trade. The Princess Anne Hotel, large, cool, comfortable, 
directly on the ocean, opened its hospitable doors at Virginia Beach. 

In this same year the Eastern Shore railway was built to Cape 
Charles and connection made bv ferrv to Norfolk. It brought 
the Pennsylvania system here. 

Exports from the citv were encouraging; in 1866, :f'41 1,397; 
in 1875, $5,243,986; in 1885, $14,279,835. 

Barton Myers and associates organized the Norfolk and Tar- 
boro Railway in 1886, a subsidiary of the Atlantic Coast Line. By 
1889 the Coast Line passengers entered the city by ferry from Pin- 
ners Point (Portsmouth). 

The increasing coal trade of the Norfolk and Western made 

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"A. A. MlC'ijIIuu^Ii ditihfti liack I'uvvii C rt-ck. tilled tht- inarch ami adck-d acrt> to Nor- 
folk's potential business district. The ditch was covered in 1884, City Hall Avenue appeared 
and the Old Stone Bridge disappeared." View from the site of the Old Stone Bridge — old 
Court House in center background, Monticelio Hotel on front left. 

the building of coal piers at Lambert's Point necessary. And that 
suburb prospered. 

Norfolk extended its boundaries east\\ard. Brambleton, once 
the farm of George Bramble, with 840 homes and approximately 
4,000 people, was added to the city (1886). 

The Atlantic City section, over the "N'ork Street Bridge, was 
annexed (1890) four years later. 

As gas displaced kerosene, so electricitv routed gas. Arc lights 
flickered and cracked on many corners (1888). 

The census of 1890 was stimulating. There were now 34,871 
people against 21,960 (1880) ten years before. 

LIV — 'I'lIK SnUKBS 

ihe development of Norfolk was retarded bv the failure of 
Baring Brothers, the famous British financiers (1893), and by the 
consequent panic. Not until the Hundred Days of War with Spain 
did this city awake again to progress. Yet old gains were consoli- 
dated and new life and energy were manifest from time to time. 

Trolley cars appeared on the streets in 1894. The lines ex- 
tended slowly, but steadily, in every direction, to Sewell's Point, 
with connection to Newport News; Willoughby, with connection 

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Standing upon the same corner in front of the Ko\ ^[cl liuiKliii^. thi^ photograph give^ the 
view of what is now City Hall Ave. looliing West from Granliv Street in 1S95. The piles of 
coal and oyster shells mark the present site of the Roysler Building. The Bankers Trust 
Building and Hotel Fairfax are now upon the left bank. 

to Old Point Comfort; to City Park; to Ghent; Lambert's Point; 
Campostella, and across Berkley to South Norfolk and Money 
Point. 

The development of street car lines stimulated the growth 
of suburbs, and the growth of the suburbs stimulated the develop- 
ment of trolley transportation. 

Ghent, once the Drummond plantation, named for the famous 
Treaty of (ihent, which ended the War of 1812, was laid out with 
elaborate geometrical lines, arcs and parks, along Samuel Smith's 
Creek. In 1895 a few scattered houses gave promise of thousands 
who were to move over (ihent Bridge. 

Near the City Park, Park Place was laid out from Church to 
Colonial. A few bold spirits made their homes in Colonial Place 
and Larchmont. 

Beyond Brambleton, Riverside and Chesterfield Heights 
offered home sites. Across the Eastern Branch Campostella 
made a modest beginning. It was evident that the huge factories 
coming to the Southern Branch would build a city at South Norfolk. 

On the Portsmouth side. Park View, Westhaven, Pinners Point, 
Port Norfolk and West Norfolk had each an appeal. 

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"Lihent, once the Drurnmond plantation, was laid out with elaborate geometrical lines. 
In 1895 a few scattered homes gave promise of thousands to come." The Hague, Mowbray 
Arch, Stockley Gardens over which towers Christ Church, Ghent Methodist Church and 
Ohef Sholom Synagogue. 

At the end of the Century Virginia Beach had a few cottages; 
and Ocean View and Willoughby were popular. 

More than three million packages of truck were shipped north- 
ward in 1893, and the hungry millions within one night's ride of 
Norfolk assured an increasing market. 

The public school svstem gained constantly in favor. Ten 
buildings were crowded with children (1895) and the smallest 
school was larger than the largest twentv years before. 

LV — The Moxumext 

The war with Spain marked the close of the bitter depression 
of 1893-98, and it also marked the end of sectionalism. It was sig- 
nificant that President McKinley sent General Fitzhugh Lee as his 
special envoy to Havana. Henceforth the nation was united as it 
had not been since 186(1 The naval activities of the war with Spain 
brought work to thousands, in the Navy Yard, on the railways, and 
in every line of business. The financial efifect was magical, and 
Norfolk enjoyed her share of the new prosperity. 

For years the Confederate veterans had been gathering a fund 
with which to erect a monument to the memory of their comrades. 



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In the spring of 1898, the Contederiite Monument was erected at 
the head of Market Square (in recent years known as Commercial 
Place). The lofty pedestal of white Vermont granite is at once 
simple and beautiful. Funds did not permit the casting of the 
Soldier, but nine years later the people of the city turned aside 
from Exposition festivities to place the Confederate Soldier on his 
waiting column. 

The statue was done by William Couper, one of Norfolk's 
gifted sons. He was born here September 20, 1853, educated at 
Norfolk Academy, the Cooper Institute of New York, and in the 
studios of Munich and Florence. He left to posterity some fine 
pieces, notably "Captain John Smith" at Jamestown, "The Record- 
ing Angel" in Elmwood Cemetery, "Moses" in the Appellate Courts, 
New York, "The Angel of the Resurrection" in Chicago, a bust of 
President McKinley, and other marbles less famous. 

The Federal Census of 1900 gave Norfolk 46,664 people, 
against 34,664 in 1890, an impressive growth of 33% in a decade of 
hard times and lean years, when the cruel pinch of poverty was 
upon all the land. 

LVI Gre.at Buildings 

The turn of the Century found Norfolk determined to secure 
the Jamestown Exposition — a large undertaking for a city so small. 




Market Square presented an animated scene in 1880. This view is taken from the site 
of the Confederate Monument erected in 1898 and finished in 1907. See page 39. 

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The General Assembly of Virginia passed the law (March 10, 
1902) and state and nation agreed to participate; but the citv must 
take $1,000,000 worth of stock. Norfolk never before faced such 
a proposition. By strenuous effort the last dollar was subscribed 
(January 1, 1904) in time to meet the condition, and there was 
great rejoicing. 

While the Exposition was building at Sewell's Point, many 
and nnportant structures were building in the city. The govern- 
ment erected a large and handsome post office at the corner of 
Plume and Atlantic. Many of the banks built impressive homes. 
The Citizens Bank erected a large office building on Main next to the 
Customs House. The Bank of Commerce erected the city's first sky- 
scraper on the corner of Main and Atlantic. The Norfolk National, 
Seaboard, Virginia National and Merchants and Mechanics moved 
into handsome new homes. 

New hotels were building at the same time, the Monticello, 
on what had once been marsh land; the Fairfax, where once men 
fished; the Lynnhaven (Southland) at the corner of Granby and 
Freemason; and the Lorraine, in what was once Senator Tazewell's 
garden. 




riit liu^> corner of 1 rctiiiasun and tjiaiiln wa^ in liiSS the quiet luimt- of l.cacli-Woud 
Seminary for young ladies. Many Norfolk matrons were educated there. Ciovernor Gilbert 
Carleton Walker lived directly across Granliy Street (the old Burrus residence). The 
site shown is now the location of the Southland Hotel. 

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In 1903. the cornerstone for a new Public Library was laid on 
a site given by the heirs of the late Dr. Selden, with funds provided 
by Andrew Carnegie. For years the Public Library struggled for 
an existence, but under the management of the late William H. 
Sargeant, its future became secure. The library building, once 
ample, is now inadequate both for the demands of the public 
and for the ever-increasing number of books. A new and larger 
library is one of the city's pressing needs and should be built in the 
immediate future. Miss Mary Denison Pretlow is now the popular 
and efficient librarian. 

LVII The J.amestown Exposition 

The Jamestown Exposition struggled against many adverse 
conditions, but the imposing buildings arose on 340 acres of 
land. The location of the Hxposition was of surpassing beauty, 
fronting upon Hampton Roads. It was very unfortunate that build- 
ing operations were not begun earlier, a typical American fault. 

President Theodore Roosevelt opened the Exposition, landing 
from the "Mayflower" at the t^xposition grounds April 26, 1907 at 
1 1 :30 a. m. Governor Claude A. Swanson and a host of distinguished 
visitors from all parts of the country were present. But not until 
September 14 was the last exhibit finished! 

The largest assembly graced Virginia Day, June 12, to meet 
and greet Governor Swanson. Those who occupied the Governor's 
box in the Reviewing Stand were Governor and Mrs. Claude A. 
Swanson, H. R. H. the Duke d' Abruzzi, Harry St. George Tucker, 
Major-Gencral Frederick Dent Grant and Mrs. Grant, Rear Ad- 
mirals Robley D. Evans and P. F. Harrington, Governor R. B. 
Glenn of North Carolina, Mrs. Stephen B. Elkins of West Virginia, 
and others. 

President Woodrow Wilson, of Princeton University, and 
Governor Charles E. Hughes of New York spoke from the same 
platform July 4th. 

Two years after the Exposition, the Virginian Railway, built 
from Deepwater on the Kanawha to Sewell's Point by the late 
Henry H. Rogers, was completed (April 1, 1909). The straight and 
carefully graded track, coming 442 miles over the mountains and 
across two states, ended at a gigantic steel pier 1,042 feet long. Here 
countless tons of coal have been delivered to ships of all nations 
and transported to the farthest corners of the world. 

The late Barton Myers deserves much credit for persuading 
the officials of the road to make their terminal here. He led 



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9 

^\ a group of volunteers whn purchased 500 acres of land at SewelTs 

6 Point and who bought a right nt way around the city for $95,000. 

They presented the same to Mr. Rogers as an inducement to place 
n the terminus of the new road at Norfolk (1905). Mr. Rogers re- 

paid the sum later. 

The same day (April 1, 1909) that the Virginian Railway be- 
gan to operate, the Xavy Young Men's Christian Association opened 
its doors. This institution, which has been an untold blessing to 
countless thousands of enlisted men, was made possible bv a gift of 
i John D. Rockefeller and several local philanthropists notably the 

late F. S. Royster and the late David F. Watt. 
I The Central Y. M. C. A. was soon after built on the corner of 

! Granby and Freemason and the Young \^"oman's Christian Associa- 

tion secured a home on Freemason at Yarmouth. 

There were 67,452 people in Norfolk (1910), a growth from 
46,664 (1900); but after such multitudes of visitors the city was 
somewhat disappointed. Larger returns were anticipated. 

The Hospital of St. Vincent de Paul was the first institution 
of the kind located in Norfolk, but others have followed. A small 
institution called "Retreat for the Sick" grew gradually but V 

steadily in public favor and became the "Norfolk Protestant Hos- [[ 

pital" and more recently the "General Hospital." £ 

Citizens of Hebrew faith established "Mt. Sinai Hospital." C; 

It also filled an enlarging place and has become the "Memorial 
Hospital." 

Late in the last century Dr. Southgate Leigh (1866-1936) es- '^5 

tablished the Sarah Leigh Hospital, a private institution, which '" 

has developed into an important factor of civic life. Dr. Leigh 
made his home in Norfolk (1893) and ior more than 40 vears was 
identified with ever\ movement for the welfare of the citv and the 
good of the citizens. He served as president of the Common Coun- 
cil, as a bank director, and as a director of the Norfolk-Portsmouth 
Chamber of Commerce. He labored unceasingly for better under- 
standing between the races. He was primarily a physician, and 
served on the staff of the railwavs entering Norfolk. As a writer 
and lecturer he spread the gospel of good health and good-will. 

LVni The World W.ar 




Seven years after the Exposition (August 1, 1914), the World 
War set Europe aflame. As always, European repercussions were 
felt in Norfolk. Gradually the demand for American products 
increased to huge figures. In 1914 Norfolk's export trade was 



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$9,500,000; in 1915 it jumped to 19 million; in 1916 to 36 million. 
It was no uncommon sight to sec at one time the Hags of Great 
Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, France, Russia, 
China, Japan, Argentina, Brazil, Spain and Italy rcHected in the 
peaceful waters of Hampton Roads. 

Coal was the magnet that drew them. In 1917 eleven million 
tons left Hampton Roads. Five million were shipped to the fac- 
tories of New England, coming by way of Norfolk to detour the 
tangle of trafific in New York. 

There was also unprecedented demand for foodstufts, cotton, 
oil, tobacco, lumber, naval stores and every conceivable article 
from the factories of the nation. 

The Norfolk Light Artillery Blues, so often referred to in 
these pages, were again volunteers, mustered into the Army (June 
30, 1917). They trained at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, became a 
unit of the 111th Field Artillery, of the Blue and (Jray Division, 
sailed for France, June 15, 1918, and reached the battle line in 
September. 

The Fourth Virginia Regiment pitched their tents south of the 
Norfolk and Western tracks between Colley and Colonial Avenues, 
now in the heart of the city. 

They struck their tents September 4, 1917, for Camp McClellan, 
Anniston, Alabama, and became a part of the 29th Division, United 
States Army. 

Their part in the conflict was impressive. They moved 
to the front and for three weeks fought unceasinglv dav and night, 
pushing through a maze of (ierman defences under terrific hre. At 
the end of that hell on earth, they were relieved and march to the 
rear, with bodies wasted and emaciated, eyes sunken and lusterless, 
voices husky, hollow and unnatural. They advanced 4'j miles; 
captured 2,148 persons; lost 6,159 men. It was their only battle, 
surely it was enough! 

LIX — Norfolk Soldiers 

On June 5, 1917, more than 9,000 Norfolk men registered in 
the Hrst draft. They trained at Camp Lee, Petersburg, and joined 
the 318th Infantry. They left the Camp May 18, 1918, embarked 
at Norfolk, and arrived safely at St. Nazaire. They slowly advanced 
to the British sector between Arras and Albert, crossed the country 
to St. Mihiel, and by September 26, they were under fire from time 
to time, and continued in battle until November. The 80th Division 
under General Adelbert Cronkhite, of which our men were a part, 

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advanced their lines 24 miles against the Germans, captured 1,710 
prisoners but lost 5,464 men. 

Many sons of Norfolk joined the Navy, many others the 
Marines, and still others labored in the Navy Yard and in various 
forms of activity, both at home and abroad. 

LX — The Army Base 

The winter of 1917-18 was extremely severe. After a balmy 
Christmas the storm struck and until February 6 (1918) there was 
no relief from bitter cold; the suffering was intense. Heatless days, 
lightless nights, sugarless meals, and other patriotic abstinence did 
not lighten the burden. Perhaps such suffering aided in "winning 
the war," but we doubt it. 

Interminable trains cjf coal rolled down t<^ the piers for ship- 
ment. That did help win the war. 

Six incendiary fires broke out simultaneously along Granby 
Street one Sunday night. One of them consumed the upper stories 
of the Monticello Hotel. From time to time other strange fires 
occurred. But no culprits were ever found. 

Some 288,000 young soldiers left Hampton Roads for France. 
But that is not half the story. The Navy, Marines, commercial 
sailors, and the activities of every kind on land and water, if added, 
would bring the multitude in and about Norfolk to a million men. 
And with them went every article needed from dynamite to papers 
of pins. 

The Government erected giant piers and warehouses at Bush 
Bluff and built a great Armv Base with hundreds of miles of track 
and concrete roads. 

LXI^The N.w.al B.asf. 

When the Jamestown Exposition closed and the captains and 
the kings departed, the deserted buildings, once ornate and elegant, 
looked like the ghosts of their departed glorv. Some burned; others 
hastily constructed, decayed. The storms of winter and the winds 
of spring tore them, i'he entire section, grown waist high in weeds, 
presented a pathetic picture. 

Efforts were made to induce the Government to buv the site, 
repair the permanent buildings, which cost hundreds of thousands 
of dollars, and erect a Naval Base. Recruits for the Navy might 
here be trained, submarines find anchorage, and naval aviation 
center here. Supplies might here be gathered against future 
need. But Executives and the Congresses were cold to the proposal. 
When the dogs of war were unleashed, the situation changed. The 

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Government paid $2,800,000 for the property — much of it adjoining 
but outside the Exposition site proper (June 28, 1917). The Ex- 
position covered 340 acres, with 300 acres of shoal water, which 
were filled and added to the Naval Base. 

Work of construction, salvage and repair began July 4, 1917. 
In one month, such was the expedition of the contractors, 7,000 
sailors were housed comfortablv at the Base. 

But the scene of greatest activity, as we suppose, in the country, 
was the Navy Yard. New boundaries to the south and west were 
added to the area. A gigantic drydock 1,01 1 feet long, 40 feet deep 
and 144 wide was dug and built. It is said to be one of the finest 
speciments of such architecture in the world. 

Men were employed by the thousand. All the work that 
women could do was given them, thousands of whom found lucrative 
employment. 

The World War with its privations and sorrows brought to this 
section many benefits that might not otherwise have come. The 
great and expanding Naval Base, the Navy Yard, the Naval Hos- 
pital, the rslarine or Public Service Hospital overlooking the placid 
waters of Tanner's Creek, Fort Story at Cape Henry, whose gigantic 
guns are hidden behind the historic sand dunes, model villages 
such as Cradock, a suburb of Portsmouth, and the stimulus war 
prosperity brought to many private industries — all must be placed 
as an asset derived from that bitter era. 

LXII — The Armistice 

Word came to Norfolk prematurely that the Armistice had 
been signed — a celebration was begun, but soon halted. Several 
days later, however, the rumor was verified — on November II, at 
1 1 A. M., "Cease firing" was the order. The city went wild with 
joy. The entire population crowded into Granby, Main and Church 
Streets, waving flags, shouting, singing, cheering, crying and 
giving vent to long-pent-up emotions. 'I'he streets were jammed 
with automobiles and every noise-making device augmented the 
din. It was the most joyous and spontaneous celebration ever staged 
in Norfolk. 

But long months of waiting elapsed before the bovs came home. 
The Norfolk Light Artillery Blues were among the first to arrive 
(May 25, 1919). Then every week until far into the summer they 
came from overseas, and in from the Seven Seas. 

A celebration was arranged as Homecoming Week with pa- 
rades, dances and receptions (June 22-28), but it lacked the verve 

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and spontaneous joy of the celebration of November 11 preceding. 
The city was somewhat disappointed at the census returns of 
1920. There were 115,777 against 67,452 in 1910, an impressive 
gain. But after a million men had passed along the streets and 
through the port the number, many felt, should have been larger. 

LXIII — The City's Government 

The World War wrought a revolution in the local government 
of Norfolk. Many declared that they paid ta.xes and got nothing 
in return. Public-spirited citizens of both parties urged adoption 
of the commission form of government in the interest of economy 
and efificiency. The city was a huge business and should be so 
managed. Though vigorously opposed, the proposition triumphed 
at the poles; 3,403 pro; 1,222 contra (November 20, 1917). 

Charles E. Ashburner, the first City Manager, served five years 
(1918-23). Colonel W. B. Causey succeeded Mr. Ashburner and 
remained two years (1924-26). Major I. Walke Truxton became 
City Manager in 1926 and served until 1934. Thomas P. Thompson 
succeeded Major Tru.xton. 

The development of the city under the City Managers, with a 
Council of five members, has been noteworthy. In the last 20 
years Norfolk has acquired more substantial improvements than 
in the 200 years preceding. 

P^ach City Manager has made a distinct contribution to the 
welfare of the city, as each has sought to negotiate the difficulties 
that must be surmounted or corrected. Ashburner was intensely 
interested in the material development of the city, the streets, public 
buildings, police, Hre and other departments, the schools, parks and 
general beautification. 

Colonel Causey attempted to attract trade and lommerce, to 
bring in more wealth and to stimulate business. 

Major Truxton, through the years of depression, consolidated 
the gains made, reduced the debt, balanced the budget and insisted 
upon increased efficiency in each department of public service. 

'I'he water supply, sufficient for 30,000 people, fifty years ago, 
has been augmented and is now sufficient for half-a-million people. 
It is a self-liquidating item. 

Five million dollars was voted to erect and equip a huge grain 
elevator (February 7, 1922). Though bitterly opposed at the time, 
it has proved a wise investment and will probably pay for itself 
many times over, directly and indirectly. 

A modern market building was provided at the insistence of 

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the women voters. It also is self-liquidating and is now used as a 
market and bus terminal. 

The Army Base was secured from the Federal Government on 
very reasonable terms, largely through the effort of Mayor Albert 
L. Roper. As a link, in a national system of terminals it is a great 
and permanent commercial asset to the city. 

The proposition to extend the limits of the city to Chesapeake 
Bay was laughed out of court thirty years ago; but the advent of 
trolley cars, bus lines and automobiles, with hard surfaced streets, 
changed the situation. No longer will men of moderate means 
live in crowded tenements. The suburbs are expanding on every 
side. People want to breathe, and live in a garden, and not between 
walls. On January 1, 1923, 27 scjuare miles of territory was annexed 
to the city, bringing in 30,000 people. Ocean View and its environs, 
Willoughby Beach, the Sewell's Point section, including North 
Short Point, Meadowbrook, Algonquin Park, Glenwood Park; 
Larchmont; LaFayette, Fairmount, Estabrook and Ballentine Places, 
Chesterfield Heights, Campostella and the area south of Berkley 
to the South Norfolk line became a part of the city. 

Norfolk is now a city of magnificent distances. It is interesting 
to watch the steady development of vacant places within the city's 
limits. Here and there streets are opened, new houses appear, small 
suburbs are begun and grow slowly in numbers and importance. If 
the growth of the last seventy years should be duplicated through 
the next seventy years, Norfolk will become one continuous com- 
munity from the tip of Willoughby to the extreme southern boundary 
of South Norfolk, and the suburbs will extend from Cape Henry to 
Churchland. 

LXIV — Thi, Am.ation R.ack 

A distinct advance in aviation was made in Norfolk, November 
13, 1926, when the aviators of America and Italy competed for the 
Schneider Cup. The race, secured for Norfolk by the Advertising 
Board, was staged before more than 200,000 spectators, as the planes 
rose from the Naval Base, circled a pylon at Newport News, another 
at Thimble Shoals Light and returned to the Base. Major Mario dc 
Bernardi attained a speed of 245 miles per hour in his Macchi plane 
and won the race. The eventful day closed with a banquet at the 
Monticello Hotel, when the Major received the Cup before 500 en- 
thusiastic diners. The ambassadors of Italy, France and England 
were present, numerous military and naval officials from Washing- 
ton, officers of Army, Navy, and Marines, among others Rear Ad- 
miral W. B. Moftett, U. S^N. 

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LXV— Norfolk Today 

Having triumphed over many adversities, Norfolk faces the 
future with confidence. If a circle, with a radius of 30 miles, one 
hour's journey, were drawn about the Federal Building, half the 
land within would lie under water — much of it deep, blue, salt, 
wholesome water. On the other half a teeming and increasing 
population make their homes, one-third of a million people. 

Within the circle are prosperous cities, busy towns, expanding 
suburbs, pleasant villages and a thickly populated countryside. Nor- 
folk (census of 1930) had 129,710 "people; Portsmouth, 45,704; 
Newport News, 34,417; South Norfolk, 7,857; Hampton, 6,382. 
Princess Anne County, including Virginia Beach, 16,282; Norfolk 
County, excluding the three cities above, 30,082. One million 
strangers passed through our gates in 1936; an endless procession 
from trains, buses, private automobiles and great ships forever 
coming and going. 

Norfolk was content with 180,000 tourists in 1925. The Ad- 
vertising Board organized that year believed that the number could 
be greatly increased if the appeal of these shores were properly 
presented to the fifty million people who live within a day's ride of 
this city. The personnel of the Board was: S. L. Slover, Chairman; 




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"It a circle with a radiu> of 3u miles were drawn about the handsome new Federal Build- 
ing half the land within it would lie under water. On the other half a teeming and in- 
creasing population make their homes, one-third of a million people." 

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Thomas P. Thompson, Goldsborough Serpell, Treasurer, E. W. 
Maupin, Jr., W. J. Mitchell and Major Francis E. Turin, Manager. 

The Board's work was richly rewarded, for in three years the 
visitors increased to 425,000 (1929), an impressive multitude. Un- 
derterred by depression and knowing that happier times lay ahead, 
the Board continued its effort until (1936) 700,000 visitors came to 
this city, remaining on an average 3j/2 days, and spending approxi- 
mately $20,000,000 in this section. The personnel of the Board has 
changed somewhat with the passing years. At present L. H. Wind- 
holz is President; Harry B. Good ridge, 1st Vice-President; Paul 
S. Huber, 2nd Vice-President; Goldsborough Serpell, 3rd Vice- 
President; E. W. Berard, Treasurer, and Major Francis E. Turin, 
Secretary and Manager. 

The Norfolk-Portsmouth ferries, an excellent barometer of 
travel, have landed at the same place for 300 years. During six 
months (January 1 to July 1, 1936), they handled 2,173,500 passen- 
gers. On August 16, 1936, they handled more passengers than in 
any other one day in three centuries. 

The fascinating beauty of the new State Park at Cape Henry 
is not appreciated as yet by the general public. The dunes, forests, 
birds, wild life, and lagoons are today as the first Virginians beheld 
them in 1607. Fortunately mankind has left them untouched. The 
historic setting, the proximity to Cape Henry, the lighthouses, 
old and new, the powerful guns of Fort Story and the gay 
crowds at Virginia Beach, give the State Park a potent appeal. Ten 
years or more ago, a few citizens determined to make this natural 
park an asset. They have succeeded. The next General Assembly 
of Virginia, it is hoped, will add 2,300 acres to the present acreage 
of 1,000 acres, and the park will become a monument, preserving 
its rare beauty to future generations. From the first the Advertising 
Board and the Norfolk Association of Commerce have sponsored this 
patriotic movement. Many leading citizens have cooperated en- 
thusiastically, working with the Virginia State Park Association, 
the clearing agency for such effort. 

LXVI Thk M.an.acf.r .and Council 

City Manager Thomas P. Thompson is at present in the mid- 
stream of his career. His last report (May, 1936) to the City 
Council is illuminating and argues well for Norfolk. Within the 
year preceding a toll-free entrance to the city (the first in 300 years) 
had been assured; the bonded debt had been reduced $1,473,612.67; 
the taxpayers were given the benefit of quarterly payments; the tax 

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The 'l'a^ner^' Creek Bridge opened in 1936 joins Larchmont, to the right, and North 
Shore Point above. The Public Health Service Hospital is shown on the southern shore; 
the Country Club on the North Shore, Edgewater at the extreme left and part of the Naval 
Operating Base at the extreme northern edge of the photograph. 

rate on real estate was lowered from $2.80 to $2.60 per hundred, 
and assessments on realty were reduced $3,214,410. Beautiful 
bridges to Campostella and North Shore Point had been built, Fore- 
man Field, seating 18,000, at the Norfolk Division of \^'illiam and 
Mary College was building, marked efficiency in the Police De- 
partment and a corresponding drop in crime were noted. Mosquito 
eradication, school extension, sewerage disposal, a second roadway 
to Ocean View completed, a pier for yachts and small boats in 
LaFayctte River, a traffic survey, the City Market made financially 
self-liquidating, a bathing beach for the colored population were 
achievements of a full and busy year. 

The City Manager has oiher plans on his blotter — notably, 
further reduction of the realty ta.\ burden, further street paving, 
another free bridge to Berkley, a new bridge to La Fayette Boule- 
vard, and a bridge-tunnel entrance to Norfolk from Old Point Com- 
fort. 

Mr. Thompson would be the last to claim all the credit for so 
comprehensive a program. He has enjoyed the co-operation of the 
Council and citizens. The city has five Councilmen, one of whom, 
the presiding officer, is Mayor. The present Council is composed 

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as follows: W. R. L. Taylor, Mayor, Hugh L. Butler, John A. 
Gurkin, J. D. Wood, and' Dr. James W. Reed. John N." Sebrell 
is the efficient attorney for the city. Colonel Charles R. Borland, 
the popular and alert Director of Public Safety and John D. Corbel!, 
City Clerk. The sudden death of A. B. Pleasants, Asst. Director 
of Public Works, stricken in the midst of his duties, during the 
opening program of Anniversaries Year, in the municipal audi- 
torium, September 15, 1936, cast a shadow on the Bi-Centennial 
celebration. Dr. Henry G. Parker, Director of Public Welfare, 
has given valuable service. To Walter Herron Taylor, HI, Director 
of Public Works, the improvement of the streets, the bridges, and 
many lesser details are monuments. 

The building of homes and other structures increased 25% 
in Virginia during the last year (1935-6). In the same period 
building at Virginia Beach has increased inO%>, and in Norfolk, 
for the two-year period (1934-36) also 100%, an heartening record. 

During the depression (1930-35) no bank in Norfolk closed 
its doors. In 1935, the deposits in our banks reached the enormous 




In the last decade hundreds of elegant homes have been erected along 1 anner's Creek, 
North Shore Point, The first residence in this section was built 25 years since, by Harry 
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total, $48,429,882; and the present year (1936) increased the figures 
to $54,289,187. 

Postal receipts made a slight gain, but not so sensational as the 
banks; reaching $816,469.06, a gain of $6,115.15 over 1935. 

The telephone exchange installed 1,482 new phones. There 
are now (1936) 31,646 telephones in this territory. 

Five major industries, new or enlarged, were secured to Norfolk 
in the first six months of 1936. The city is now the home of 80 
different kinds of industry, with 262 units. These items do not 
include transportation, agriculture, construction, resorts, nor retail 
establishments. 

The Retail Merchants Association reports for its members an 
increased business of from 10 to 20 percent over last year (1935). 

The foreign trade of Norfolk and Hampton Roads is a factor 
of prime importance to the life of the city. The figures for the 
first six months of 1936 reached the huge total of $52,918,418, against 
$38,103,837 (1935) for the same six months last year, a gain of 38%. 
The figures represent all the exports from Virginia, not from Nor- 
folk alone; but the bulk of the export business passes through Nor- 
folk. Imports for the same period registered a decline from $16,- 
332,788 to $14,969,1 19 — said to be due to certain changes in handling 
bulk sugar. 

The exports to British ports for the first six months of 1936 
showed a remarkable increase, 20%. 

The tonnage handled through Hampton Roads last year (1935) 
was in excess of 18 million and the port of Hampton Roads stood 
second in tonnage only to the port of New York, with 47 million 
tons. 



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NORFOLK'S BANKS AND BANKERS 

The first directory ot the Borough issued by Charles H. Simmons 
in 1801 (a copy ot which is treasured by Hugh Grigsby Whitehead) 
listed no banking institutions in Norfolk. We judge that the modest 
town with its 900 houses and 6,926 inhabitants, did business as 
best it could without banks. No doubt many private citizens of 
means loaned money to friends and neighbors. 

In 1806 another directory was issued. Now the town was 
alert as a commercial center, shipping goods to every continent. 
The Virginia Branch-Bank is listed, Richard E. Lee, President. 
Lee was a prominent lawyer, one ot Norfolk's leaders, for he was 
elected Mayor ot the Borough in 1807. He was also one ot the 
incorporators of Norfolk Academy in 1804. 

The directors ot the bank who served with Richard E. Lee 
were: John Southgate, Samuel Marsh, Samuel Roane, William 
Knox, Martin Fisk, William B. Lamb. James Thorburn, Samuel 
Moseley, Theodore Armistead, William B. Selden, James Young 
and Alexander Jordan. 

Thomas Williamson was the cashier; John E. Beale, teller; 
Richard Bagnall, bookkeeper; Francis E. Taylor, discount clerk; 
Talbot Bragg, out-o'-door clerk; Michael Crosmuck, porter; and 
Michael Coggin, watchman. 




On Granliv Street at the corner of Washington (Wolfe, now Market) Street, Caldwell 
Hardy, long a distinguished banker and capitalist^ made his home. The site is now occupied 
by Smith and Welton. Grant's is across Market Street to the right of the view. 

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Norfolk was static from the time President Jefferson's embargo 
was laid vipon the ports of America (1807) until the mid-Century. 

There was a branch of the Bank of the United States established 
in this Borough. We do not know its relation to the Bank of Vir- 
ginia. The Bank of the United States was organized during Wash- 
ington's first administration and chartered for twenty years. It 
was re-chartered in 1816 for twenty years, anci finally abolished by 
the influence of Andrew Jackson. The Bank of the United States, 
Norfolk Branch, was for many years located on the southwestern 
corner of Gran by Street and College Place. 

In 1830 there were two other banks in the Borough — three 
in all. W. S. Forrest, in a Directory issued for the little city, popu- 
lation 14,326, listed seven banks in 1851. All were modest institu- 
tions, compared to the banks of today. Nearly all of them were 
located on Bank Street, from which circumstance that thoroghfare 
derived its name. 

The Farmers' Bank was located near the corner of Bank and 
Main. Nathan C. Whitehead, the step-father of Hugh Blair Grigsby, 
was President, and the directors were Henry B. Reardon, Josiah 
Wills, Hunter Woodis, John S. Jones, Duncan Robertson, and John 




The corner of Bank and Freemason Streit^ ";i- niin- ihr rr^ideiiiial center of Norfolk. 
Nathan C. Whitehead, hanker, capitalist, church man, made his home directly opposite the 
Second, or Freemason Street Baptist Church and across Bank Street from the home of Moses 
Myers. 

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Tunis. Richard H. Chamherlayne was cashier; John G. H. Hatton, 
teller; and the bookkeepers were Alexander Tunstall and John C. 
Saunders; Ignatius Higgins was clerk, and William C. Whitehead 
note-clerk; William M. Pannell was runner. 

A few steps beyond the Farmers' Bank, the Bank ot \'irginia 
flourished. It advertised a capital of $200,000. The directors were: 
George Reid, A. B. McLean, William Ward, John James, James 
Gordon and William D. Roberts, Jr. Robert W. Bowden was the 
cashier; George W. Camp, teller; William D. Bagnall, bookkeeper; 
Elie Barrot, note-clerk; and H. RoUand, runner. 

W^e judge that the Exchange Bank was the strongest in the 
city. It was a State bank with a capital of $1,800,000. William 
W. Sharp was President, and the directors were: William I. Hardy, 
N. W. Parker, F. W. Southgate, Richard Dickson, William S. Mal- 
lory, John A. Higgins, Thomas B. Irwin, and E. C. Robinson. Wright 
Southgate was cashier; John G. Wilkinson, teller; Alex. Feret, 
bookkeeper; Joseph Murden, note teller; William C. Southgate, 
discount clerk; and William F. Balls, runner. 

The Exchange Bank, like all the others, except the Merchants 
and Mechanics Savings Bank, disappeared in the crises ot civil 
strife, Federal occupation and Reconstruction. But during the 
war the Exchange National Bank of Norfolk was organized and did 
business tor some years. 

During the War Between the States an exceedingly handsome 
young Colonel in a blue unitorm came to Nortolk anti decided to 
let the others fight it out as his "health was poor," though his triends 
thought him quite robust. Gilbert Carleton Walker, born 32 
years before at Binghamton, New York, became president ot the 
Exchange National Bank and in 1869 Governor ot \'irginia. He 
represented the Richmond District tor tour years in the House of 
Representatives and returned to New York City; but he did not 
seem to he so highly valued there as he was in Nortolk and \'irginia. 

The Savings Bank of Norfolk (not to be contused with the Nor- 
tolk Savings Bank, organized later) was located on Bank Street, 
across the way from the Merchants and Mechanics Saving Bank. 
Tazewell Taylor was the President. He also was a distinguished 
local leader, but the very antithesis of Colonel Walker. He was 
born here of a C(jlonial family (1810), graduated trom the Uni- 
versity of Virginia and practiced law in the Borough tor 40 years, 
serving meantime as bursar for William and Mary College. The 
directors of the Savings Bank were: Sam'l W. Paul, David Kyle, 

\ 89 1 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IK NORFOLK- 



Jr., John H. Rowland, Edward S. Pegram, John Hopkins, Charles 
Reid, and J. Marsden Smith. Richard Walke was cashier. 

Across the street from the Norfolk Savings Bank, the Franklin 
Savings Bank was managed by John B. Whitehead, President, 
and the following directors: Sylvanus Hartshorn, James G. Pollard, 
J. James Moore, Sam'l H. Hodges, John Bonsai, and Joseph T. 
Allyn. Thomas G. Broughton, Jr., was the cashier. 

The Merchants and Mechanics Savings Bank had just been 
opened (April 1, 1851). It remains on the same spot after serving 
lour generations. Francis L. Higgins was President and the di- 
rectors were: William S. Camp, Archibald Briggs, Elisha Gamage, 
and Andrew Harris. Otway B. Barraud was cashier. The Mer- 
chants and Mechanics Savings Bank is the oldest banking institution 
in the South. It has survived pestilence, although two ot its officers, 
Otway B. Barraud and William D. Delaney were among the victims 
ol that terrible scourge. It has survived Civil War, although General 
Benjamin F. Butler, Ncjrtolk's military tyrant, seized the bank and 




St. James Hotel was long a popular hostelry on Main near Granby Street. This photo- 
graph was taken in 1888. Soon thereafter the Young Men's Christian Association built a 
large home to the left of the hotel, and still later the Citizens (now the Seaboard Citizens) 
Bank was built here. The Customs House was and is to the right of the yiew. 

[ 90 I 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



ri^L^ 



1J> 







Main 



^jraiil>> Mreets in 1902, showing Citizens Banli Building on right, 
before the eighth floor was added. 



threw W. H. Wales into prison. It has also weathered all failures 
and panics for 85 years. William H. Wales was elected cashier in 
1855 and served until his death in 1897, when he was succeeded by 
his son, John E. Wales. 

The Merchants ami Mechanics Savings Bank was established 
with a capital of -14,500. In 1861, its capital was $42,000, and has 
increased to $350,000 today. The deposits total $3,275,040 at last 
report. The officers are: John K. Wales, Chairman; Charles 
Wales, President; Clinton J. Curtis, Vice-President and Cashier; 
Gordon A. Cannon, Edward H. Burgess, Assistant Cashiers. 

The directors are: John E. Wales, Charles Wales, Clinton J. 
Curtis, I. W. Jacobs, Edwin J. Smith, Leigh G. Hogshire, W. D. 
Spratley, J. F. Woodhouse, F. A. Dusch. 

John D. Gordan and William Ward each had private banks 
located on the eastern side of Market Square (Commercial Place), 
in 1851. 



[ 91 ] 




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^THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK= 




III. 



The Citizens Bank was established April 20, 1867, under a state 
charter with a capital ot $42,500. The first Board ot Directors named 
hy the Act were: C. \V. Grandy, R. C. Taylor and R. H. Chamber- 
laine. The deposits in 1867 were .171,868. Richard Taylor was the first 
President and W. W. Chamberlaine the first Cashier. The members 
of the Board ot Directors at the close ot the year were: R. H. Cham- 
berlaine, W. W. Sharp, C. W. Grandy, D. D. Simmons, Wm. H. 
Peters, Wm. J. Baker, G. W. Rowland, G. K. Goodridge, R. C. Taylor, 
Richard Walke, Jr., and Richard Taylor. Richard H. Chamberlaine 
succeeded Mr. Taylor as President in 1872. Mr. Chamberlaine died 
in office in July, 1879, and was succeeded by Mr. Wm. H. Peters. 
Mr. Peters serveci as President tor twenty years and upon his volun- 
tary retirement in 1900 was succeeded by Mr. Walter H. Doyle. 
In 1887, when the Citizens Bank was twenty^ years old, Mr. Walter 
H. Doyle was Cashier and the Directors were: J. G. Womble, 
Chas. H. Rowland, W. Charles Hardy, Geo. C. Reed, T. A. W'il- 

liams, Wm. H. Peters and Walter 
H. Doyle. Goldsborough M. Ser- 
pell succeeded Mr. Doyle as Presi- 
dent in 1904; W.W. Moss followed 
Mr. Serpell, and MacD. L. Wrenn 
followed Mr. Moss. Tench F. 
Tilghman was the next President 
and at his death, in office, Norman 
Bell succeeded him. At the recent 
death of Mr. Bell (in 19.32) Abner 
S. Pope became President of the 
Seaboard-Citizens National Bank. 
Mr. Pope came to the Seaboard 
Bank from Richmond in 1909. 

The Seaboard Bank opened its 
iloors December 23, 1904, but all 
advertisements announced the 
opening as January 1, 1905, Judge 
M. L. Fure being its first President 
and Thos. J. Powell its first Cash- 
ier, and the following were the Di- 
rectors at the time ot organization: 
Judge M. L. Fure, W. W. Zachary, 
J. L. Camp, J. A. Ridgewell, T. T. 
Powell, G. B. Crowr Ralph H. 
Riddleberger, las. Mann, L. R. 
Britt, A. t. Odell, W. W. Sale, H. 
D. Ward," T. M. Bellamy, A. L. 
Powell, S. Heth Tyler. 

92 1 




Citizen> Bank al 55 Main Street in 1S67. 
The original Imilding for the hank. 
Seaboard National Bank Build- 
ing was erected on this site. 



193 



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•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



In 1907 Frank T. Clark succeeded Judge Eure as President, 
and he was soon succeeded (in 1908) by Goldsborough Serpell, 
eldest son of Goldsborough M. Serpell, who had formerly served as 
President of the Citizens Bank. Mr. Serpell continued to serve 
as President and Chairman of the Board, respectively, until the 
Seaboard National Bank and the Citizens Bank merged in 1928, 
vmcier the title of the Seaboard Citizens National Bank ot Norfolk. 

The little bank established 
in 1867 with $42,500 now has a 
capital of $1,750,000 and deposits 
totaling $15,154,948, at the last 
report, and resources ot $18,240,- 
952. The officers of the Seaboard 
Citizens National Bank in 1936 
are: Goldsborough Serpell, Chair- 
man of the Board; Abner S. 
Pope, President; Roy W. Dudley, 
Executive Vice-President; J. Bili- 
soly H u d g i n s, Vice-President; 
Leonard W. Mitchell, Vice-Presi- 
^ ^^^ ^—-^ . dent; E. W. Berard, Cashier; 

S^B Mu ^^^^H ip|H M. B. L a n g h o r n e. Assistant 
^ ,^| ■^H-^iraMV^ Cashier; S. W. McGann, Assistant 

Cashier; Hugh G. Brown, Trust 
Officer; D. S. Mann, Acting Man- 
ager Berkley Branch; Hugh G. 
Whitehead, Manager ot the 




Seaboard Bank Building, 111 West Main 

Street, built on original site of Citizens 

Bank, now a branch of the Seaboard 

Citizens National Bank. 



Granby Street Branch; Ralph \V. 
Porter, Manager of the Personal 
Loan Department; Victor L. 
Howell, Auditor; S. Heth Tyler, 
General Counsel. 

The Directors are: D. B. 
Ames, Barron F. Black, John I. 
Clark, Jos. W. Dejarnette, Jas. W. 
Derrickson, R. W. Dudley, O. J. 
Egerton, M. S. Hawkins, P. S. 
Huber, J. B. Hudgins, Arthur P. 
Jones, Louis Mansbach, J. J. Mc- 
Cormick, L. W. Mitchell, E. L. 
Parker, Abner S. Pope, W. L. 
Prieur, Jr., E. J. Robertson, Rich- 
ard W. Ruffin, Goldsborough Ser- 
pell, Oscar F. Smith, Chas. Syer, 
Jr., S. Heth Tyler. 

[ 93 




Seaboard Citizens Bank Building 
now the main office of the bank. 




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vf 



^ 



IV. 



The history ot the National Bank ot Commerce — the largest 
bank in Tidewater Virginia — began in 1867 through the tormation 
of "The People's Bank." 

With the end of the War Between the States, when lite became 
again normal, "The People's Bank" was ozganized (October 1, 1867) 
with a capital of $50,000. The officers ot this modest institution, 
which through the long years has become the National Bank ot Com- 
merce, were: J. C. Deming, President, and W'. S. Wilkinson, Cashier. 
The Directors were: J. C. Deming, W. I. Hardy, E. W'. Moore, A. 
L. Seabury, T. D. Toy, J. E. Barry, Jacob \'ickery and Gilbert Elliott. 
On July 28, 1870, the stockholders approved the entry of the 
bank into the National Banking System and its name then became 
the People's National Bank. 

Eight years later (1878) the 
People's National Bank changed its 
name to the Bank of Commerce. 
John Peters was then President, 
and Mr. Wilkinson continued as 
cashier. New faces were seen among 
the directors: James E. Barry, 
Jacob \'ickery, W'illiam A. Graves, 
S. Marsh, D. C. Whitehurst, James 
Reid, Alexander F. Santos, B. T. 
Bockover and John Peters. 

On January 1, 1890, the capi- 
tal stock was increased trom the 
original 150,000 to $100,000. 

In 1891, Nathaniel Beaman, 
while still a young man, only 32 
years of age, was elected President. 
The deposits in the bank then to- 
talled $250,000 (1891). K. B. Elli- 
ott was associated with Mr. Bea- 
man asVice-President, and Thomas 
U. Hare as cashier. The directors 
in 1891 were: James E. Barry, Na- 
thaniel Beaman, B. T. Bockover, 
K. B. Elliott, W. A. Graves, J. W\ 
Hunter, B. G. Pollard, J. J. Sam- 
uel, R. P. Voight, F. M. White- 
hurst and Theotioric A. Williams. 




Old Bank of Commerce, 236 E. Main 
Street in 1878. 



94 ] 



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•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



? 




&c-*'\^. 



Old City National Bank in lb;96 at Main 

and Atlantic Streets, site now occupied by 

the National Bank of Commerce. 



In 1897 the capital was again doubled — and became $200,000. 
Five years later it was increased to $500,000 (1902). In 1900 
Robert P. Voight succeeded Mr. Elliott as V'ice-President, and 
when he died (1903) Tazewell Taylor was elected in his place. 

In 1901, the growing institu- 
tion absorbed the City National 
Bank and became The National 
Bank of Commerce. In 1907 the 
capital was again doubled, bectMii- 
ing one million dollars. The bank 
was recognized as one of the 
strongest institutions in the South, 
tor its resources were over six 
million dollars. 

The next development was 
union with the M a r i n e Bank 
(1921), which had long flourished 
in Norfolk. Nathaniel Beaman 
passed away during that year 
(1921). He guided the bank for 
thirty years and had always been 
an interested friend and real benefactor to those who were worthy 
and who had the interest of the city at heart. Richard S. Cohoon, 
intimately associated with Mr. Beaman for twenty-five years, was 
elected to the vacant chair, and served until 1931. 

During that time (in January, 1927), the Norfolk National 
Bank was consolidated with the National Bank of Commerce, the 
great institution now being known 
as the Norfolk National Bank of 
Commerce and Trusts. The con- 
solidated bank, at that time, ac- 
quired the Trust Company of 
Norfolk, thus providing the facili- 
ties of a Trust Department. 

Robert Prentis Beaman, the 
son of the late Nathaniel Beaman, 
was elected President to succeed 
Mr. Cohoon (1931). Twenty 
years before he began his career 
as a clerk, having graduated from 
Norfolk Academy and Washington 
and Lee University. The \'ir- 




Old Marine Bank Building, Main and 
Bank Street (1896). 



[ 95 



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'THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



^,i| 




ginia National Bank (October, 
1933) joined the National Bank of 
Commerce, adding yet more in- 
fluence and prestige. In this same 
year, the name of the institution 
was simplified by reverting to the 
old name, "National Bank of 
Commerce." 

When Mr. Beaman completed 
25 years ot service with the bank 
(1936), and five years ot service as 
President, the Board of Directors 
marked the anniversary by placing 
a handsome portrait ot Mr. Bea- 
man on the walls ot their Board 
Room. During his short term of 
five years, the deposits in the bank 
have increased approximately 




Original hime of The Norfulk National 
Bank, 242 East Main Street (1896). 



50 



or 
/o- 



The last published statement (December 31, 1936) shows 



deposits of $32,877,724.24, and total resources of $35,920,814.97. 

The Marine Bank, which long did business in the Greek Temple 
still standing on the corner ot Main and Bank Streets, was organized 
in July, 1872, with Richard Taylor, President, and John C. Taylor, 
Cashier. The original directors were: Charles Reid, Benjamin P. 
Loyall, Washington Reitl, J. W. Hinton, C. B. DufHeld, Richard 
Taylor, M. I,. T. Davis, James T. Borum, G. \\. Dey and W. W. 
Gwathmey. 

When Mr. Taylor died (May 21, 1877), Colonel Walter Herron 
Taylor, Adjutant on the staff of General Robert E. Lee and a close 
personal friend of the great chieftain, became President of the 
Marine Bank and served until his death, March 1, 1916. In 1887, 
the Marine Bank advertised a capital of $100,000 and a surplus 
of $42,000. Hugh N. Page was then cashier, and the directors 
were: James T. Borum, M. L. T. Davis, Thomas Tabb, W. W. 
Gwathmey, L. Harmanson, B. P. Loyall, Washington Reid, Charles 
Reid, Washington Taylor and Walter H. Taylor. 

The Norfolk National Bank (whose banking house on Main 
Street is now the home of the Morris Plan Bank) was organized 
in 1885. Charles G. Ramsey was the first President, Major C. 
W. Grandy, Vice-President; Caldwell Hardy, Cashier. The di- 
rectors were: Charles G. Ramsey, James G. Womble, James T. 
Borum, Wiley D. Rountree, William H. White, Thomas R. Ballen- 
tine, (leorge S. Brown, Luther Sheldon, Cealy Billups, David Lowen- 
berg, Mills L. Eure, Charles Reid, Cyrus W. Grandy, Eugene Kelly, 
and Harrison Phoebus. 

[ 96 ] 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



Major C. W. Grandy succeeded Mr. Ramsey as President; 
J. G. Womble succeeded Major Grandy; Caldwell Hardy followed 
Mr. Womble; W. A. Godwin followed Mr. Hardy. 

At the time of consolidation, Albert B. Schwarzkopf was Presi- 
dent of the Norfolk National Bank, J. B. Dey, Jr., Vice-President 
and Cashier; C. S. Whitehurst, Vice-President; H. B. Reardon, 
Auditor, and the Assistant Cashiers were I. T. \'an Patten, jr., 
E. D. Denby and R. H. Moore. 

Upon completion of the consolidation (1927), the Directors of 
the Norfolk National Bank of Commerce and Trusts were: A. G. 
Bailey, W. B. Baldwin, F. R. Barrett, Robert P. Beaman, C. F. 
Burroughs, C. R. Capps, C. S. Carr, R. S. Cohoon, R. D. Cooke, 
H. C. Davis, H. \V. Davis, J. B. Dey, Jr., L. T. Dobie, C. W. Grandy, 
E. C. Gunther, C. F. Harvey, J. D. Hotheimer, W. W. Houston, 
R. M. Hughes, J. T. B. Hyslop, J. S. Jenkins, Jr., H. M. Kerr, 
E. W. Knight, G. R. Loyall, W. C. Maher, James G. Martin, Jr., 
J. Watts Martin, J. F. McLaughlin, David Pender, C. W. Priddy, 
James A. Ridgwell, L. P. Roberts, John H. Rodgers, W. B. Rod- 
man, F. S. Royster, J. H. Schlegel, A. B. Schwarzkopf, G. S. Shater, 
W. T. Simcoe, S. L. Slover, T. S. 
Southgate, W. J. Stanworth, R. C. 
Taylor, Jr., Tazewell Taylor, R. B. 
Tunstall, R. S. Voight, John E. 
Wales, T. H. Willcox, ]r., B. D. 
White, C. L. Wright. 

The Trust Company ot Nor- 
folk was a tlevelopment ot the 
Norfolk Bank tor Savings and 
Trusts, which tor man\' years was 
the first trust institution in the 
city. 

The Virginia National Bank 
was organized in 1902 as the \'ir- 
ginia Savings Bank and Trust Com- 
pany. J. W. Hunter was the first 
President; William C. Whittle the 
first Cashier; John L. Roper the 
first Vice-President; and Walter H. 
Taylor the first General Covmsel. 
(Walter H. Taylor is not to be con- 
fused with Colonel Walter Herron 
Taylor, President of the Marine 
Bank. He was for years a promi- 




' ;iisiSFiiig ill 







I"? I U^ 




Present home of the National Bank of Com- 
merce, Main and Atlantic Streets, built 
on site of the old Citv National Bank. 



[ 97 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



...1 






nent attorney and served as City Attorney). The original directors 
of the ^'irginia National were: S. S. Nottingham, B. P. Loyall, J. 
W. Hunter, William C. Whittle, John L. Roper, R. P. Voight, R. F. 
Baldwin, Leroy W. Davis, S. Q. Collins, D. F. Watt, Ralph Mar- 
golius and Walter H. Taylor. 

The \'irginia National Bank was chartered and took over the 
business of the Virginia Bank and Trust Company (September 28, 
1910). It filled an important place in our financial history until 
it merged with the larger bank. 

The \'irginia National Bank (whose Greek temple is now the 
home oi the Southern Savings Bank) brought to the consolidated 
National Bank ot Commerce as Vice-President, A. W. Brock, who 
had served the \'irginia National Bank as President. 

The officers and directors of the National Bank of Commerce 
(1936) are: Robert P. Beaman, President; James B. Dey, Jr., 
Senior ^'ice-President (Mr. Dey is also serving at the present time 
as President ot the Virginia Bankers Association); John S. Alfriend 
(a great-nephew ot Jacob Vickery, one of the original directors of 
The People's Bank in 1867), ."Assistant to the President; A. B. 
Schwarzkopf, A. W. Brock, C. S. Whitehurst, ^'ice-Presidents; 
I. T. Van Patten, Jr., Assistant \'ice-President; Samuel T. Northern, 
Cashier; C. S. Phillips, F. J. Schmoele, E. D. Denby, R. H. Moore, 
S. E. Tudor, C. M. Etheridge, Baxter C. Carr, Thomas H. Nichol- 
son, Assistant Cashiers; J. H. Fanshaw, Auditor; Charles Webster, 
Vice-President and Trust Officer. 

The directors are: F. R. Barrett, Robert P. Beaman, R. D. 
Cooke, Hugh W. Davis, J. B. Dey, Jr., Louis T. Dobie, C. W. 
Grandy, W^ W. Houston, J. S. Jenkins, Jr., Charles L. Kaufman, 
W. C.Maher, James G. Martin," Jr., David Pender, C. W. Priddy, 
James A. Ridgwell, L. P. Roberts, John H. Rodgers, W. B. Rod- 
man, W. T. Simcoe, S. L. Slover and C. L. Wright. 

In addition to its main banking house, located in its office build- 
ing, at Main and Atlantic Streets, the National Bank of Commerce 
operates four branch offices, including the only banking office at 
Virginia Beach. The departments of the bank cover all types of 
banking facilities and, in addition to the Commercial Banking 
Department, there is conducted a Savings Department, a Trust 
Department, a Foreign Department, an Installment Loan De- 
partment and a Safe Deposit Department. 

The institution is the oldest national bank in Tidewater Vir- 
ginia, its Trust business is the oldest in this locality, it organized 
the first Savings Department in Norfolk and it was the first com- 

[ 98 ] 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



mercial bank in this city to create an Installment Loan Depart- 
ment to serve the personal requirements of the small borrower. 
Its claim to reputation is not based alone upon its position ot size 
in the community, but upon its pioneering in those forms ot service 
which have increased its usefulness to the community and thus 
have created its consistent progress, growth and strength. 



The Merchants and Planters Bank was the pioneer banking 
institution for that part of the city which lies across the Eastern 
Branch. It was organized by the efforts of the late Alvah H. 
Martin and other progressive citizens, starting business April 1, 
1900, with a capital of S30,000. 

The first officers were: Foster 
Black, President; Alvah H. Mar- 
tin, \'ice-President; George T. 
Tilley, Cashier; and George G. 
Martin, Attorney. The first Di- 
rectors were: Alvah H. Martin, 
Foster Black, W. M. Tilley, W. L. 
Berkley, J. H. Jacocks, J. J. 
Ottley,' William fillotson, W. B. 
Dougherty and E. F. Truitt. 

As business grew more capital 
was needed, so it was increased to 
$50,000 (January 21, 1903). The 
first President, Mr. Black, served 
until January 16, 1901, and he was 
then succeeded by Hon. Alvah H. 
Martin, who held the chair until 
his death, July 5, 1918. Colonel S. L. Slover succeeded Mr. Martin 
and served until January 1, 1929. During his term branches were 
established at Campostella (1924) and South Norfolk (1927). Jesse 
J. Parkerson succeeded Colonel Slover and continues as President. 

The capital of the bank at present is $250,000, to which im- 
pressive figure it has been built through stock dividends from $50,000. 
The surplus is at present $475,000 and total resources $4,054,798. 

The officers who now serve the Merchants and Planters Bank 
are: S. L. Slover, Chairman of the Board; Jesse J. Parkerson, 
President; C. L. Old, Vice-President; John Cuthrell, Vice-Presi- 
dent; H. G. Martin, Vice-President and Cashier; V. L. Sykes, 

[ 99 ] 




Home office of Merchants and Planters 
Bank, 218 W. Berkley Avenue, Berkley. 



1^' 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 





Campostella Branch of Merchants and 
Planters Bank, Wilson Road and Spring- 
field Avenue, erected in 1925. 



Assistant Cashier; F. B. Townsend, 
Assistant Cashier; J. Paul Smith, 
Assistant Cashier; Guy R. Beale, 
Assistant Cashier; W. Mac Good- 
man, Assistant Cashier; James G. 
Martin, Jr., Trust Officer. 

This bank is a member ot the 
bederal Deposit Insurance Corpo- 
ration. 

The Directors are: C. L. Old, 
S. W. Lyons, Jr., C. R. Carver, 
Alvah H. Martin, E. T. Humph- 



ries, L. L. Sawyer, S. L. Slover, 
Wm. H. Darden, John Cuthrell, 
J. M. Lawrence, Howard G. Mar- 
tin, J. C. Sleet, James G. Martin, 
Jr., \V. P. Butt, J. R. Sears, W. C. 
Arrington, A. J. Shumadine, F. B. 
Townsend, R. W. Martin, J. H. 
Privott, B. Galumbeck, J. F. Wal- 
ker, M. A. Glasser, B. D. Wood, 
Jesse J. Parkerson. 




^^ss 



South Norfolk Branch of the Merchants 
and Planters Bank. 



VI 

Norfolk is the home ot the Morris Plan Bank, and a Norfolk 
citizen here established the first of that famous chain. Arthur 
Joseph Morris was born in Tarboro, North Carolina, August 5, 
1880, and graduated from the University ot Virginia at 19 years ot 
age. He stutlied law and began the practice ot his profession in 
this city (1901). As a financial lawyer he conceived the idea ot 
industrial banking, and despite the typical discouragements that 
every pioneer must encounter, he obtained a charter tor the pro- 
posed institution. On April 5, 1910, he opened the first Morris 
Plan Bank with a capital ot .120,000, in a single room on the seventh 
t^oor of an office building. 

The chain has spread to every part ot the United States. There 
are now 95 such banks in 125 cities ot 36 States. They have handled 
more than two billions ot dollars in business, and now have more 
than 100 million on deposit. They have loaned more than three 

I 100 I 



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-THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



■^iit^ 



billion dollars to more than fifteen million people, and have sus- 
tained a loss ot less than one-halt ot one per cent. The Morris 
Plan Bank of Virginia, the direct, local development ot the Norfolk 
institution, has five branches in as many cities of this Common- 
wealth, and is the seventh largest bank of any kind in \'irginia, 
with $11,200,000 deposits and resources which aggregate $16,600,000, 
in 70,000 accounts. The Directors of the Norfolk branch are, at 
present: Charles L. Kaufman, W. S. Royster and H. W. Whichard. 
Ernest P. Mangum is Assistant Vice-President and Cashier and L. 
P. Harrell is Assistant Vice-President. O. B. Wooldridge is Assist- 
ant Cashier. 

VII 

Norfolk's youngest bank, the Southern Savings Bank, has 
registered an impressive development. It was organized first as 
the Southern Savings and Finance Company (1917), with a capital 
of only $10,000. In 1932, it secured a charter as a State bank 
with a capital of $100,000, and $25,000 surplus. H. O. Nichols 
has presided over the institution since it began. The officers and 
Directors of the Southern Savings Bank are: H. O. Nichols, Presi- 
dent; W. Ludwell Baldwin, George A. Foote, Vice-Presidents: 
Edward H. Church, Vice-President and Cashier; O. N. Ballance 
and Leonard T. Smith are Assistant Cashiers. The Southern Sav- 
ings Bank has a branch at Ocean View. 

The deposits of this growing bank, at last report, were $1,077,330, 
and its total resources, $1,379,551. 

The Southern Savings Bank recently moved to the Greek 
Temple at the corner of Main and Granby, previously occupied by 
the Virginia National Bank. The directors are the officers and 
Herman R. Furr, W. P. Bain and \V. P. Edmondson. 



[ 101 



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THE LAST LEAF OF BOOK 1 



We have followed through three centuries in the path of many 
mighty men, noble, tried and true, even from the spacious days of 
Queen Elizabeth. \'irginia received her name from the lips of 
the V^irgin Queen, who was the only child of Anne Boleyn, a 
daughter of the ancient, royal House of Norfolk. 

At Cape Henry civil government was born by the express pro- 
vision of the London Company, and the command of James L 

In this tractless wilderness Adam Thorowgood, Thomas Wil- 

loughby, John Robinson, Anthony Lawson, Samuel Boush, Sir John 

Randolph, Paul Lovall, Stephen Decatur, James Barron, Littleton 

Waller Tazewell, Robert Barraud Tavlor, David Glasgow Farragut, 

Walter Herron Taylor, Hugh Blair Grigsby, James Barron Hope, 

Alexander Gait, William Couper, Thomas Newton, Abram J. Ryan, 

.^ .: ^^'illiam Mahone, Richard Dale, William Wilson Lamb and 

A William Lamb, Dr. ^^'ilIiam Boswell Selden and Dr. William 

i^ Selden, and a host of others, have left us a lordly heritage. Norfolk. 

[•^ has a thrilling tale to tell, years of wealth and happiness, years of 

i^ bitterness, pestilence, war and reconstruction; but, like the fabled 

' goddess of the Greeks, she has risen in beauty from the ocean's foam. 

The story of Norfolk is just begun. Let no superficial reader 

^ spurn a notable past, for our tomorrows are built upon our yester 

'' days. Each dawn heralds a dav of finer achievement and wider 

opportunity. "Ihc future pages of peace will be more brilliant than 

the records of battle and bloodshed. 

Norfolk is a city of homes. To those who seek a finer, larger 
life of achievement and opportunity, Norfolk extends a hand of 
welcome, cordial and sincere. In all the nation no better place to 
live, to labor and to rear a family may be found, than by these storied 
shores of old Virginia, close beside the murmuring waters of the 
Chesapeake. 



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■^ 
.-*i~-^ 



BOOK II 



THE MAKING OF A GREAT PORT 



NORFOLK, PORTSMOUTH AND ENVIRONS TODAY 

By 
F. E. TURIN 



I 



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Contents — Book II 



The Making of a Great Port 

The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 

Chesapeake and Ohio Lines . 

The Norfolk. Southern Railroad 

Norfolk and Western Railway Com 

The Old "Nvp 'n N" 

The Seaboard Air Line Railw 

The Virginian Railway 

The Southern Railway 

Norfolk's Historic Mace 

Portsmouth 

Cape Henry 

Virginia Seashore Park 

Ocean View 

Virginia Beach 

Norfolk and Tobacco 

Williamsburg 

Yorktown 

Restored Williamsburg 

Old Point Comfort 

Jamestown 

Holly Lodge . 

Historic Smithfield, Virginia 

Historic "Bayville Farms 

The Norfolk Navy Yard 

The Norfolk Naval Operaung Base 

The Norfolk Advertising Board 

Norfolk Climate .... 

The Norfolk .Association of Commerce 

The Norfolk Public Library 

Norfolk .Anniversaries Year Commhtees 

Norfolk Anniversaries Year Program 

Ciiv Council Meeting, Septe.mber 1"), 1935 

F'oreman Field Dedicated 

Fifteen Thousand See .Anniversar\' Pagean 

The Anniversaries Year Parade 

Pageant by Colored Committee 

Parade by Colored Committee 

Miscellaneous Facts and Figure 



PAGE 

105 
12,5 
12S 
130 
1.34 
142 
145 
151 
153 
1.54 
160 
161 
163 
165 
169 
174 
177 
178 
ISO 
181 
183 
184 
187 
188 
191 
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197 
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237 
240 
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The Making of a Great Port 



"jS, 



K^ 



Norfolk was established in 1682 on a tract of fifty acres of 
land purchased from Nicholas Wise, Jr. for 10,000 pounds of to- 
bacco, which at that time passed current for money in Virginia. 

Today, Norfolk is one of the world's great ports; it is, like- 
wise, a prime industrial center; the trucking products of the area 
have a value annually of approximately $10,000,000; and about a 
million tourists each year visit its beaches — Virginia Beach and 
Ocean View — and its historic shrines. In addition, Norfolk occu- 
pies a position of the first importance in the national defense. 

Inland and tributary to the port of Norfolk is that group of 
states whose area formerly composed the great Northwest Territory, 
which once belonged to Virginia, and which was ceded by Vir- 
ginia to the I'nited States government in order to mollify the states 
to the north. Out of Virginia territory have been created the states 
of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, West 
Virginia, and part of Minnesota. 

In his Physical Survey of Virginin, published in 1868, Matthew 
Fontaine Maury, the eminent geographer, pictured the states of the 
Middlewest as naturally tributary to Hampton Roads, the harbor 
on which Norfolk is situated, declaring that the transportation 
system of this vast territory should draw through Hampton Roads 
to Europe. He demonstrated on a chart the advantages aflforded 
by the route through Norfolk. Norfolk continues to benefit from 
the advantages of location envisioned by Maury, and is the gateway 
of Middlewest and South alike. 

Nature gave Norfolk one of the Finest Harbors in the 
world. As if to make sure that this great harbor could be utilized 
to the fullest, a lavish Providence has added the permanent endow- 
ment of ideal climate for shipping. Norfolk is Climate's home port. 

At Norfolk it is "shipping weather" all the year. The immense 
anchorage grounds of wide, calm waters are ever ice-free. The 
mean annual temperature is 59.4 degrees, with remarkable freedom 
from extremes of heat and cold. The average tide variation is only 

1 105 1 



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two and one-halt feet. There are few fogs and no snows of conse- 
quence. Fifty-nine per cent of the daylight hours are sunny. 

To THIS Priceless N.atural Endowment has been added 
every possible mechanical and physical means for the expeditious 
handling of tratfic. There is berthing space for more than fifty 
ocean-going vessels. There is approximately 10,0(X),000 square feet 
of covered warehouse space, and trackage space for more than 5,000 
freight ears. Tracks run to shipside. From the piers, trunk line 
railways radiate over thousands of miles of track, connecting with 
the principal markets of the East, South, North, and Middle West. 
More than fifty steamship lines, including one home-owned line — 
the American Hampton Roads Line — and the Baltimore Mail Line 
--serve the port, with frecjuent sailings to all parts of the world. 
There is express steamship service, at freight rates, to Baltimore, 
Washington, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Providence. 

The N.WIES of the World might simultaneously swing wide 
in Norfolk's anchorage grounds. The world's largest ships may 
navigate easily its deep, fog-free channels. Yet these exceptional 
conditions would count for little were it not for the fact that Nor- 
folk's natural advantages are matched by its magnificent railway 
facilities. 

At Norfolk the exchange of freight from hold to wheel and 
from car to deck is accomplished with utmost dispatch. Eight 



-^- \ 



VV ' K ' rf,' 





Vicw of ducks near foot of West Main Slrccl aliout ISSU, showing old .\tlantic Hotel, 
then claimed to be one of the largest hotels in the South. 

f 106 1 



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great raihvavs serve the port. Ihese are iiitereoniieeted by a belt 
line railroad, owned jointly bv the eight roads, which is declared 
by transportation authorities to be one of the most valuable assets 
possessed bv any port or city in the country. The belt line provides 
for efficient interchange of traffic from one road to another, serves 
industries and commercial establishments, and connects with steam- 
ship piers and terminals. The belt line switching charges on line- 
haul traffic are absorbed in the Norfolk rates. 

'Ihe eight line-haul carriers serving Norfolk are as follows: 

Jtlantic (Jotist Line Rinlroiul. from Norfolk to the south and southwest, 
traversing the cotton — atul tobacco — growing states, as well as the lumber- 
producing areas of that territory. 

(Chesapeake is Ohio Raihvay . with rails through V^irginia, ^\'est Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky, serving vast coal fields, and 
manufacturing and agricultural regions. 

Norfolk if U'cslern Railuay. to the Middlewest, with connections to 
the South and Southwest, serving the bituminous coal fields of Virginia and 
AVest Virginia, and important agricultural and manufacturing areas. 

Norfolk Southern Railroad, with rails traversing eastern and central 
North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, serving important tobacco, cotton, 
and lumber areas. 

Pennsylvania Railroad, leaching practical!)' e\er\' important point in the 
Middle Atlantic and Aliddle Western States. 

Scahoard Air Line Raihv/iy. to the South and Southwest, serving cotton, 
tobacco, and lumber-producing areas. 

Southern Raihvay. with lines through the entire territory east of the 
Mississippi and south of the Ohio. 

J'irt/inian Railway, tapping the great bituminous coal fields of ^Vest 
Virginia, and connecting with important lines into the Middlewest. 

These railroads and their connections provide unsurpassed through 
service to and from all parts of continental United States, Canada, and 
Mexico. 

Kach of the railroads centering at the port has adec]uate and 
excellent terminal facilities. I'hese include the most modern coal 
piers in the world, as well as modernlv equipped merchandise piers 
and storage warehouses. 

In recent years the Norfolk & Western, the Pennsylvania, the 
Chesapeake & Ohio, and the Virginian railroads have spent millions 
in the development of their terminals. The Norfolk & Western 
has completed in 1936 an additional coal pier, especially designed 
for the fast loading of cargo coal with a minimum of breakage. 

I 107 I 



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Granby Street, 1936, one of Norfolk's vital arteries; Federal Building in tenter liackt:ri>iiiKi. 



108 



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t*7' 



Several Hundred Years Ago there was situated on the site 
of Norfolk an Indian village called Skicoak. This was located on 
the Elizabeth River, about twenty miles from Cape Henry, where 
the earliest permanent English settlers in America made their first 
landing. Christopher Newport, with the three vessels under his 
command, landed at Cape Henry on April 26, 1607, a couple of 
weeks before the settlement at Jamestown, and there engaged in a 
skirmish with the Chesapeakes, the Indians inhabiting the area. 

According to Thomas Jefferson, C. Whittle Sams, and records 
at the office of the Norfolk County Court Clerk, the land now in- 
cluded in Norfolk County was granted in 1636 to Henry Frederick 
Howard, Lord Maltravers, a relative of the Duke of Norfolk. He 
it was who attached the name Norfolk to this locality, according 
to these authorities. Dr. W. H. T. Squires, eminent Virginia author 
and historian, and others state that Adam Thoroughgood named 
the Countv when in 1636 he introduced in the House of Burgesses 
the measure providing for the establishment of Norfolk County. 

The counties of Nansemond, Norfolk, and Princess Anne origi- 
nally composed New Norfolk County. Shortly afterward the ter- 
ritory was divided into I'pper and Lower Norfolk counties. Cpper 
Norfolk became Nansemond County, while Lower Norfolk com- 
prised the area which is now Norfolk and Princess Anne Counties. 




Berkley in the year 1888. 



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The entire section was laid off in parishes and a ehureh was 
erected in each parish. The settlers established themselves on farms 
along the bays and rivers, where they built wharves at which ships 
might discharge and receive cargo. For seventv-hve years after 
the settlement at Jamestown in 1607, there were no other towns of 
any importance in \"irginia. 

The Growth of Norfolk in the period immediately follow- 
ing its establishment, in 1682, was not rapid, but in 1705 Norfolk 
became a full-fledged town, and by 1728, according to Forrest's 
H tstoncdl and Descriptive Sketches of Norfolk iind Viciiut\, "the 
business of the place had now greatly increased and a very consider- 
able number added to the population." 

"Its situation," this old book continues, "presented all the 
requisite advantages for commerce, navigation, and a profitable in- 
vestment of capital. A brisk trade was carried on with the West 
Indies, whither large quantities of flour, lumber, beef, pork, etc., 
were exported; in return for which were imported, abundant sup- 
plies of sugar, molasses, rum, and fruits. Twenty or thirty brigs 
and smaller vessels constantly rode at the wharves; the merchants 
and mechanics all appeared to be actively engaged, and prospering; 





.scene at Eastern Steam-hip Lines Docks. 

I 110 1 



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a number of stores and dwellings were erected, real estate advanced 
in price, and there was no good reason for doubting that Norfolk 
would, ere the present dav (this was written in 1853), be a very 
large and flourishing city, if not the largest upon the whole coast." 
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, Norfolk held, in 
fact, a place of importance in the commerce of the colonies, and 
the port carried on an active export and import trade with the 
West Indies, South America, and Europe. 

The first blood shed on Virginia soil at the outbreak of the 
Revolution was at Great Bridge, eight miles south of Norfolk, on 
December 9, 1775. The British retired to their ships at Norfolk, 
and on the morning of January 1, 1776, opened a furious bombard- 
ment. The whole town was soon in flames. It burned for three 
days and was completely destroyed. Only the walls of old St. 
Paul's F]piscopal Church were left standing. 

Si:\Ek.AL Ye.ars .\FTEk Till', Revohitiox.akv W.\r Norfolk was 
on the way toward regaining its former position as a port. The 
need of better means of transportation between Norfolk and nearbv 
sections came to be recognized, and in 1787 the Dismal Swamp 
Canal was commenced, to link the navigable tidal waters of Vir- 




The old Custom House. 
[ 111 ] 



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ginia anti North Carolina. Despite this early beginning this water- 
way was first opened for navigation in 1S14, and it was not until 
1828, at about the time railroads began to be thought of, that it was 
opened on a scale adequate for vessels which could navigate safely 
the waters which the canal connected. Later the Albemarle & 
Chesapeake Canal was built. Both of these waterways have served 
a useful purpose, and both are now operated bv the government as 
a part of the inland waterways system. 

Work ox the First Railroad, not a conspicuously successful 
undertaking, started in 1833, to link Portsmouth with W'eldon, 
N. C, at the falls of the Roanoke River. At the beginning of the 
War between the States there existed the railroad from Portsmouth 
to Weldon, and likewise one from Norfolk to Petersburg, completed 
just a few years before. The war brought catastrophic results. 
Both railroads had been destroyed, and practically nothing remained 
but the right of ways. 

The ports in the North, having been open throughout the war, 
had forged ahead. 

Conditions at Norfolk remained almost dormant until 1870. 
Ihen the Norfolk & Petersburg, the Southside, and the East 'i"en- 




Hide> at Norfolk ridcwater Terminals 

I 112 ! 



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nessee & Virginia were joined to form the Atlantic, Mississippi & 
Ohio Railway. With this development Norfolk, began to get a 
little business. The trackage of the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio, 
together with the business it had developed, was taken over several 
years later by the Norfolk & Western Railway. 

The Norfolk & Western, in the course of events, built from 
Radford into the coal fields. The first car of coal was brought to 
Norfolk in 1883, thus beginning the traffic that has made modern 
Norfolk a world coal port. 

In 1886 the city of Norfolk entered into negotiations which 
resulted in the building of a line to Norfolk which became a part 
of the Atlantic Coast Line system. 

At about this time the Southern Railway was attempting to 
develop a port at West Point, on the York River. ?>entuallv, how- 
ever, the railway made a trackage arrangement with the Atlantic 
Coast Line whereby it could reach the port of Norfolk, and there 
it built terminals adjoining the Atlantic Coast Line warehouses 
and piers. Later, the Southern obtained trackage linking this termi- 
nal with the system's main line at Danville. 

The Norfolk Southern, the first section of which was opened 




Air view of section of downtown Norfolk. 
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=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK= 



in 1881, was built into eastern North Carolina, and has since been 
extended until it now has nearlv 1, ()()() miles of track. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad built down the Eastern Shore 
peninsula of Virginia in 1884, and established boat and barge con- 
nection between Cape Charles and Norfolk. 

The Virginian Railway completed its fine coal-carrying road 
to Norfolk in 1909. 

The Story of the Norfolk & Portsmouth Belt Lixe is 
of special significance in the recent development of the port of 
Norfolk, both commerciallv and industrially. This story begins 
with the building of the Pennsylvania Railroad to Cape Charles 
in 1884, in which year passenger steamer and freight car-Hoat con- 
nections were established to link the Eastern Shore terminus with 
Norfolk-Portsmouth and with the rail carriers radiating from Nor- 
folk to the south and west. With this project there was created a 
rail gateway between the Northeast and the South, additional to 
that which previoush' had existed by way of Baltimore and Wash- 
ington. 

For a number of years the barges of the New York, Philadel- 
phia & Norfolk Railroad, the operating subsidiary of the Pennsyl- 




Apples for export, at Norfolk Tidewater Terminals. 

I 114 1 



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vania Railroad, made ccmnection for loading and unloading at the 
car-float bridges of the several Norfolk railroads and were loaded 
and unloaded by engines and crews of those carriers. This pro- 
cedure resulted in inevitable delays and eventuated in the N. Y., 
P. & N. (pronounced Nip 'n 'En) building a terminal of its own 
where freight cars could be assembled and where cars could be 
transferred to and from the barges by the N. Y., P. & N.'s own 
engines and crews. 

It was in connection with the contemplated use of this terminal 
that the idea of the Norfolk & Portsmouth Belt Line had its origin. 
Surveys for the terminal and for the belt line were begun in 1896. 
The combined project was completed in 1898. The belt line was 
so located and constructed as to afford a physical connection be- 
tween the N. Y., P. & N. and all other railroads having terminals 
in Norfolk and Portsmouth. I'pon its completion each of the roads 
acquired an equal interest in the belt line, and this situation con- 
tinues to obtain to the present day. 

Whereas the primary original purpose of the belt line was to 
afford convenient connection between the N. Y., P. & N. and the 
railroads reaching Norfolk from the south and west, it later became 




.■\ir view of Norfolk Southern Railroad and Seaboard Air Line Piers and Teriiiinals 
of Norfolk County Ferries in PortMnouth. 



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:hrough the years in norfolk= 



evident that this development presented remarkable possibilities 
in the building up of industrial operations and in stimulating the 
general commerce of the port. 

The initial agreement between railroads owning the belt line 
provided that rates to and from points on the belt line should be 
identical with the rates prevailing to and from the line-haul car- 
riers' own terminals and sidings in Norfolk and Portsmouth. This 
arrangement acted as a powerful stimulus to industrial development, 
and today the belt line serves some 13U diliferent industries and 
sidings. 

The Remarkable Growth of Norfolk's port business in re- 
cent years has been fostered by progressive community cfifort. 

An outstanding item in the new port traffic, which has largely 
developed in the period following the World War, is the export 
of leaf tobacco, grown in Norfolk's natural hinterland. During the 
same period an expanding export and import movement in many 
other commodities has likewise been built up. Within the last 
decade the volume of export traffic has increased more than ten 
times, while the amount of imports has doubled. 

Todav, with more than ample terminal facilities, unexcelled 
rail transportation, general cargo service to every quarter of the 



■'--> 



,■■ )> 




The U. S. S. Saratoga in Norfolk's inner harbor. 

f 116 1 



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•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



5 
6 



.^Jci^ 



5 
V 



globe, ami a geographic situation excelled by no port on the Ameri- 
can continent, Hampton Roads has become a vital factor in the com- 
merce of the country. 

For lUO Years Following its Destrl'ctiox during the Rev- 
olutionary War the development of Norfolk whether with respect 
to commerce, industry, or population was far from notable. By 
1870 the population had grown to only approximately 19,000, about 
half of whom were Negroes. Subsequent population growth has 
closely paralleled the increasing development of railroad facilities, 
the building-up of port traffic, and the establishment of industrial 
operations upon an expanding scale. In 1880 the population was 
22,000; in 1890, 35,000; in 1900, 47,000; and in 1910, 67,000. 
With the boom period of movement of troops and supplies through 
Hampton Roads during the World War, Norfolk grew tremen- 
dously. The population during the peak of activity was estimated 
to be approximately 300,000, including soldiers, sailors and marines 
in training or awaiting transfer overseas. With the census of 1920, 
taken during the recession following the conclusion of the war, the 
population was recorded as about 116,000. 

Norfolk is today (census of 1930) a city of 130,000 population, 
the second largest in V'irginia. The metropolitan district, with 
273,000 (1930), is the most populous in the state. As a general port, 




S. S. Capulin, .American Hampton Roads Line. 

[ 117 ] 



^fiii^y 



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Norfolk, ranks among the first halt (iozcn in America. As an in- 
dustrial ciimmunity, dcvclnpmcnt during the past tew vears has 
been particularly rapid. 

The industries of Norfolk include such a range of activities 
and products as is represented bv automobiles (assembled), silk- 
weaving, fertilizers, needle-trade products, agricultural implements, 
veneers, rolling steel doors, underwear, paint, cement, sulphur- 
dioxide, food products including flour mills, hsh freezing, oyster 
packing, cofifee roasting, peanut-cleaning, sov bean processing, can- 
ning, pickling, tobacco-stemming, ship-building and wood-working. 

The advantages of Norfolk as a manufacturing center are be- 
coming continually more evident to manufacturers as thev become 
better acquainted with the favorable basic conditions existing at this 
port. Manufacturing costs such as power, fuel and w ater, are com- 
paratively low. Cheap coal is available in abundance. Local power 
rates are favorable and attractive to industrial plants as compared 
with those of other parts of the country. Industrial water rates at 
Norfolk are considerablv lower than the average for more than 200 
cities according to the American \\'ater \^'orks Association. 

Building costs are low largelv because the building season is 
continuous and sites which meet practically any reijuirements as to 
size, etc., are to be had at reasonable cost. 




S. S. City of Norfolk, Baltimore Mail Line, at Norfolk Tidewater Terminals. 

I US I 



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^0' 



BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICA'S FOREIGN COMMERCE 
Part II— "The Makixc of a Great Port" 

America's foreign commerce was born in the James River 
and cradled in its infancy at Norfolk. It was a lusty youngster 
almost one hundred vears before the Revolution as will be shown 
in this chapter of "The Making of a Great Port", which includes 
statistics from the first records on ccimmerce of Colonial America. 
The figures are believed to be the earliest gathered and the com- 
pilations herein were made at the re(]uest of the Norfolk Advertising 
Board in September, 1930, under the direction of William L. 
Cooper, then director of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce and Dr. Dana Durand, the Economist for the bureau. The 
statistics reveal how American commerce grew from a small begin- 
ning and also tell the story of advancing trade between the American 
Colonies and Great Britain from 1697 to 1767 inclusive, which 
formed almost the only commerce of this countrv prior to the estab- 
lishment of the I'nited States as an independent nation. 

Americans whose concept of the earlv colonies has been derived 
through histories almost exclusively devoted to their political evo- 
lution and territorial expansion, will, it is thought, be amazed to 
learn of the verv considerable proportions of the trade reached with 
the mother countrv at a time when Indian foravs were still freijuent 
along the Atlantic Seaboard and when ships were small indeed to 
engage extensively in commercial trade across the perilous Atlantic. 

In 1697 the total foreign trade of Virginia and Maryland 
reached 286,552 Pounds Sterling. This was eciuivalent to approxi- 
mately $1,394,500 at present rates of exchange, but in reality it 
represents several times that amount when measured bv the present 
depreciated purchasing power of currency as compared with its 
buving power and the low price of commodities at that earlv dav. 

The tables of that early commerce unfold the storv of the growth 
of the great Atlantic Coastal cities. In 1697, the foreign trade of 
Virginia and Maryland represented 68 per cent of the total foreign 
trade of the American Colonies. Pennsvlvania's trade represented 
but 1.5 per cent of the total; New "^'ork enjoved but 3.3 per cent, 
and New England, which had been first colonized in 1620, but 
slightly later than Virginia shared to the extent of 22.4 per cent of 
the grand total which uas 419,981 Pounds Sterling. In twenty 
years Virginia and Maryland, so far as percentages go, had slipped 

1 119 1 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



down to 62 per cent of America's foreign trade, although their trade 
had actually increased by 248,233 Pounds. Pennsylvania's share of 
the trade had doubled to 3 per cent, New York's had risen to 7.9 
per cent, and New England's had slightly decreased to 21.9 of the 
grand total, although the actual volume of New England trade had 
more than doubled; it now reached 190,899 Pounds. The total at 
this time 1717, was 865,756 Pounds, more than double what it had 
been in 1697. This total includes the trade of the Colonies of Caro- 
lina and Georgia. 

As each of the ports reached out for commerce and the grand 
total of Colonial trade increased, the relative percentages which the 
leading export centers occupied in relation to the whole trade, of 
course decreased. But, the leaders nevertheless were registering 
a prodigious actual increase in trade. 

Forty years after the statistics begin, that is, in 1737, Virginia 
and Maryland held but 48 per cent of the total trade between the 
American Colonies and Great Britain. Actuallv, however, the total 
of their exports and imports had reached 703,547 Pounds Sterling 
whereas in 1697 their total trade had been but 286,552 Pounds. 

In fact, for the next two hundred vears we find Hampton Roads, 
the nursery of American commerce, slipping down in its percentage 
of the total trade of the countrv, although actuallv during most of 
the time registering increases in absolute volume. In the last twenty 
years the share of that gatewav in the total trade has again risen 
markedly. 

At this time, 1737, Pennsylvania had reached 4.8 per cent of 
the grand total of the trade between the American Colonies and 
Great Britain. Her trade amounted to 71,888 Pounds, only one- 
fourth of what had been the trade of V^irginia and Maryland forty 
years before. New York was climbing fast and in 1737 had reached 
9.7 of the grand total for that year, which was 1,457,816 Pounds, 
or more than a million pounds in excess of the total trade forty years 
before. New England's percentage of the total trade had fallen 
slightl\ in the forty years, being 19.7 per cent in 1737. Her actual 
trade in that vear was 287,270 Pounds, or about three times as large 
as it had been in 1697. 

W'e have seen that in 1737, almost two hundred years ago, Vir- 
ginia and Marvland had almost one-half of the total trade and New- 
England had one-fifth. New York had less than ten per cent and 
Pennsylvania less than five. We come to 1767, after our commerce 
had been recorded for 70 years. We find that Virginia and Mary- 
land now held 29 per cent of the total trade but their volume had 

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expanded to 875,554 Pounds, Pennsylvania now held 13 per cent of 
the foreign trade, her commerce with the mother country amounting 
to 409,471 Pounds, or 122,919 Pounds more than the trade of Vir- 
ginia and Maryland had amounted to seventy years before. 

The figures, indeed, give a very good idea of the relative 
progress of the different sections of the American Colonies. New 
York in 1767 had risen to 16 per cent of the total trade; her trade 
in that year reached 479,379 Pounds of which 61,422 Pounds rep- 
resented exports and 417,957 Pounds represented imports. New 
York was buying heavily from England then, whereas Virginia and 
Maryland with their rich crops were exporting and importing about 
evenly, their exports in 1767 being 437,926 Pounds and their im- 
ports 437,628, a difiference of only 298 Pounds. 

New England's share in 1767 had fallen to 17.8 per cent of the 
total, though her trade in that year amounted to 534,288 Pounds, 
exceeding by almost 440,000 Pounds the total commerce of New 
England seventy years before. The total commerce of the Colonies 
in that year, 1767, was 2,997,002 Pounds, of which 1,096,079 were 
exports and 1,900,923 were imports. 

In the light of the present day commerce reaching into the 
billions these figures of America's foreign commerce 163 years ago 
may seem insignificant. If we take into account the far higher pur- 
chasing power of money in that day, however, and the small popula- 
tion, the figures appear of no small magnitude. 

New York was already becoming dominant in our commerce 
in the early years of our existence as an independent nation, and was 
soon to outstrip all competitors. The rigorous blockade of the 
American coast by the British frigates during the War of 1812 (July 
18, 1812-December 24, 1814) particularly during the year 1814, 
helped to bring about a radical decrease in the South's share of the 
nation's commerce. The main British force in that year continued 
to lie in the Chesapeake, where about fifty sail were collected. Phey, 
of course, dominated the Chesapeake and Hampton Roads, which 
is to say the ports of Norfolk, Newport News, and Baltimore. These 
Southern waterways that had given birth to American commerce 
received a blow whose results, later augmented by the War Between 
the States, were to endure for one hundred years. By 1821 New 
York was doing 29 per cent of the total of the commerce of the 
United States, while Maryland was doing but 6.2 per cent and Vir- 
ginia but 3 per cent of the total. Virginia's total was $4,157,699 and 
Maryland's $7,921,236, or both together $12,078,935. Their com- 
merce was 2y2 to 3 times as great as it had been fifty years before, 

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but they had lost heavily in their share of the total trade. Pennsyl- 
vania, too, fell off slightly in her percentage which was 12.2 as against 
13 per cent in 1767. But Massachusetts had climbed to 21.4 per 
cent of the total commerce of the country. 

Hampton Roads, through which Virginian commerce passes, 
continued to slide downward until the opening of War Between the 
States. In 1851 Virginia was doing but 0.8 per cent of the trade 
of the United States, New York was doing 52.0 per cent, and in the 
next ten years rose to 67.7 per cent, while Virginia descended 0.7 
per cent; Pennsylvania in 1851 was handling 4.5 per cent of the 
trade, in 1861, 3.8 per cent. Maryland in 1851 had fallen to 2.8 per 
cent, but in 1861 rose to 3.8 per cent; Massachusetts in 1851 was 
doing 10.3 of the trade and in 1861, 10.5 per cent. 

Then came the war, the devastation of the South which de- 
stroyed her immediate potentialities for commerce, and rigorous 
blockade of her ports while Northern ports were so open that even 
the outcome of the battle of the Monitor and Merrimac was regarded 
as a protection to Washington. McClellan's advance, the evacua- 
tion of Norfolk, the burning of the Merrimac and the control of 
the sea by the North at Hampton Roads and Fort Monroe, almost 
wiped out Virginia's commerce. In 1871 it had reached but 0.2 
per cent of the total of United States trade, Maryland's commerce 
was then 3.5 of this total, while Pennsylvania had 3.1 per cent. New 
York 60.5 per cent, and Massachusetts 6.0 per cent. 

The total of imports and exports for the Ignited States was 
$1,132,472,258 as compared with a grand total of $127,560,106 fifty 
years before. Virginia's commerce was only one-half that of fifty 
years before. The imports of the whole state amounted to $188,237 
for the year 1871. The exports were $2,046,310. The commerce 
of all other states had increased in the fifty years. 

Naturally this was the bottom point of Virginia's trade. There 
was a marked increase in its share of the total during the next twenty 
years, but for various reasons the trade through this gateway fell 
off again during the earlier years of the present century. In 191 I 
the commerce of Virginia was 0.6 per cent of the total United States 
trade, while Maryland had 3.2 per cent, Pennsylvania 4.3 per cent, 
New York 46 per cent and Massachusetts 5.2 per cent. 

When the United States entered the World War in 1917 Hamp- 
ton Roads again became more important in our trade. The govern- 
ment established there great Navy and Army bases. More than 50 
per cent of the recruits who were trained for service with the Navy 
during the war were trained at the Norfolk Naval Base. Partly by 

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reason ot the impetus thus j^ained and partly by reason ot purely 
economic causes, Hampton Roads is now a far more important 
factor in our trade than before the \\^)rld War. The total value 
of foreign trade passing through Virginia at present is many times 
as great as in 1911, and the trade of the I'nited States as a whole 
has multiplied. The share of Virginia in the total trade of the 
L'nited States in 1929 was 2.1 per cent as compared with only 0.6 
per cent in 1911. 'I'he year 1936, as it will be noted later in this 
chapter, shows greater gains. 

During recent decades, with the settlement of the Middle West 
and the Far West, the Gulf Ports and the Pacific Ports have natu- 
rally increased immensely their trade with the outside world. Al- 
though the trade of the Atlantic Coast has greatly expanded, its 
share of the total trade of the country had decreased. It is signifi- 
cant, therefore, to compare the share of Virginia in the trade of the 
North Atlantic Coast independently of the trade of other parts of 
the country. If we combine the figures for Virginia, Maryland, 
Pennsylvania, New York and Massachusetts we have a total repre- 
senting approximately the North and Middle Atlantic Region. The 
combined trade of these five areas in 1861 was 87 per cent of that 
of the country as a whole. In 1871 the proportion as 74 per cent; 
in 1901, 68 per cent; in 1911, 60 per cent; and in 1929, 54 per cent. 

Virginia's share of the combined total for these five areas has 
varied as follows: 1821, 4.5 per cent; 1861, 0.9 per cent; 1871, 0.3 
percent; 1901, 3.1 percent; 191 1, 0.9 percent, and 1929, 3.9 per cent. 

Present-day Norfolk stands in the forefront of Southern 
progress. It may be confidently stated that the results thus far ob- 
tained are but an indication of what the future holds. 

'I'he I'ort of Hampton Roads — Norfolk, Portsmouth and New- 
port News — is gaining consistently in commercial activity and in- 
vestment and has shown a definite upward trend throughout the 
year 1936 and now holds third place in shipping importance on the 
Atlantic Coast, according to H. M. Thompson, Secretary and Man- 
ager, Hampton Roads Maritime Exchange. 

The analysis of the port's activity made by Mr. Thompson for 
1936 shows substantial gains in foreign commerce, exports, imports, 
inter-coastal trade, permanent improvements, and coal and tobacco 
movements. 

"In the matter of water-borne commerce, Hampton Roads is 
exceeded only by the ports of New York and Philadelphia, among 
the Atlantic Coast ports," Mr. Thompson reports, "with a gross 
annual tonnage exceeding 20,000,000 tons. Of this amount, the 

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foreign trade accounts for about 10 per cent, and the coastwise trade 
80 per cent, with the inter-coastal, non-contiguous and internal re- 
ceipts and shipments accounting for the remaining 10 per cent. 

''The foreign trade of Hampton Roads, along with that of the 
entire United States, for the first six months of 1936, showed a sub- 
stantial gain, i. e., $53,000,000 as against $38,000,000 for the same 
period in the preceding year, an increase of approximately 40 per 
cent. 

"The value of exports through the Virginia Customs District 
in 1935 was in excess of $122,000,000, representing a gain of three 
per cent over the $119,000,000 for 1934, and 60 per cent over the 
$76,000,000 value in 1933. The I'nited Kingdom continues to ab- 
sorb the bulk of our exports, accounting for approximately 66-2/3 
per cent of our foreign commerce." 

Mr. Thompson predicts that imports will show a gain har- 
monious with that in exports. Amounting to more than $29,000,000 
in 1935, imports this year are approximating the figure of 1929 and 
are 17 per cent greater than the $24,000,000 value in 1934, the 
analysis shows, indicating that they will show an even greater gain 
this year. 

"The annual movement of coal through Hampton Roads con- 
tinues at a high level. It is expected that dumpings in 1936 will 
exceed 17,000,000 tons, a gain of nearly 1,000,000 tons over 1935, 
and as much as 66-2/3 per cent of all the coal handled through ports 
on the Atlantic Coast for 1936." 




High Street, Portsmouth — looking eastward from Court Street, about 1S79. 

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THE ATLANTIC COAST LINE RAILROAD 

The Atlantic Coast Line is one of the greatest ot the large rail- 
road systems in the South. It is the result of the consolidation 
and unification of more than 100 railroads, most of which were built 
as local enterprises and most generally located to connect "fall 
line" towns, which had grown up at the head ot navigation of rivers 
extending inland from the Atlantic Coast. 

The first ot its present constituent lines was the Petersburg 
Railroad, chartered February 10, 1830, running from Petersburg, 
Va., to a point on the Roanoke River near Weldon, N. C. Historical 
interest ot the beginning of the present Atlantic Coast Line centers 
in the Petersburg Railroad, The Richmond and Petersburg and the 
Wilmington and Weldon. 

In 1869 a group of tar-sighted Baltimore capitalists purchased 
the Civil War damaged Wilmington & Weldon, and spent vast 
sums in restoring its earning capacity. Later controlling interests 
were secured in connecting roads to the North and South. This 
resulted in making physical rail connections and a unified policy of 
management. 

About this time the name Atlantic Coast Line appears, as a 
public designation ot a through North-South route. Before this 
time it was known as the "Weldon Route." 

Sidney Lanier, the great Georgia Poet, wrote a Guide to Florida 
in 1874, in which the toUowing appears: "The great organization 
known as 'The Atlantic Coast Line,' which in cooperation with the 
Bay Line steamers trom Baltimore to Nortolk and the railway line 
from Portsmouth to Weldon, also with the all-rail route north of 
Weldon, transports the crowds ot Florida travelers every winter 
via Wilmington, North Carolina." 

By 1886 this route was physically connected between New 
York and Florida and had standard gauge, permitting through 
trains to operate. 

The Atlantic Coast Line management thereupon realizing it 
served a territory which was fitted by soil and climate to grow 
perishable late fall and early spring truck crops, perfected a fast 
through freight service, with specially built ventilated freight cars, 
to enable farmers to market their produce in the large eastern cities. 
Thus the "ATLANTIC COAST DESPATCH" was born. This 
design is still a distinctive teature painted on the sides of every 
Atlantic Coast Line freight car. 

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In the earlier years freight and passengers service to and from 
New York was via Norfolk and thence the Seaboard and Roanoke 
Railroad (one ot the present Seaboard Air Line's early constituent 
lines) to Weldon. However, a branch line was built by the Wil- 
mington & Weldon Railroad from Rocky Mount to Tarboro in 1860. 
This, with the Norfolk and Carolina (formerly the Chowan and 
Southern) between Pinners Point, Va., and Tarboro, N. C, gave the 
Wilmington & Weldon entrance to Norfolk over its own system rails. 

With the growth of the South, and the industrial development 
in western South Carolina and Georgia, the Wilmington & Weldon 
began in 1885 the construction of the Fayetteville Cut-Off from 
Contentnea, N. C, to Pee Dee, S. C, connecting at the latter point 
with the W. C. & A. R. R., and greatly quickening the running 
time between the North and the South and Norfolk and piedmont 
South Carolina, Georgia and the southwest. 

In 1898 the Atlantic Coast Line of \'irginia and the Atlantic 
Coast Line of South Carolina were incorporated. The latter ex- 
isted only two years, but during this period it obtained with the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad a joint lease of the Georgia Rail- 
road, over which today the Atlantic Coast Line offers Norfolk a 
great unified trunk line to Atlanta and beyond. 

On April 21, 1900, the Atlantic Coast Line of South Carolina 
was purchased and merged into the Atlantic Coast Line R. R. Co. 
of Virginia, and the name of the latter changed to the Atlantic 
Coast Line Railroad. This consolidation extended the lines from 
Richmond and Norfolk, \'a., to Charleston, S. C, Augusta and 
(over leased Georgia Railroad) Atlanta, (ni., with numerous branch 
lines covering the territory'. 

Shortly after the Civil War the late Mr. H. B. Plant became in- 

■ terested in a similar process of building and consolidating various 

railroads stretching south and west from Charleston and Savannah 

to South Florida and Montgc^ner) , Ala. He began this work in 

1879, and it was completed before 1900. 

In 1902 the Plant System was acquired by the Atlantic Coast 
Line Railroad Compan\-, giving the Atlantic Coast Line system 
substantially its present form. 

While there have been no individual large purchases since 1902, 
new lines constructed and purchased has brought the total mileage 
from 4,138 in 1902 to 5,105 at present, and a controlling interest in 
the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. 

Since the war the Atlantic Coast Line has double tracked its 
main line from Richmond, Va., to Jacksonville, Fla., and equipped 

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it with automatic block safety signals, automatic train control 
(from Richmond, Va., to Florence, S. C), and very heavy rail. 

The Atlantic Coast Line operates exceptionally fast through 
freight trains every day in the year between Norfolk and Atlanta, 
Ga., serving all principal manufacturing centers in the Carolinas, 
Georgia and Alabama. It connects the port of Norfolk with every 
other port in the Southeast, including Havana, Cuba, in connection 
with the P. & O. S. S. Co. (owned jointly by the A. C. L. R. R.- 
F. E. C. Ry.) from Port Tampa, Miami or Port Everglades, Fla. 

The Atlantic Coast line, through financial interest or operating 
interchange, encourages traffic between the North and South to 
move via Norfolk in connection with steamer and railroad service 
north thereof. 

The Atlantic Coast Line, under the leadership of its president, 
George F. Elliott, appreciates Norfolk's position as its largest sea- 
port, and predicates its service thereto on this fact. 





Atlantic Coast Line and Southern Railway Terminals at Pinners Point, Portsmouth 



Norfolk has been endowed with one of the finest natural harbors 
in the world. It is blessed with an equable climate that allows 
maximum movement of ships at all seasons. The navies of the 
world could simultaneously swing wide in Norfolk's anchorage 
grounds. The world's largest ships can navigate easily its deep, 
fog-free channels. Yet all these tremendous advantages would be 
cancelled were it not for the fact that Norfolk's natural advantages 
are equalled by its magnificent railway facilities. 

At Norfolk the exchange of freight from hold to wheel and from 
car to deck is accomplished with utmost dispatch. Eight great 
trunk line railways serve the port. These railways are inter-con- 
nected by a Belt Line Railroad which in turn connects with manu- 
facturing plants and ship terminals. 

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C H E S AP E /k E«vO H I O 



4yrte± 



Urtainal f^reaeceiuor- Qonuumu ^Mnt/uuu 



iru Cjeorae UAi^mftaton in I/O J 



I 



Among all the agencies of civilization which have worked for 
the advancement ot mankind, Transportation stands foremost. 
From that prehistoric day when some cave dweller fashioned a rude 
wheel, transportation has been the most important factor in civiliza- 
tion's advance through all the ages. 

Modern transportation has been developed in America. Its 
foundation was laid by a great American, and this same great 
American took the first step toward building one of the world's 
greatest railroads halt a century before the steam locomotive had 
been conceived in the mind ot man. And, in doing so, he securely 
fixed a new nation in its place in the world. 

In urging a plan tor a transportation system to connect Tide- 
water Virginia with the Ohio River, George Washington, writing 
to Governor Harrison ot Virginia, declared: "It is necessary to 
apply the cement ot interest to bind all parts of the Union together 
with indissoluble bonds. The western settlers have no means ot 
coming to us except by long land transportations anci unimproved 
roads. But smooth the road and make easy the way for them and see 
how amazingly our exports will be increased and how amply we shall 
be compensated for the trouble and expense of effecting it." 

Little did Washington himselt, wise man that he was, realize 
the full extent of his prophecy. 
For, as a result, in 1785 the James 
River Company was tormed to 
begin building a transportation 
route to the West. George Wash- 
ington was its first president and 
one ot its original stockholders. 
It began by clearing the James 
River tor navigation, building 
canals around watertalls to con- 
nect with other streams ami roads .^^:^A'^^' 

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over the mountain tops. One of these roads, surveyed and opened 
under Washington's direction by General Andrew Lewis, is now 
the great highway known as the Midland Trail. 

The Midland Trail and the James River Company project 
became George Washington's route between East and West, which 
today is the line ot The Chesapeake and Ohio System. Work on 
the canal projects necessarily was slow. Meanwhile, the advance 
ot science and invention was rapid. Soon after the dawn of the 
nineteenth century, the first rude steam locomotive made its appear- 
ance; men began laying rough iron rails on the ground to smooth 
and speed its passage. It was the coming ot the railroad. Canal 
transportation faded into the background. 

As early as 1836, the first rails, pointing westward toward the 
Blue Ridge Mountains, were laid on what was to become the road- 
bed ot The Chesapeake and Ohio Lines. Subsequently, other small 
railroad companies built short lines paralleling the Midland Trail. 
Then a railroad was built along George Washington's canal to con- 
nect with them. All eventually were taken in to compose the 
Great Chesapeake and Ohio System ot today, operating over the 
routes which George Washington himself selected. 

The Chesapeake and Ohio System has from its earliest days been 
privileged to play a most important part in the development of 
Nortolk, the Capital ot Tidewater Virginia. The ships ot the seven 
seas carry from the Norfolk harbor more tobacco than from any 
other American city and tew ports ship more coal and cotton. Today 
The Chesapeake and Ohio hauls much ot the freight which comes 
down to the sea and carries away a major part of the cargoes from 
abroad. Thus has George Washington's prophecy been tulfiUed by 
the railroad he envisioned — "Snioolh (he road and make easy the 
way and see how amazingly our exports will be increased and how 
amply we shall be compensated for the trouble and expense of effect- 
ing it.'' 

It is eminently fitting that on George Washington's Railroad 
should be found what is said to be the finest transportation in the 
world. And history dictates that the leader ot the world's finest 
fleet ot air conditioned passenger trains should bear the name ot the 
tounder ot the original predecessor company. The George Washing- 
ton was the first genuinely air conditioned long distance train in the 
world. Today, it and its companion trains connect the East and 
West with through service radiating trom Nortolk, the eastern 
gateway to the heart of Historyland. 

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THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN RAILROAD 



■4 



The historical background ot the Norfolk Southern Railroad, 
as to its public necessity and its economic existence, is no different 
from that surrounding the bigger systems of the country; for ex- 
ample, the Norfolk Southern Railroad is made up of a varying 
number ot different properties that were at one time independently 
operated as separate entities. In the beginning, these railroads 
were built tor no other purpose than to serve the public interests, 
or stated more accurately, to enable the products ot the forest, field 
and prolific streams and sounds, to be shipped to the primary con- 
suming markets ot the country. 

This condition is best illustrated by taking a survey of the 
separate roads as part ot the Nortolk Southern Railroad system, 
i. e., the Albemarle and Pantego Railroad was built in 1892, ex- 
tending trom a point now known as Mackeys, N. C, and tormerly 
known as Mackeys Ferry, on the south bank ot the Albemarle Sound, 
to the town of Belhaven, N. C, tor the purpose ot providing trans- 
portation to enable the \ast tracts ot timber in the localities of the 
Albemarle and Pantego Railroad to reach the sawmills and the 
products thereot sent on to the markets ot the country. Eventually 
orher carriers were annexed until now (1936) Charlotte, N. C, is 
the western terminus and the road has 834.97 miles ot track and 
employs 1,957 people. 

In 1910 the company constructed what then was and today still 
is claimed as the largest railroad trestle bridge in the United States. 
This is the bridge across Albemarle Sound and connecting Edenton 
with Mackeys. 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad was acquired by 
the Norfolk Southern Railroad in 1904, having been originally con- 
structed by the State ot North Carolina as a part and parcel ot its 
project to form a line between the west, on the one hand, and Caro- 
lina coast, on the other. The line trom Norfolk, \'a., to Elizabeth 
City, N. C, originally known as the Norfolk and Elizabeth City 
Railroad, was built in 1882, and opened tor traffic in 1884. A tew 
years later the Norfolk and Elizabeth City Railroad was extended 
trom the latter point to Edenton, North Carolina. 

As the timber was cut trom the forest the lands were generally 
cleared and the development ot the territories tor tarming purposes 
went forward. This evolution ot de\'elopment meant that, first, 

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in the cutting of the timber or the operation ot mills labor was 
necessary, and, as the result of which, small towns or villages sprang 
up. The labor employed in the forest necessarily had to secure the 
necessities of life, i. e., food, clothing and other essentials, and this 
meant, in turn, that transportation had to be provided, without 
which it would not have been conveniently practical to meet the 
demands and requirements of the people. 

The same kind of necessity arose tor transportation when the 
agricultural pursuits followed the clearing ot the timber lands. In 
the case of the development of products of the mines, svich as stone, 
transportation by rail was essential to enable the products of the 
mines to reach the consuming markets. The reasons for trans- 
portation are thus apparent. 

The Norfolk Southern Railroad considers itself a part of the 
civic structure in each town and village it serves, and consequently, 
as an integral part of that community it has a profound interest in 
the fostering and development of that community. The Norfolk 
Southern Railroad seeks to serve its communities to the best of its 
ability, and the extent to which it may do so depends entirely upon 
the public giving the railroad its lull cooperation. In other words, 
again the "community of interest" injects itself in the picture and 
emphasizes that the railroads must rise and fall according to the 
measure of public good will and support. 

Raw materials tor industries are tound along the line ot the 
Norfolk Southern Railroad, especially for the textile and lumber 
mills. One of the largest lumber mills of the southwest is located 
at New Bern, N. C. There is an unlimited supply of pulpwood of 
the various types — pine, gum, ash, hickory, cypress and oak. In 
fact, there is a sufficient supply of pulpwood to last one hundred 
years. 

A supply ot these woods is also used for furniture manufacturing 
and by plants engaged in wood-working production. The whole 
territory of the Norfolk Southern Railroad from Norfolk, Va., to 
Charlotte, Beautort, Goldsboro, Fayetteville, N. C, is rich in agri- 
cultural and industrial possibilities, and offers the greatest oppor- 
tunities to the people embarking in such enterprises. There is an 
abundant supply ot electric power; an excellent character of native 
labor, both white and colored; the public health conditions along 
the line ot the railroad are generally first class, and there are many 
other material assets. 

The Norfolk Southern Railroad derives a very substantial part 
of its revenue from products of agriculture. Special trains for 

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potatoes and peaches are run and other crops are also handled ex- 
peditiously. 

The Norfolk Southern Railroad has been making a very careful 
study ot the practicability ot using some new torm of passenger 
equipment, so as to provide quicker and better service than now 
afforded by the steam train, the passenger tares having already 
been drastically cut over a year ago. Extensive progress is being 
made in this study and it is hoped that something ot a very tangible 
nature may be evolved theretrom, and by this it is meant reasonably 
comfortable facilities and quicker schedules; likewise, the question 
of improving its freight train service is being carefully studied, with 
the hope ot bringing about an improvement. In brief, it may be 
stated that under the policy ot the receivers, the railroad is making 
a survey ot any and every medium that may be available to bring 
about the best possible passenger and freight service to the com- 
munities and to aid in any other way as tar as it can in the develop- 
ment of such communities. 

It is believed that the historical background ot the properties 
making up the Norfolk Southern Railroad is ot interest to the com- 
munities in which the railroad operates. The present receivers are 
Morris S. Hawkins and Louis H. Windholz. Mr. Hawkins first 
came with the railroad as secretary on May 4, 191U. On February 
1, 1912, Mr. Hawkins became secretary and assistant to the presi- 
dent. 

On December 28, 1917, the propert)- was taken under Federal 
control and Joseph H. Young became Federal manager and Mr. 
Hawkins assistant Federal manager. 

On January 15, 1919, Mr. Ycning retired as Federal manager, 
having been called to Washington, D. C, to serve as senior assistant 
director, Division of Operations, U. S. Railroad Administration, 
and Mr. Hawkins then became Federal manager. 

On February 28, 1920, the property was released from Federal 
control, and on March 1st of that year Mr. Young returned as 
president. On May 27, 1920, the Durham c^ South Carolina rail- 
road was leased and merged with the Norfolk Southern. 

When Mr. Young left the railroad in 1921, to accept another 
position, he was succeeded by George R. Loyall, who served as 
president vintil October 16, 1933. 

Mr. Windholz has been, for a long period of time. Chairman ot 
the Board of Directors of the Baltimore Steam Packet Company, 
an important steamer line operating between Norfolk and Baltimore, 
Md. He has been a co-receiver since the beginning ot the receiver- 

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^ ship of the Norfolk Southern Railroad, namely, July 28, 1932. 

6 He is a man of most pleasing personality, and a human dynamo 

of energy. He has had a broad experience in financial, commercial 
and transportation matters. Incidentally, he also is President of 
the CavaHer Hotel Corporation. 

The receivers are rich in experience to deal effectively with the 
contingencies facing the Norfolk Southern Railroad, and with their 
vision to look ahead and the courage to press on, the rehabilitation 
ot the Norfolk Southern Railroad properties is a sure destiny. 

Most of the mileage of the Norfolk Southern Railroad is in the 
State of North Carolina and the railroad, while deeply interested 
in every locality in Virginia and North Carolina served by it, recog- 
nizes that it is largely through the people living in such communi- 
ties, in Virginia or North Carolina, that must in the end become the 
chief dispensers of good will and support of the railroad to meet 
successfully the public demands. 
A.:^ The present officers of the Norfolk Southern Railroad are: 

Morris S. Hawkins, Louis H. Windholz, Receivers; Charles P. 
Dugan, Transportation Assistant to Receivers; Colonel Wm. B. 
Rodman, General Counsel for Receivers; Claude M. Bain, Assistant 
General Counsel; J. C. Nehns, Jr., Chief Accounting Officer; Frank 
George, Treasurer; J. F. Dalton, Chief Traffic Officer; G. S. Ware, 
General Freight Agent; F. L. Nicholson, Chief Engineer; L. A. 
Beck, Chief Mechanical and Purchasing Officer; L. P. Kennedy, 
General Superintendent, Steam Lines; and L. B. Wickersham, 
General Superintendent, Electric Lines. 

From the foregoing it can be readily seen that the Norfolk 
Southern Railroad has been and is a large factor in the development 
of Norfolk and contiguous territory. 

The greatest stretch of beach at ^"irginia Seashore lies a few 
miles almost due east of Norfolk and extends from Willoughby, 
through Ocean \'iew, Lynnhaven and Ocean Park on Chesapeake 
Bay to Cape Henry and Virginia Beach on the Atlantic Ocean. 
This 25 miles of alluring white sand beach is full of fascinating places 
for glorious days of care-free rest and recreation and offers invigor- 
ating sports from dawn to dark. The Norfolk Southern Railroad 
renders excellent service to this area, through its rail facilities and 
also through its subsidiary, The Norfolk Southern Bus Corpora- 
tion. 






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NORFOLK AND \V ESTER N RAILWAY COMPANY 



On September 1, 1858, the first successkil railroad to enter the 
city was completed from Petersburg to this point. It was the 
Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad, one of the first and most important 
units ot the Norfolk and Western Railway, and the first to bring 
traffic to the Port. 

Another event of tremendous importance in the growth of the 
city and port occurred 25 years later. On March 17, 1883, the first 
carload of coal hauled over the N. & W. and the first to enter Norfolk 
arrived here amid great celebration. This was the beginning of the 
coal traffic into Norfolk, which is today the world's greatest coal 
port. 

In 1884 the Norfolk and Western built its first coal pier at 
Lambert Point, and in 1892, constructed two warehouses at W'ater 
Street, the railway's first Tidewater merchandise terminal. 

From the little railroad of 78 years ago has grown one of the 
major trunk lines of the country, employing thousancls of persons 
and operating approximately 5,000 miles of track in six States. The 
first crude piers have grown into railway Tidewater facilities un- 
excelled on the Atlantic Coast. 





(JKi i.;ir lujusc!. of Norfolk iiiui Western Riiilway Compiuiy in 188!S. Union Station, RufFner 
Junior High School and Jackson Park now located on site. Bridge was old Holt Street Bridge; 
trestle was that ot railway to Virginia Beach. 

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That the Norfolk and Western has confidence in the continued 
growth and development of Norfolk, is demonstrated by the fact 
that since 1925 alone, the railroad has spent approximately $10,- 
000,000 for additions and betterments to its Tidewater facilties, 
including the construction ot a new $1,600,000 low-level lake type 
coal pier, recently put into operation; extension of merchandise 
piers, the construction of pier warehouses, and the purchase of the 
Norfolk municipal piers and grain elevator. 

The Norfolk and Western's Tidewater coal terminals at Lambert 
Point include three giant electrically-operated steel piers with a 
coal handling capacity ot 100,000 tons per 24-hour day. The new 
low-level lake type pier, described as the "most modern and eflicient 
in existence," and designed especially to eliminate the breakage of 
coal in transfer from car to ship, is capable of handling forty 120- 
ton cars or fifty 70-ton cars an hour, is 1,000 feet long, and can 
accommociate the largest ships taking coal on the Atlantic Coast. 
A unic]ue feature of the pier, and the only one of its kind on the 
Atlantic Seaboard, is an electrically-operatetl bunkering barge, which 
cielivers fuel coal to the vessel while it takes on cargo coal without 
either operation interfering with the other, thus saving ships approxi- 




OKl P.nssenger and P'reight Station of Norfolk and Western, at East Main Street, in ISHO. 

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mately one-tourth ot the usual coaling time These modern piers 
are served by yards which have a storage capacit)' ot more than 
5,000 cars. 

The principal merchandise terminals of the Norfolk and Western 
for export, import, intercoastal and coastwise traffic, located at 
Lambert Point and Sewall Point, include five steel and concrete 
piers, which can accommodate 23 vessels and three grain carriers 
loading or discharging at the same time. The piers have a total 
covered floor space of 1,310,648 square feet, track space for 430 
railroad cars, and adjoining yards with a capacity of more than 
2,100 cars. All merchandise is handled under continuous shelter 
with up-to-date freight handling devices, such as a fleet of gas and 
electric tractors, portable cranes, escalators, piling machinery and 
trucks. 

While the Norfolk and Western has built great port terminals 
and developed an unexcelled freight service, it has forged steadily 
ahead in a consistent program of improving its passenger service 
and equipment. Within the past 18 months the railroad has ex- 
pended more than $1,500,000 for the complete air-conditioning of 




Eastern Branch ot Elizabeth River in l,H8:t, showing Norfolk's first coal pier. The tirst car 
of coal was received and dumped at this pier on March 17, 18K,'?. 

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t^ 



1 ' 




H 






■1 


5^*B»ifcL— 


j 


w ,^r" "^5^ 




u, 








. * —-. • 


V*^ ■' 



NORFOLK AND WKSTERN GRAIN ELEVATOR 

The elevator, which was purchased several years ago from the City of Norfolk by the railroad 
to handle its rapidly increasing rail and water traffic into the Port of Norfolk, has a storage capacity 
of 750,000 bushels of grain. A car can be unloaded in twenty minutes, while 135,000 bushels can 
be delivered from bins to vessels in seventy minutes. Three ships can be loaded simultaneously. 
.All grain handling equipment is of the latest design, and the facility is built of concrete throughout. 



its crack passenger trains, "The Pocahontas" and "The Cavalier" 
which serve Norfolk, and for air-conditioned cars tor most branch 
lines. In addition, the railroad has speeded up schedules, increased 
safety and provided the newest comforts antl conveniences in rail 
travel. 

As a citizen and industry, the Norfolk and Western makes 
substantial contributions to the progress of the Norfolk area ami 
the Port of Norfolk. For example, during the past year the N. & W. 
paid taxes of $153,138.24 to Norfolk and Norfolk County. Inci- 
dentally, the N. & \V. is Norfolk's largest taxpayer. The railroad 
pays to its Norfolk employees more than $1,500,000 in wages and 
salaries. And it is one of Norfolk's largest customers, spending 
thousands of dollars each year with local merchants and manu- 
facturers. 

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The Norfolk and Western is one ot the biggest advertisers in the 
Norfolk community. F.ach year it distrilmtes throughout the 
United States and foreign countries thousands of pieces of adver- 
tising and publicity literature which tell the story of Norfolk's 
great port and industries, her magnificent all-year-round beach 
resorts, climatic advantages, historic shrines, and the many other 
attractions which this community others. 

Regarded as one of the most progressive and ef^ciently operated 
railroads in the country, the N. &: W. has expended more than 
$66,000,000 since 1930 for additions and betterments to its trans- 
portation plant, and for refinements in its services. One of the few 
railroads ot the nation which has increased its mileage by con- 
struction within recent years, the N. & W. since 1928 has built 
three new branch lines into virgin mountain territory ot Virginia 
and West \'irginia to tap some ot the richest coal deposits in the 
two States. Construction ot these branches was made at an outlay 
of approximately $16,000,000. One of the most important ot the 
new lines is the Bvichanan Branch Extension, a 42-mile road recently 
completed and placed into operation in Buchanan County, Va. 





Unloading a cargo of Cuban Bananas at Norfolk and Western Water Street Terminal. 

I 138 I 



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MERCHANDISE TERMINALS 

The giant merchandise terminals of the Norfolk and Western Railway at I.amhert Point 
(Norfolk), Va. These are the chief terminals for handling the railroad's export, import, inter- 
coastal and coastwise tidewater traffic. The piers have a total covered floor space of !,()S(),nO0 
square feet. In addition, there are ten acres of ground storage space for bulky commodities. 
Pier tracks will accommodate ^.'iO cars, and adjoining vards provide a capacity of ■>,1(I0 cars. Six- 
teen ocean-going vessels can berth at the terminals simultaneously. .All merchandise is handled 
under continuous shelter with up-to-date freight handling devices, including a fleet of gas and 
electric tractors, portable cranes, escalators, piling machinery and trucks. 



Other improvements made by the raih'oail inchide expansion oi 
terminals, the laying of thousands ot tons ot new 131-pound steel 
rail, and the building of thousands ot locomoti\'es, cars and other 
units ot equipment. 

One of the first railroads in the covmtry to electnty, the N. & \V. 
greatly increased its operating efficiency by electrifying 210 miles 
of track over the .^Mleghan)' Mountains in West ^'irginia. This 
project was made at a cost of $8,940,000. An automatic signal 
system safeguards and expedites train movements. The N. & W. 
was one ot the first railroads to completely discard wooden passenger 
coaches and now operates all-steel equipment, not only on the 
main line, but tm all branch lines. Its safety record has always been 
high and in 1926 the railway was awarded the K. H. Harriman 
Memorial (lold Medal tor making the greatest progress in safety 
and accident prevention than any railroad in the United States. 

The Norfolk and Western had its beginning in \'irginia nearly 
one hundred years ago (1837) with the construction of a line about 
ten miles long between Petersburg and City Point. It was called 
the City Point Railroad. The South Side Railroad (which pur- 
chased the City Point), 123 miles long, and running between Peters- 
burg and Lynchburg, was constructed between 1849 and 1854. The 
Virginia & Tennessee Railroad, extending from Lynchburg to 

1 139 1 



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NEW NORFOLK AND WESTERN LOW LEVEL LAKE TYPE CO.-\L PIER 

This new Norfolk and Western Railway low level lake type coal pier was placed in operation 
during 193(i, and was built at a cost of $1,(500,000. Described as "the most efficient coal pier in 
existence," the steel robot is so efficient, swift and flexible that it can transfer 4,000,000 pounds 
of coal an hour from car to ship so gently that breakage is practically eliminated. A unique feature 
of the new facility is an electrically-operated bunkering barge (seen at left) which delivers fuel to 
the vessel while it takes on cargo coal, thus saving ships approximately one-fourth of the usual 
coaling time. The pier is 1,000 feet long and can accommodate the largest ships taking coal on 
the Atlantic Coast. 



\ :m 



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•I 



Bristol, Va.-Tenn., 204 miles, was constructed between 1849 and 
1856. The Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad, eighty miles long, and 
connecting these two points, was built between 1852 and 1858. 
These three lines operated separately until 1870, when the 479 miles 
of main line and branches were consolidated as the Atlantic, Mis- 
sissippi & Ohio Railroad Company. 

On February 10, 1881, the A. M. 6: O. was re-organized as the 
Norfolk and Western Railroad Company. Tn September, 1896, the 
company was again re-organized, this time as the Norfolk and Western 
Railway Company. By construction and acquisition, the lines 
were later extended to Columbus and Cincinnati, Ohio, western 
terminals. Todav, the main line of the railroad runs from Norfolk 

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'•")' 




Air View of section of downtown Norfolk of 19;!G — World Port; Thriving Metropolis; In- 
dustrial Center; Capital of one of America's great Resort Areas; Headquarters for visitors to 
Historic Shrines in Tidewater Virginia. 



/^ 



%MJ^ 



and Lambert Point, the eastern terminus, through rich agricultural, 
livestock and mineral sections of Virginia, through the great bitu- 
minous coal fields of West \'irginia (with a branch into southeastern 
Kentucky), and extends beyond into Columbus and Cincinnati. 
Other lines operate from Roanoke to Hagerstown, Md., through 
the beautiful Shenancioah Valley; from Roanoke to Winston- 
Salem, N. C, and from Roanoke to Durham, N. C; from East 
Radford to Bristol, Va., and trom Bluefield, W. Va., through the 
Clinch Valley to Norton, Va. 

With the expenditure of large sums for modern and adequately 
equipped Tidewater facilities and terminals, the Norfolk and Western 
has long followed a policy ot expanding its facilities, apace with, 
and in advance of, trafiic demands. The railroad, therefore, is 
ready to handle efficiently and economically any business of the 
future. 



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THE OLD "NYP 'N N" 



To A. J. Cassatt, a president ot the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
one of that galaxy ot railroad builders and administrators of a past 
generation, goes the credit for realizing the untapped sources of 
freight in the Eastern Shore and Norfolk area. He built the New 
York, Philadelphia and Norfolk Railroad, and, as railroad men 
have a flair tor alphabetizing, it was promptly christened the 
"NYP 'n N". 

\V. A. Patton, as the new road's president, carried forward the 
plans ot his superior with the accuracy and directness peculiar to 
those trained from the ties up to the swivel chair. With able super- 
intendents and good personnel, the Pennsylvania's \'irginia off- 
spring quickly developed into a sturdy youngster, able to stand on 
its own teet and before two decades had rolled by became one of 
the most profitable stretches of road in the entire system. It made 
railroad history and silenced the criticism ot the ultra conservatives 
in the railroad world. 

The year 1936 marks the One Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Delaware Division, which may be considered a progenitor ot the old 
New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk Division, now the Delmarva 
Division. In acquiring this last title the division signified its wil- 
lingness to cooperate with others tor the common good. The name 
was applied collectively to the three counties in Delaware, nine 
counties on the Eastern Shore ot Maryland and the two Virginia 
counties when they organized in a cooperative movement in 1926, 
under the aegis ot the "Delmarva Eastern Shore Association." 

What difficulties confronted the railroad builders ot the past 
century, are seldom remembered In' those the roads were built to 
serve. Details of construction and impediments in financing are 
problems of engineering skill antl banking to which there is always 
an answer. NVhat the public will think and how it will act, was and 
still is, a question that the railroads signity by the algebraic symbol 
"X." A few incidents from the history ot the Delaware Division 
are worth repeating, it only to furnish amusement to a generation 
which considers itself superior. 

By an act of the Legislatiu^e ot Delaware, June 20, 1836, a 
Charter was granted the Delaware Railroad but it was the middle 
ot September, 1855, betore trains were rimning between Middle- 
town and Wilmington. 

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Legislative control over the operation of trains is shown in 
the law, that "any train oi cars should be preceded by a man with 
a bell during the hours ot daylight and by a man with a lantern 
of sufficient size after sundown, as a warning." It is presumed the 
man was mounted on horse-back. 

How many local ordinances were directed at the whistle of the 
locomotives, when passing teams, is a matter ot conjecture What 
unreasonable demands were made by property owners, is a matter 
of court records, but the road was built. 

From a History ot the Delaware Division, contained in a prosaic 
report in the Pennsylvania Railroad files are culled two paragraphs. 

"Probably the most interesting piece of line on the 
Delaware Division is that between New Castle and Rodney 
(Delaware Junction). The story regarding it starts on 
the 24th day ot January, 1809, when the Legislature ot 
Delaware passed an act creating a corporation with the 
title 'The President, Managers and Company of the New 
Castle and Turnpike Company.' Atter the Delaware 
Legislature granted its charter, the railroad between New 
Castle and Frenchtown was commenced, and it was com- 
pleted and opened for use sometime in 1832. This was 
the first railroad in Delaware. 

"The locomotive which participated in the opening ot 
the road was imported from England and landed in Chester, 
Pa., where it was put together. This road is said to have 
been one of the first railroads in the Uniteci States to make 
regular passenger trips with trains drawn by locomotive 
engine power. On it, betore the introduction ot steam 
whistles, danger signals were given by the engineer raising 
the steam valve and allowing the steam to escape with a 
sudden loud hissing noise." 

Prior to building the railroad, the two Counties ot Accomack 
and Northampton, due to their geographic isolation, had meagre 
communication with the outside world. 

The nearest railroad point north to the people of Accomack 
and Northampton Counties, Virginia, prior to building the New 
York, Philadelphia and Nortolk Railroad, was at Pocomoke City, 
Maryland, a tew miles north ot the Virginia State Line. This was 
the southern terminus ot the Worcester and Somerset Railroad, or 
the Newtown Branch. In 1880 the Worcester and Somerset Railroad 
was re-organized and named the Peninsula Railroad Company o': 
Maryland, and was consolidated in 1882 with the Peninsula Rail- 

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road Company ot Virginia to form the New York, Philadelphia 
and Norfolk Railroad, now the Norfolk Division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. By another merger in 1884, the Eastern Shore Rail- 
road, running from Delmar, Del., to Crisfield, Md., was consolidated 
with the New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk Railroad, completing 
the main line between Cape Charles and Delmar, giving the new 
road connection with the Pennsylvania at Delmar and a short side 
line, since known as the Crisfield Branch. 

Construction of the new part of the New York, Philadelphia 
and Norfolk Railnjad tlown the narrow Eastern Shore Peninsula, 
practically midway between the Atlantic Ocean on the East and 
the Chesapeake Bay on the West, was begun in the early spring 
of 1884 at a point south of Costen, Md., the Newtown Branch from 
there to Pocomoke City being abandoned in order to straighten 
the line extending into \'irginia. On October 25, 1884, the line 
was completed to Cape Charles, the southern land terminus, the 
site of the present town then being farm land on the Tazewell 
Estate, reached only by a private road. 

Trains began to operate into Cape Charles a few days later. 

The modern tourist army, like Napoleon's, travels on its stomach. 
That means there must be cement, iron work, building materials 
for service stations. Food supplies for the hostelries and machinery, 
equipment and the countless new needs of the public, and the rail- 
road gets its share of that freight. It has adopted a station-to-store 
delivery on the Shore in keeping with new demands and there is an 
atmosphere of efficiency and alertness that is inspiring to those who 
understand the important part the railroad must continue to play 
in the Shore's vipbuilding. 

Steamers which are the last word in inland water transportation 
and operated by the Pennsylvania and its related company — the 
Virginia Ferry Corporation, which recently launched a $600,000 
ferry transport — now carry as many trucks anci vehicles in a week 
as the entire floating equipment of the railroad carried in a month, 
only ten years ago. 

It used to be, New York to Norfolk. Now it is Montreal to 
Miami, via the Eastern Shore and the Pennsylvania Railroad, or 
the \'irginia Ferry Corporation, and a ride in a palatial steamer 
across historic Chesapeake Bay and Hampton Roads. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad and the \'irginia Ferry Corpo- 
ration offer dependable and convenient ferry service for motorists 
using the Ocean Highway. 

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THE SEABOARD AIR LINE RAILWAY 

Organized in 1832 

When in 1832, that little group headed b)' Dr. W illiam Collins, of 
Portsmouth, secured the charter to construct and operate the Ports- 
mouth and Roanoke Railroad Company, a distance of 79 miles be- 
tween the towns of Portsmouth, Va., and Weldon, N. C, how little 
did they realize they were laying the groundwork for one of America's 
great railroad systems — the Seaboard Air Line Railway — now 
operating close to 4,500 miles of railroad. 

Construction started an the Portsmouth and Roanoke in 1833. 
But all was not as simple as that sentence sounds. Hostility ap- 
peared early, innumerable difficulties were encountered. As in the 
case of Robert Fulton and his steamboat, pioneer railroads were con- 
sidered diabolical contraptions of crack-brain inventors, and just as 
emphatically an experiment as the steamboat. No one could tell 
whether they would succeed. Farmers asserted sparks set fire to their 
hay racks and barns, and the noise frightened their hens and they 
would not lay, and their cows they would not give milk. 

But the pioneer spirit persevered, the little road completed con- 
struction in 1836. 

Engine Imported From England 

A 10-ton engine, the "Raleigh," was imported from England, 
placed in service, and proudh' chugged its way between Portsmouth 
and Weldon under the guidance of an engineer whose "smokestack" 
hat was nearly as tall as the stack of the "Raleigh." 

The Raleigh and Gaston 

A year prior to the completion of the Portsmouth and Roanoke, 
the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Compan}- was chartered in North 
Carolina to construct and 
operate a railroad from 
Raleigh, N. C, to Gaston, 
N. C, now known as Thel- 
nia, N. C. As in the case 
of the Portsmouth and 
Roanoke, difficulties were 
encountered in locating 
and constructing the line. 
The plans called for the 
line to go through W'ar- 
renton, N. C, but when 
the engineers tried to lo- 

[ 145 ] 




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cate the line they received a reception they had not anticipated. Planta- 
tion owners were awaiting them with turkey rifles loaded and aimed. 
"No railroad's coming through here to kill and scare our pickaninnies 
to death." Pickaninnies were worth $450 a piece. Plantation owners 
could not be dissuaded. The railroad changed its course. 

In 1840 the full 85 miles were in operation between Gaston and 
Raleigh. 

The Good Old Days 

An old balance sheet shows that from the time the various sec- 
tions went into operation until November 1, 1840, gross receipts were 
$113,867.53, and the amount of "properly incurred expenses in trans- 
portation" $44,638.60. 

These figures as they stand do not portray the true story at the 
present time. To better understand their relation to today's mone- 
tary values, let us examine a ledger sheet of the old hotel at Gaston. 
These papers, brittle, fragile, and yellowed with age, were recently 
discovered in the Seaboard's Thelma, N. C, station and contain the 
following entries : 

"Gaston, Tuesday, 31st March, 1840. 
Raleigh and Gaston R. R. Co., 
Dr. 

Mail, Engr., Cap., Trainhand each breakfast and dinner, 

6 mis. 75c 

Extra Engr. and Fireman, ea brkfst 25c 

Petersburg R. R. Co., Dr. 
Mail, 1 Engr., 1 Cap., 1 Fireman, 1 Trainhand, each 

dinner, supper, breakfast and 2 lodgings, 14 mls._.. 1.88 

Extra 1 Engr., supper, lodging and breakfast 38c 

Mr. Styles, 3 drinks 19c 

Mr. Myers, 5 drinks, 1 Do, 1 Do, 4 Do at 4>4c_ 49c 

2 pints brand)' and bottles SOc 

Years marched on. The Seaboard's predecessors speedil\- dem- 
onstrated their practical value. The hostilities with which they had 
first been met changed to enthusiasm which was just as unreasonable. 

In 1846 the Portsmouth and Roanoke Company's name was 
changed to the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad Company, and in 1852, 
under power of a revised charter, the Raleigh and Gaston extended 
a line northward from C^aston to Weldon, where it formed a connec- 
tion with the Seaboard and Roanoke and also with "the great line of 
North and South travel." 

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Great trouble in securing labor had been experienced from the 
start. Slaves would be hired and after training the owners would 
demand increased pay, to which the company was "forced to submit or 
learn others." Finally, in 1860, to overcome "the hazardous mode of 
the annual hiring of slave labor" the legislature authorized a sufficient 
increase in capital "to purchase a number of slaves not exceeding 100." 
The "Negro Account" then became an integral part of the balance sheet. 

The Call To Arms 

Bugles blared. Drums rolled. Impro\-ements stopped. The 
Raleigh and Gaston was taxed to the limit transporting the "Boys in 
Grey," and supplies to them, in their \'aliant effort to uphold the prin- 
ciples of the Old South. 

The Confederate government, to reach the coal Helds in Chatham 
county, organized and commenced construction of the Chatham rail- 
road (now a part of the Seaboard). Cities, counties, states and rail- 
roads subscribed heavily to the patriotic project. 

The next report of the Raleigh and Gaston, in 1866, states "the 
railroad is not so badly damaged as some other roads, nevertheless it 
was far from being in good condition at the close of the war." 

And in the same report of the president, "the sudden rise, from 
a prostration so low, indicates the energy and purpose with which 
the Southern people have entered upon their new situation ; and at 
no distant day, such efforts will increase our prosperity beyond the 
calculations of the most sanguine. A new era has commenced and 
the industrial pursuits are already showing signs of life and pros- 
perit\-, and the same is applicable to the railroads. Kconom\- in time, 
labor, and distance will be the great means b.\- which they will become 
useful to the country, and profitable to their owners." 

True to that prediction industry- progressed. The New South 
was born. 

Little Known Industries of Section 

Old Seaboard files show that in 1873 paper mills, which are now 
extinct, and which undoubtedly used rags, thrived at Wake Forest, N. 
C, and at Neuse, N. C, and that in 1874 pig iron was shipped from 
Lockville, N. C, (now Moncure, N. C.) to Wilmington, Del. A plant 
has been built at Lockville for the manufacture of car wheels from the 
ore deposits of the vicinity of Ore Hill, N. C, and using coal from the 
present Cumnock coal fields. 

At this time also the first "Winter Hotel" for tourists was opened 
in the Carolinas. It was located at Kittrell, N. C, and enjoyed a full 

[ 147 ] 



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9 

^\ house every season. Visitors indulged in horseback riding, fox hunt- 

6ing, quail shooting, and kindred sports. 
The second great stage of railroad activity made its debut. Re- 
construction programs, articulation of routes, important mechanical 
changes, along with the standardization of gauge came into being. 
No longer had box cars a maximum capacity of 16,000 pounds with 
each railroad having its own system of locks — the keys of which had 
to be forwarded to connecting lines. 

Shortly after the war, competition between eastern roads for the 
reduced traific approached the cut-throat stage. Rumors of combines 
and rebates were rife. In 1868, announcement was made that the Sea- 
board and Roanoke and the Bay Line of steamers had come under the 
same management. 

To strengthen its position the Raleigh and Gaston turned to 
earnest prosecution of completion of the Chatham railroad which had 
been begun in 1861 by the Confederate Government but which had /^.Sl- 

not been completed. This extension, from Raleigh to North Side Haw 
River, N. C, was to provide an outlet to the South Carolina border and 
beyond. The line south of Haw River through Sanford to Hamlet, N. 
C, was later completed by the Raleigh and Augusta railroad — suc- 
cessor to the Chatham. 

Although the name Seaboard Air Line had been in somewhat 
general use prior to the War Between the States, first mention of it in 
old records is made in 1871 when the Seaboard and Roanoke had 
gained control of the Raleigh and Gaston through the "Seaboard Air 
Line Agency." 

Through the panic of 1873 and the subsequent depression hard 
years were the lot of the Seaboard but through careful management all 
storms were weathered. In 1878 an association known as the "Sea- 
board Air Line Terminal Fund" was organized to promote closer 
financial cooperation of the Baltimore Steam Packet Company, Old 
Dominion Steamship Company, the Seaboard and Roanoke, the Ral- 
eigh and Gaston, the Raleigh and Augusta, and the Carolina Central 
Railway Company. 

The Carolina Central was originally chartered as the Wilming- 
ton and Charlotte Railroad Company in 1855, which name in turn 
was changed to the Wilmington, Charlotte and Rutherford Railroad 
Company. Construction was completed and operation began in 1861 
between Navassa, N. C, (just outside of Wilmington) through Ham- 
let, N. C, to Rockingham, N. C, and from Charlotte, N. C, to Lin- 
colnton, N. C. A line was later added from Rockingham, N. C, to 



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^\ Pee Dee, N. C. When acquired by the CaroHna Central, lines were 

6 constructed or reconstructed from Wilmington, N. C, to Hilton, N. C, 

from Pee Dee to Charlotte; and from Lincolnton to Shelby, N. C. 
Thus the full line from Wilmington to Shelby was completed and 
connected with the North and South lines at Hamlet. In 1880, the 
line was extended west to Rutherfordton. 

Constituent roads of the Seaboard aided in the construction of 
several feeders to the line, the most important of which was the Dur- 
ham and Northern, built in 1887-89 from Henderson to Durham, a 
distance of 41.4 miles. 

All during this period rivalry was exceptionally keen. Once more 

the Seaboard drove southward — this time to Atlanta — even in those 

days the railroad center of the South Atlantic slope. Construction 

to Atlanta was completed in 1892. 

i, In 1893 great economies in operation were the chief features of 

'"f^ a plan for the formation of a system consisting of the Seaboard and 

f-^ Roanoke and roads leased, operated and controlled by it, the Raleigh 

'^ and Gaston, the Raleigh and Augusta Air Line Railroad, the Caro- 

T," lina Central Railroad and the Durham and Northern Railroad, to 

H be known as the Seaboard Air Line System. This new" organization 

only gave definite form to an association that had been in process of 

f formation for 20 years and enabled the Seaboard to weather the panic 

and consequent depression. 
j*\^ In 1900 the association gave way to the Seaboard Air Line Railway. 

'y The corporate history of the present Seaboard Air Line Railway 

Company contains names of 106 railroad companies, all of which have 
played their part in the development of the great South as we know 
it today. 

Cities have vastly increased in population, new tow.ns and districts 
have been built up, and all over the close to 4,500 miles of Seaboard 
Air Line Railway Company's lines through Virginia, the Carolinas, 
Georgia, Alabama and Florida and connecting to the north, east, mid- 
west, great industrial and agricultural plants have been set up, and 
old residents can remember the da>- when it was a common byword 
that "prosperity follows the Seaboard." 

What a contrast could be affected if the Seaboard's present day 
equipment, gliding swiftly over heavy steel rails were to be placed 
side by side with that of the days when trains were operated during 
the daylight hours only. 

Contrast the wooden, straight back coaches with the interior of 

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present-day Seaboard air-conditioned trains offering the utmost in 
healthfulness, safety, speed and comfort. Seaboard pioneered air- 
conditioning in the South to provide its people with the best trans- 
portation possible. The Seaboard is now operating four completely 
air-conditioned, all year service trains — the Southern States Special, 
the New York-Florida Limited, the Cotton States Special, and the 
Robert K. Lee. This great fleet is augmented during the winter months 
by the famous Orange Blossom Special, and the Florida Sunbeam — 
both completely air-conditioned. 

What a picture the 10-ton "Raleigh" would make if placed be- 
side one of Seaboard's latest type freight locomotives — 110 feet long, 
15 feet high, and, equipped for service, weighing close to 400 tons, 
capable of operating on faster schedules than ever before. 




P'.ven box cars ha\e had their share of improvements. Recently 
Seaboard purchased 1,100 of the most modern cars of this type. Built 
all of steel, with special heat-resisting outside aluminum paint, wooden 
linings throughout, they offer the utmost protection to the loadings. 
The capacity of these cars is close to 125,000 pounds. 

Freight schedules and service are being constantly improved, with 
rates that in many instances are lower than they have been for years. 

The Future 

As in the past, the future of the Seaboard is interwoven with that 
of the South. It is doing and will do all in its power to further de- 
velop the South b\' givi.ng it the best transportation service possible 
at the lowest cost and by spending its money whenever possible in 
the territory it serves. 

The Seaboard has faith in the country. It has faith in the South. 
It has shown that faith b\' its works. It is serving the present and 
building for the future. It only asks fair treatment and the support 
of the people in its efforts for the promotion of mutual interests. 

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THE VIRGINIAN RAILWAY 

The ^'irginian Railway has no traditions, no historic back- 
ground; it can exhibit no "Rockets" or "Tom Thumbs" or other 
specimens of antique motive power or primitive equipment. Its 
route does not follow the survey of any notable or Revolutionary 
times made for an entirely different purpose, nor is its line asso- 
ciated with the meandering trail of Daniel Boone. Coming down 
to later times — it was not formed by the consoliciation, the amalga- 
mation, of a number of short lines which within themselves started 
nowhere and went no place, but which by building a connection 
here and a short piece of track there formed a railroad, devious 
in its thru route but which finally reached its objective. It was 
conceived, planned and constructed in its entirety, certainly its 
main line, as a complete transportation machine. It is the newest 
railroad ot its size and importance in the United States, the very 
latest model. 

About the turn of the century there was ushered in the much 
discussed machine age, an age when genius and capital were being 
diverted to the advancement of the principle that the lowering ot 
the cost ot goods and services would increase the consumption ot 
both, and thereby raise the general plane of life of civilized man. 
The birth and development of The \'irginian has been contempo- 
raneous with the birth and growth of that idea. 

The late H. H. Rogers dreamed ot a railroad over which coal 
could be transported trom a section ot the rich, undeveloped fields 
ot southern West \'irginia to the Atlantic Seaboard. Coal was to 
be the principal tonnage ot this railroad — coal which is about the 
lowest per unit revenue producing commodity transported by rail, 
and a commodity which moves in only one direction. To make 
that coal marketable in the largest possible consuming area the 
cost ot transporting it must, ot necessity, be low, and to make that 
cost low the transportation machine must, of necessity, be etiicient. 

The railway toUows the shortest route with the lowest grades 
and lightest curvatures which the nature of the terrain traversed 
renders possible. P^ngines ot the largest size, cars of the greatest 
carrying capacity, and rails of the greatest weight were used; shops 
and other tacilities in keeping were constructed. 

At Sewells Point there was erected the last word in tacilities 
tor transferring coal trom railroad car to vessel. The whole trans- 
portation plant was so balanced that in order to avoid what, in 
railroad parlance, is termed "light engine mileage" the same power 
required to pull a loaded train east would take the same number 

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of empty cars west. According to that plan the plant was built 
and when the power was turned on every cog meshed and every 
gadget clicked. Since then improvements have kept pace with the 
times and with the demands; heavier rail has supplanted that 
originally laid, heavier power has been added, bigger cars; approxi- 
mately one hundred and torty-tive miles have been electrified; 
facilities at Sewells Point have been augmented by a second pier — 
still the last word in facilities ot its kind, and yet the route, the 
basic plan of this complete efficient transportation machine, has 
remained constant and Hampton Roads has developed into the 
largest coal port of the world. 

When the idea was conceived to create the Virginian Railway 
communities were growing in the territory served by this railway, 
towns were springing up, cities increased in size and importance 
and in the sphere of their business infiuence. The fame of Norfolk 
as a port was becoming world-wide. West Virginia coal produced 
on The ^'irginian, a market for which had heretofore been confined 
almost exclusively in the East, began to find a rapidly increasing 
demand in the larger centers of the Middle West. 

This railway, however, found itself in a position where, in 
order to become a greater factor and more of a participant in this 
general development, it must have outlets to the West. Shippers 
demanded rapid service. To accord this service it was necessary 
to develop thru routes — as many of them as could be made avail- 
able. Connections had already been made with the Norfolk &: 
Western and with the Chesapeake & Ohio and by a bridge across 
the Kanawha River at Deepwater, completed some four years ago, 
a connection with the New York Central was made. 

In effect The \'irginian and its connections now form another 
East and West trunk line into Norfolk, over which fast service in 
the transportation of miscellaneous freight, between the Port of 
Norfolk and the Central West, is afforded. Coal continues as 
king of commodities handled, but the box car freight is rapidly 
taking a place of eminence in \'irginian Railway trains. 

That a site on the Norfolk side of the Elizabeth River might 
be selected as a terminus for this railway instead of a site on the 
western shore of the James River, the City Fathers of Norfolk, 
exercising almost infinitely good judgment, voted a subsidy of 
$90,000.00. The city collects in taxes each year about seventy- 
five per cent, of the amount of that subsidy. 

The principal officers of the Mrginian Railway Company are: 
Adrian H. Larkin, Chairman of the Board, New York; C. Buck- 

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holtz, President; \V. R. Coe, ^"ice-President, New York; W. H. 
T. Loyall, Vice-President; Ivins A. Browne, Secretary-Treasurer, 
New York; A. M. Traugott, Chief Engineer; S. M. Adsit, Traffic 
Manager; M. B. Gokiblatt, Comptroller; C. E. Sears, Auditor; 
M. A. Hartigan, Jr., General Claim Agent; W. D. Baker, and L. A. 
Markham, Assistants to President; H. C. Mitchell, Assistant Traffic 
Manager; A. F. Schafhirt, General Freight Agent; J. S. Branch, 
General Freight Agent (Solicitation); J. F. Smith, Assistant General 
Freight Agent; E. D. Hanes, Supervisor of Coal Traffic; C. E. 
Reynolds, Car Accountant; L. W. Woody, Assistant General Pas- 
senger Agent; E. W. Barnes, Commercial Agent; A. E. Suter, 
Traveling Freight Agent; N. F. Cuthriell, Traveling Coal Agent. 




^-^ THE SOUTHERN RAILWAY 

■^ The Southern Railwa}' is one of the eight great trunk line railways 

S serving the Norfolk-Portsmouth area. It came to Norfolk in January, 

1896, through trackage rights over the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, 
Selma, N. C, and by acquisition of the Atla^ntic and Danville Rail- 
road. Such additional trunk line service was given to the community 
through the foresight and vision of Samuel Spencer, then president of 
the company, and Colonel A. B. Andrews, first vice-president. 

The Southern Railway now gives employment to over six hun- 
dred men and women at the Norfolk terminal, and through its elab- 
orate system of merchandise package cars throughout the South, it 
supplies the Port of Norfolk with high class freight tonnage of vital 
importaiuce to the more than fift\' overseas and coastal steamer lines 
serving the port. The tonnage of this freight — exceptionally high class 
— will exceed half a million tons yearly. This is a very necessary part 
of the port business as it insures cargo for bottoms of regularly estab- 
lished steamship lines. 

This company has an annual payroll at Norfolk of approximately 
$1,000,000. This is a distinct contribution to the de\elopment of the 
Norfolk-Portsmouth area by reason of what such an amount of money 
means to the community's annual business volume. 

The principal officers at Norfolk are : C. L. Candler, Executive 
General Agent ; John M. Woodruff, Assistant Freight Traffic Mana- . 

ger; W. H. Spence, Chief Clerk, and J. W. Calvert, District Passen- I 

ger Agent. 

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Ancient sih'er mace of 
the borough of Norfolk. 
The mace reposes today 
in a glass case in the 
vaults of the National 
Bank of Commerce of 
Norfolk. 



NORFOLK'S HISTORIC MACE 



Reproduced from a history of the mace written by Robert P. Beaman, 
President of the National Bank of Commerce. 



From time immemorial there have been 
maces, but nowhere is there another like the 
mace of Norfolk. For the Norfolk mace differs 
from all its predecessors throughout centuries 
of history in that, although it was the badge of 
roval authority in the ancient borough of Nor- 
folk, it was accepted equally as a symbol of re- 
gard and affection, and therefore a token of 
peace and good will. So far as a thorough in- 
vestigation has disclosed, Norfolk is the only 
city in the I'nited States which possesses a silver 
mace which has come down from the stirring 
davs of the colonies. 

It appears that the only other mace in 
existence in this country is that of the State of 
South Carolina, which reposes in the State 
House at Columbia, S. C. 

In medieval times, maces were made of 
iron, steel, and other heavy metals capable of 
crushing through the strongest armor. There- 
fore, prior to the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, the mace was distinctly a weapon of war, 
used largely by military leaders, and thus in 
time came to be regarded as a symbol of au- 
thority. 

The earliest ceremonial maces were in- 
tended to protect the person of the king and 
were carried by sergeants-at-arms, a royal body- 
guard established by Philip II, of France. 
Gradually the ceremonial use of maces became 
more and more extensive, and with that de- 
velopment came the tendency to make them 
highly decorative. Precious metals and stones 
often were used for that purpose. Many civic 
maces were in use by the fifteenth century and 
in the sixteenth the custom became widespread. 

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^ Always the mace was a symbol of authority, often regal, but in 

Cany event supreme. Styles changed with time. Warlike blades and 
knobs slowly developed into peaceful ornaments. The enrichment 
ii process proceeded through the years. Engravings and embellish- 

ments with heraldic devices were introduced until maces became 
works of art instead of instruments of offense. 

There are many famous maces still in existence which were 
made in the days of the Restoration in England, notably those of the 
Houses of Commons and of Lords, and of the city of London. There 
are eight maces, once used by British kings and queens, in the jewel 
house of the Tower of London, and the maces of the eighteenth cen- 
tury followed this type with some modifications. 

Thus the mace of Norfolk, bearing the date 1753 and apparently 
made by the famous Fuller White, of London, is somewhat similar 
in general form to that used in the British House of Commons, the 
^^^^ symbol of the authority of the speaker, made in 1649. 

SM Given 1753 — Accepted 1754 

Although the mace of Norfolk bears the inscription around 
the base of the bowl, "The Gift of the Hon.ble Robert Dinwiddie 
Esq.r Lieu.t Governour of Virginia to the Corporation of Norfolk, 
1753," it was not until April 1, 1754, that the Common Council 
formally accepted the token. 

Regardless of the date of the receipt or acceptance of the mace, 
it is quite obvious that the date engraved upon the mace itself is suf- 
ficient authority for the statement that it was given by Lieutenant 
Governor Dinwiddie in 1753 and was completed by the silversmith 
in that year — thus determining its date of origin for historical pur- 
poses. Quite probably Governor Dinwiddie sent to England in 
1753, or perhaps earlier, ordering the mace to be made. Trans- 
portation and mails to F^ngland required months in those days, for 
sailing vessels were slow. And it may have been that correspondence 
was conducted as to the details of design. 

All of this took time, but it seems unquestionable that the mace 
was made in the latter part of 1753 and dispatched to Virginia. For 
some reason — perhaps delay in transit, unfavorable weather, or slow- 
ness in official procedure — it was April 1, 1754, ere the Common 
Council acted upon the acceptance officially. 

In this connection the following excerpt from the old minute 
book of the Common Council of the borough of Norfolk is in- 
teresting: 

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At a Common Council held this 1st day of April, 1754, the Honourable 
Robert Dinvviddie, Esq., his Majesty's Lieutenant Governor and Commander 
in Chief, this day presented to the Borough of Norfolk a very handsome silver 
mace, which was thankfully received. 

Resolved — That the humble thanks of this Borough be made to the 
Honourable Robert Dinwiddie, Esq., his Majesty's Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Chief of this Dominion, for his valuable present, assuring his 
Honor that the same was received as a Token of his great Regard and Af- 
fection for the said Borough. 

Ordered. 

That a Committee be appointed to return the thanks of this Hall to 
the Governor upon the said Resolution and that it be referred to Josiah 
Smith, Robert Tucker, Christopher Perkins, Archibald Campbell, Alexander 
Rose, and Richard Scott, Gent., to draw up the same. 

Lieut. Governor Dinwiddie, the representative of the crown 
and commander in chief of the dominion, arrived in Virginia No- 
vember 20, 1751, and his wife, Rebecca, and their two daughters, 
Elizabeth and Rebecca, twenty-four years prior to the outbreak of 
the War for Independence. The governor and his family remained 
here for seven years before being relieved at his own request. Gov- 
ernor Dinwiddle's correspondence shows a deep interest in the 
colonists and a great degree of distress at their suffering at the hands 
of the French and Indians. Certain it is that the foregoing minutes 
of the Common Council show that the colonists regarded his gift 
as evidence of peace and good will. 

Although the feeling of the colonists regarding all royal in- 
signia ran high at the time of the Revolution, the mace was still 
reverenced. When Norfolk was burned by Lord Dunmore, the 
mace and public documents were taken to Kempe's Landing, now 
known as Kempsville, and kept there until danger had passed. 

SoMK Public Appe.ak.ances 

In its earlier years, the mace was carried ahead of the mayor 
in processions and upon entering court. However, during the past 
century its public appearances have been few. On September 15, 
1836, when the lOOth anniversary of the granting of the charter to 
the borough of Norfolk was celebrated, it is recorded in the news 
of the day that "the beautiful and bright, though ancient Silver 
Mace" was carried in the procession by W. W. Lamb, at that time 
deputy sergeant of the city. The flag was carried by the venerable 
Thomas Newton, Recorder, and the original charter, with its ancient 
signet, was carried by John Williams, clerk of the court. 

On May 13, 1857, when the 250th anniversary of the landing 
at Jamestown was observed, the mace was taken to Jamestown Island 

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and delivered on the platform. On this occasion Governor Wise 
and former President John Tyler were speakers. 

In May, 1862, when Norfolk was evacuated by the Confed- 
erates, Mayor Lamb became alarmed over the safety of the mace. 
He removed the hearth in a room in his home on West Bute Street 
and carefully hid the mace underneath. 

In 1907, when the Jamestown Exposition was held, the mace 
was placed on exhibition. 

On the first Armistice Day after the World War it was carried 
at the head of a triumphal procession, and again it was carried in 
the parade of the Veterans of Foreign Wars at their national con- 
vention in Norfolk in 1921. 

On August 16, 1932, the mace once again appeared in proces- 
sion, when the 2S0th anniversary of the founding of Norfolk was 
commemorated. 

The mace is made of pure silver and weighs appro.ximately 
104 ounces (si.x and a half pounds avoirdupois). There are nine 
sections which are screwed together to form the complete mace, 
fortv-one inches long. The head is in three sections and the stafif 
is in six, bearing the letters, "F. W.," the initials of the maker, and 
also the prescribed hall mark, a lion rampant, showing the standard 
fineness of the silver. 

averages two and a half inches in diameter. It is elaborately orna- 
mented with leaves and scrolls. 

The bowl, or head, of the mace is cylindrical, seven inches in 
length and five and a quarter inches in diameter. The top is slightly 
rounded, and on it, under the open work of the crown, are the Royal 
Arms of Great Britain in the reign of George II, the letters G and 
R, the usual mottoes, being between the lion and the unicorn. 

Around the largest part of the bowl are the emblems of England 
and Scotland, France, and Ireland, each of these being in a separate 
panel, while in the fourth are the combined quarterings of Great 
Britain. Ornamentations consist of the rose of England and the 
thistle of Scotland growing on the same stem, the fleur-de-lis of 
France, and the harp of Ireland. There is also a crown in each 
compartment over the emblems. 

The bowl is surmounted by an open crown, eight inches across, 
which is formed by four bands united at the top to support a globe, 
which in turn supports a standing cross. In a gracefully curving 
line around the base of the cylinder is the inscription in Roman 
letters: "The Gift of the Hon.ble Robert Dinwiddle Esq.'' Lieu.t 
Governour of Virginia to the Corporation of Norfolk, 1753." 

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On May 12, 1925, the third grade pupils of the Henry Clay 
School presented to the city of Norfolk, a specially designed bag to 
protect the mace. The material was purchased with funds provided 
by the pupils, who also made the bag and the presentation to then 
Mayor S. Heth Tyler. 

Owing to the fine old custom of the retiring mayor presenting 
the incoming mayor with the mace of the city, it is quite probable 
that many of the earlier years of its existence were spent in the 
custody of the mayor, when it probably reposed in his strong box. 
A momentary revival of the custom occurred in the twilight of a 
summer evening in 1901 when a former mayor, Colonel William 
Lamb, presented the mace to the newly elected mayor, Nathaniel 
Beaman, and said, "This is an old custom, revived." 

It seems a pity that the increasing years have necessitated the 
discontinuance of this graceful old custom of bygone days. How- 
ever, this is as it should be, since the mace, of fine soft silver, will 
survive the centuries only if left untouched except upon those very 
rare occasions such as have occurred during the past hundred years. 

It is not clear just where the mace reposed until shortly before 
or during the early part of the Civil War, when it appears to have 
been in custody of the old Exchange Bank for a short time. During 
another brief period, some time after the Civil War, it would seem 
that the mace was in custody of the Exchange National Bank. 

However, on July 12, 1894, C. J. Iredell was elected chief of 
police for a two-year term. It was during this time that Chief of 
Police Iredell discovered the mace, in a state of disrepair, lying in 
a heap of litter and old records in a room at the police station. At 
the request of city officials, the officers of the Norfolk National 
Bank (now a part of the National Bank of Commerce), realizing 
the value of the mace to future generations, not only accepted its 
custodianship but undertook the expenditure necessary to recondition 
and preserve it. Since that time, for more than forty years, this 
bank has carefully guarded this priceless possession of the com- 
munity. 

That the mace had been forgotten by most of the community is 
indicated not only by the fact that its whereabouts was apparently 
generally unknown until it was found and handed to the bank for 
safekeeping in 1894, but also by reason of the fact that the value of 
the mace was not realized after the War between the States until a 
representation , of the mace had been used for a number of years as 
an emblem by the bank. Even then, it was not until the Jamestown 
Exposition in 1907 that the significance of the mace again had be- 

f 158 ] 



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^ come publicly recognized. (Its last previous public appearance 

^t of record seems to have been in 1857.) 

^^ The mace has seen Norfolk, grow from a trading village to a 

city of world commerce. It has passed without harm through fire 
and battle and plundering. It survived the burning of Norfolk. It 
escaped when all precious metal was melted for its value. It has 
become the symbol of endurance and permanence. 

Today, the mace, in its old age, has an honored and safely 
sheltered place in a plate glass case recently prepared for it in the 
vaults of the National Bank of Commerce. There, for the first 
time in the more than 180 years of its history, it remains in perfect 
safety while, at the same time, its dignity and beauty can be enjoyed 
by all who may be interested. 

The bank takes great pride in the part it has played in the 
history of the mace and its preservation. 








Parade of U. S. Sailors and Marines upon return of world-girdling fleet. The fleet 
left Norfolk December 16, 1907 and returned February 22, 1909. 



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^ 



PORTSMOUTH 



Norfolk's Neighbor Across the River 



Portsmouth, situated on the south shore of the Elizabeth River, 
is connected with Norfolk by a modern passenger and vehicle ferry 
system and bridges. The population of Portsmouth at the present 
time is about 5U,000. 

Situated on the same harbor and being served by the same ex- 
cellent system of rail and water transportation lines, Portsmouth is 
really a part of the same community with Norfolk, except it has its 
own separate municipal government, which like Norfolk's is the 



manager-council form. 



Portsmouth was established by William Crawford or Craford, 
in 1752, on a tract of 122 town lots. At the time of the siege of 
Norfolk by Lord Dunmore during the American Revolution, Ports- 
mouth also was invaded, but escaped serious devastation. During 
the War Between the States, however, the Norfolk Navy Yard at 
Portsmouth was captured and partly destroyed and the town of 
Portsmouth also suffered severely. 

The Norfolk Navy Yard occupies a considerable portion of 
Portsmouth's southeastern waterfront along the southern branch of 
the Elizabeth River. Portsmouth has a number of large manu- 
facturing plants, including a cotton oil refinery plant that is one of 
the finest of its sort in the country, a number of fertilizer manu- 
facturing plants, a coffee importing and roasting plant. 

Portsmouth is the home of the I'. S. Marine Barracks, main- 
tained in connection with other naval activities and the home of a 
U. S. Naval Hospital which is one of the finest in the country. 

Among the interesting things to see in Portsmouth, in addition 
to the Navy Yard, Marine Barracks and Naval Hospital are: 
Trinity Church, at Court and High Streets, built in 1762; the Con- 
federate Monument at Court and High Streets and the old Court 
House. Portsmouth is the county seat of Norfolk County. 

The Norfolk Navy Yard at Portsmouth is the greatest navy 
yard in the United States. Aside from its interesting history every 
visitor will be impressed with the vast amount of work always going 
forward. 

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Old and new Lighthouses at Cape Henry. 



CAPE HENRY 

Where the First Permanent English Settlers 
IN America First Landed 

Five miles north of Virginia Beach and seventeen miles north- 
east of Norfolk, is Cape Henry, where the waters of the Atlantic 
and Chesapeake unite. The Cape is reached by electric railway, 
motor bus or private automobile. The beautiful Shore Drive con- 
nects Cape Henry with Norfolk, Ocean View and Virginia Beach. 

Cape Henry is where the first permanent English settlers in 
America first landed in this country. They landed at Cape Henry 
on April 26, 1607, before proceeding to Jamestown where they es- 
tablished the first permanent English Settlement in America. 

The location of Cape Henry is delightful. The Atlantic 
stretches away to the east, the Chesapeake to the north and Lynn- 
haven Roads to the west. 

The old Cape Henry lighthouse is an object of great interest. 
It was the first structure of the kind erected by the United States. 
Work on it began in 1791 and was completed in 1792. A tablet to 
the memory of those who first landed at Cape Henry in 1607 has 
been placed on the old lighthouse by the Association for the Preser- 
vation of Virginia Antiquities. 

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The lofty sand hills which have been formed by the northeast 
winds blowing so frequently from the sea are worth the arduous 
climb. The view from the hills is fine, especially landward over 
the forests which have been and are still being covered by the ever- 
encroaching sand. 

Today, Cape Henry is one of the most important points of 
military strategy on the coast. Fort Story, an example of the very 
latest idea in coast defense fortification and is the key to the entire 
system of defense for Chesapeake Bay, the back door to the large 
eastern industrial centers, and Washington. 

For many years Cape Henry has been famous for its scenic 
beauty of huge sand dunes and virgin forests and for its unsurpassed 
seafood and surf bathing. Naval and merchant ships of all nations 
of the world pass constantly within sight of the historic Cape. 

Between Cape Henry and Virginia Beach and stretching back 
a distance of several miles to Linkhorn and Broad Bays, lies a great 
natural park, known as Virginia Seashore Park. This great tract 
of wild land, one of the natural wonders of this section of the coun- 
try, is now traversed by bridle paths and beautiful natural lanes, 
forming one of the most delightful parks in the country. The park 
has its own beach front, cabins and pavilions. 



m 'iSj- \1k 




■'Planting the Cross at Cape Henrv." Scene in School Pageant at Foreman Field, 

on October 28, 1936. 

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VIRGINIA SEASHORE PARK 






Close your eyes and imagine seeing one of the wildest, most 
naturally beautiful, practically unchanged regions in America, with 
acres of jeweled forests and crystal clear lakes and lagoons, border- 
ing the sky-blue waters of the historic Chesapeake Bay. Picture 
the land Captain John Smith, who, in an Omar mood said of it, 
"Within is a country that may have the prerogatives over the most 
pleasant places of Europe. Heaven and earth never agreed better 
to frame a place for man . . . the mildness of the air, the fertility of 
the soil, and the situation of the rivers arc so propitious to the use 
of man that no place is more convenient for pleasure, profit and 
man's sustenance under any latitude or climate. The vesture of the 
earth doth manifestly prove the nature of the soil to be lusty and 
very rich." 

It was more than 300 years ago when the doughty captain made 
his footprints on the sands of time, when with Christopher Newport 
and the other first permanent English settlers he landed at Cape 
Henry in 1607 and was so enthralled at what he beheld that he was 
impelled by an inward urge to record for his King what he thought 
of the new country. 

Recall the words of John Richard Moreland, the poet of the 
Dune country: 

"/ love all things that cluster around the sea. 
Sand-dunes u'ave ivashed, and wild, glad ivings that heat , 
Against the wind, the flash of children's feet. 
I could ever smell the tang — of great 
Waves breaking, breaking . . . and in my 
Ears I ever heard — The Sand-dunes calling me." 

Such is the area described by Captain John Smith and praised 
in verse by Moreland and other poets. Here, today, is a vast wooded 
area, with countless little lakes and broad bays, fronting on Chesa- 
peake Bay and within sound of the roar from the mighty Atlantic. 
After centuries of Dame Nature's work, this area, now known as the 
Virginia Seashore State Park, is to be made accessible. 

Virginia can be justly proud of the efificient manner in which 
the State Conservation and Development Commission, with the co- 
operation of the National Parks Service of the Department of the 
Interior, functioned to preserve and protect plant life and to make 
it possible and convenient for man to penetrate the deeper recesses 
of the park and to explore it from all angles. 

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^3 Men and women who are authorities on national and state parks 

6 have expressed opinions that nowhere in America is there another 

park which can match Virginia Seashore State Park for its natural 
I rugged beauty and scenic attractions so widely varied. Where else 

in America is there a park with pines that come down to sea — where 
one can bask in the glorious sunlight and breathe deeply of the salt 
tang of the sea, on a beautiful tine white sand beach, and the next 
minute commune with nature in the shade of an age-old picturesque 
forest or go boating on mirrored lakes or broad bays? 

Here the agile, the strong and the vitally energetic may burst 
into boyish spirit and fear no consequences, and here the halt, the 
lame and the weary may come for assured rest. 

\^'hen summer comes, a panorama of beauty and practicability 
will be spread before the eyes of the vacationists and tourists who 
visit the park. The more than 40 types of trees and shrubs will be 






f 



in full leaf and bloom, in a setting inspiring to behold. Birds — of 
J 50 known species will wing their way through the forests, chattering % 



and warbling as they go. Animals — seven varieties, including the 

sly fox and the beady-eyed squirrel will peer cautiously at you as 

you tread your way along miles of trails overhung by vines and 

Spanish moss, the like of which mortal has never before beheld and 

^ which is not rivaled even by the famous Charleston Gardens. Sum- 

v^ mer has found the land of the Cavaliers — unchanged, but more 

^3 beautiful. 

John Smith's voice comes through the pines. "The show of 
the land there is a white, hilly sand, like units, the Downs, and along 

the shores great plenty of pines and firs." Summer has brought the 
apostle of pleasure out of the woods, to one of Nature's marvels — a 
huge rolling, white topped sand dune, sprawling in all its glory 
and from which is viewed broad bavs and rivers once navigated by 
pirates and early settlers. 

A glimpse of the water creates the urge. Onward Summer 
impels — onward to more sport. 

"// takes wo/iuri lo/i//ir to Itarn to siviiii th/iii nun hadiisc nun lun'C 
to tttuii thcnisclvts. 

Summer's beach panorama lies shoreward. Here young and 
old alike frolic on the sands. Gay throngs parade and play. Here 
summer shows you what V^irginia and the I'nited States Government 
have been doing, where they carved with Nature's guiding hand. 
A magnificent bath house and a commodious recreation center lo- 
cated on the very beach front ollfer comfort and convenience and 
the great waters beckon for an exhilarating plunge. 7 

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Happy throngs at Ocean View. 






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OCEAN VIEW 

Fisherman's Par.adise — Coney Island of the South 



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Ocean View, together with Willoughby which adjoins it, has 
a frontage of several miles on a beautiful stretch of white sand 
beach overlooking lower Chesapeake Bay and the Virginia Capes 
from the Atlantic Ocean. 

This resort is situated within the city limits of Norfolk, less 
than thirty minutes by motor or street car from the downtown sec- 
tion of the city. Fishing at Ocean View is a fisherman's dream come 
true. There are no more prolific fishing grounds anywhere. The 
famous Ocean View Spot, Croakers, Hog Fish, Salmon Trout, 
Flounder, Chub, Sheephead and many other varieties of fish are 
caught in abundance at the View. One need not be a trained disciple 
of Izaak Walton to catch more than 50 fish per hour at the View. 

At the boat house will be found everything necessary for the 
comfort and convenience of those who wish to enjoy the sport where 
the fish are hungry, the bait is plentiful and a bite is a bite. Men, 
women and children, old and young, alike, may be seen daily in 

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fishing parties in the boats which dot the waters of Ocean View 
from sun-up to sun-down during the View's season. 

Deep sea fishing, too, may be enjoyed at Ocean View. Sturdy 
boats, with trained crews and well appointed quarters for men and 
women, are available for those who wish to fish deep and do not 
mind a hard tussle before thev land their prize. 

At Ocean View, thanks to Mr. Otto Wells, one of Norfolk's 
outstanding citizens, you will find the Coney Island of the South — 
Ocean View Amusement Park — located directly on the bay front. 
Here will be found one of the finest arrays of amusement devices 
in the sunny South. A special park within a park — "Kiddyland" — 
was established for the children and in "Kiddyland" will be found 
amusement devices exclusively for the little tots. 

For the grown-ups the park ofTers exhilarating and laughter- 
producing devices unique and enjoyable, from the Hilarious Fun 
House to the glorious Canals of Venice where one may hold hands 
with his fair lady, and the Skv-Ride where the fair lady begs to 
be held. 

Ocean View's beach is part of the famous Virginia Seashore 
area. It is clean, hard and white. The bathing is excellent and for 
those who wish to take life easv and at the same time store up sun 
energy for the winter, miles of beach offer many beautiful spots for 
the siesta. 

At Ocean View thousands are seen daily enjoying the billowy 
waves and the refreshing saltv tang of the sea, with no fear of an 
insidious undertow. Children may romp on the beach and wade 
into the waters without the least fear. 

The long stretch of beach permits the bather to stroll for miles. 

The bath houses at Ocean View are equipped with the most 
modern facilities and men and women will find ever courteous at- 
tendants. 

For the convenience of early bathers the bath houses are open 
daily from 6:00 a. m. until the darkness of night comes on. The 
mean temperature of the water during the season is generally about 
70 degrees which is just right for ideal bathing. 

Few beach resorts can boast of such a magnificent esplanade 
and colorful flower gardens as found at the resort. Thousands of 
dollars have been spent in beautifying the lawns and gardens, and 
one mav rest for hours on comfortable benches, enjoying the breezes 
from the ocean. Nearby is the bandstand, where the strains of sweet 
music may be heard. 

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The ISth let' — I )cean View Golf Course. i he Ocean View Golf Course is one of Nor- 
folk's miinicipaal courses. It is located at Ocean View, a stone's throw from the shores 
of beautiful Cheasapeake Bay. 




•<-.; •^A.J&iiiM^f'' 




Section of Ocean View — showing part of Amusement Park and "Kiddyland". 

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^ Practically all railroads serving the Norfolk area enter trains 

^ at various times of the day with splendid service to connect with the 

fS V. E. P. electric trains direct to the resort. 

The Baltimore Steam Packet Company, the Chesapeake Steam- 
ship Company, the Eastern Steamship Line, and other transporta- 
tion agencies offer attractive water routes that make excellent con- 
nections with the electric trains, while the Norfolk Southern Bus 
Lines, and the North Carolina Bus Lines enter in the city with 
direct connections, as in the case with trains and steamship lines 
direct to the electric trains. 

The autoist can come from the Southern section of the country 
or the Eastern section and will find splendid hard-surface roads in 
all directions, with three hard surface roads direct to the resort. 
At the resort will be found excellent parking facilities at service 
stations. Closed garages can be obtained at a nominal cost while 
,-j3^ thousands of feet of space has been reserved for "free parking". 

At the many hotels and cottages at Ocean View and Willoughby, 
'^f including the famous Nansemond Hotel, accommodations with a 

3* wide range in rates, are available. 

Yachting, aquaplaning, tennis, handball, and manv other sports 
may be enjoyed to the limit at Ocean View. 

The Nansemond Hotel, opened several seasons ago, was built 
at a cost of more than $300,000 and presents itself as one of the most 
ideal resort hotels on the Atlantic coast. The building is of Spanish 
design and lends itself to an atmosphere unique in many respects. 

The Nansemond is situated directly on the waterfront and 
guests who desire to bathe may step directly from the hotel to the 
hotel's private beach. 

The cuisine at the Nansemond is Southern, however, seafoods 
taken fresh daily from the waters of Chesapeake Bay and the At- 
lantic Ocean, are served as specialties. The area in which the hotel 
is located is famous as a trucking center and as from five to seven 
crops are obtained during a vcar, truck garden and farm products 
of manv varieties are served throughout the season. 

Socially, the Nansemond Hotel and several of the other hotels 
and cottages, are the centers of Ocean View. Night life is bright 
and evening dances and parties are held throughout the season. 



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Air view of \'ir^iiiia Htach. 



VIRGINIA BEACH 

The V'acatioxist's Paradise 

Picture in your mind's eye a glorious, glamourous sun, a sky- 
blue ocean, a beautiful white sand beach, table-smooth greens of 
emerald hue, rolling fairways fringed with tall stately pines come 
down to sea, happy throngs, a panorama of unrivaled scenic beauty, 
and you have Virginia Beach — Jewel Resort of the Atlantic — The 
Vacationist's Paradise. 

The lure of the sea naturally makes water sports the most popu- 
lar of the recreational pursuits at Virginia Beach where thousands 
of vacationists and pleasure seekers are now holidaying on this fringe 
of the broad Atlantic. 

A stroll down the boardwalk overlooking the miles of sand 
strip will reveal a colorful array of bathers whose only thought is 
of fun and pleasure. Some are lolling in the sand to take advantage 
of the healthful rays of the sun while others are enjoying a dip in 
the ocean or a plunge in the surf. 

On the ocean's rim the bather will find relaxation and pleasure. 
While the older generations are basking in the sunshine or besport- 

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ing in the surf, the children can entertain themselves in the sand or 
at the casinos and amusement parks which are equipped with every 
imaginable device for their pleasure. 

Aquaplaning is growing in popularity and even furnishes the 
spectator w^ith many a thrill as the rider swoops by in the wake of a 
motor-driven craft. The more venturesome entertain the gallery 
with various stunts aboard their precarious perches while those with 
faint heart hold to their supporting lines for dear life. 

Riding the crest of the waves aboard a surf board is another 
sport for those seeking a new thrill. When high breakers on the 
wings of an incoming tide roll steadily ashore those catering to this 
thrilling sport are in their glory. 

Sailboating on nearby inland waters, including both Linkhorn 
and Broad Bays is also available as a recreational device. Scores 
of inboard and outboard craft and larger motor-driven vessels ply 
these waters and add to the color of the scenery. 

For the student swimmer and the children there are two out- 
door salt-water pools graduating in depth from two feet to 10 or 
12 feet with a life guard on constant duty during the opening hours. 




Cavalier Hotel, Virginia Beach — Community Built, Community Owned, 
and Community Operated. 

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An indoor plunge is located at the Cavalier Hotel and is one of the 
popular gathering locales of the resoft. 

A moderate warm temperature with a summer average of 76 
degrees lends to the pleasure of swimming — the most popular of the 
water sports. The beach is never overly crowded due to the long 
and broad sand strip which extends for several miles along the ocean 
front and is capable of accommodating many thousands of additional 
bathers. 

The numerous hostelries fronting on the ocean are equipped 
with special dressing rooms for the bathers together with showers 
for use after a refreshing dip in the sea. The Cavalier Hotel has a 
private beach club with numerous cabanas for swimming parties. 

Virginia Beach offers to the vacationist a diversification of 
sport not excelled elsewhere in the country and, to the golfer, an 
opportunity to try out courses recognized by experts of the game 
as among the leading ones of the country. 

Played the year around with golfers coming from far and wide 
time-and-time again to plav over the two courses — the Princess Anne 
and Cavalier — the sport has a large following. This is particularly 
true in the summer time when the thousands of city dwellers come 
to the seashore for their annual retreat from the business world and 
during the cool hours of the morning the number of players total 
up in the hundreds. 

The Princess Anne course is considered throughout golfdom 
as one of the sportiest and most beautiful in the P>ast. With a total 
yardage of 6,208 and a par of 72, it extends through a forest of pine 
over rolling country peaceful to the eye. 

The Cavalier course, the latest to be constructed is likewise 
(wer 6,000 yards in length and has the noveltv of being located on a 
peninsula almost entirely surrounded bv water with more natural 
hazards than are usually found in most locations. 

Designed by a prominent golf architect of New "^'ork City, 
every hole has individual characteristics and there is an absence of 
monotony in playing the course. The fairways are banked by a 
wealth of verdure with many species of trees along the route. 

Whether seeking relaxation or rest, the pleasures of a lively 
resort or cool, refreshing sea breezes and, of course, the gayful sport 
of surf bathing or any of the many devices of sportdom — Virginia 
Beach will qualify in every respect and will satisfy the most exacting. 

Every imaginable summer sport is available and while the ma- 
jority of the summer colony are daily lolling in the sand or enjoy- 

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Seaside Park. Virginia Beach. 

ing the surf, there are others who look to the other facilities for 
recreation. 

Although primarily a seashore resort by virtue of its location 
along the Atlantic rim, Virginia Beach attracts thousands of pleasure 
seekers annually who seek a retreat from the work-a-day world. 
Another class of visitor is the health seeker — and there are hundreds 
to vouch for the recuperative powers of the climate of the com- 
munity. 

While many of the visitors find sport and pleasure diving 
through the incoming rollers there are others who seek the cooling 
shade of a beach umbrella for short siestas during the warmer 
periods of the day. 

Water sports galore arc to be had and to those who enjov the 
daring thrills of aquaplaning behind powerful motor-driven craft 
— their wish will be granted. 

Another popular sport, which is growing in the fancv of the 
younger set, is archery and those who wish to try their skill at this 
novel pastime may do so. Tennis plays an important part in the 
recreation program of the beach with courts located within walking 
distance of anv point. 

From the broad eminence overlooking the ocean where stands 
the exclusive Cavalier Hotel and down the boardwalk along which 

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fronts three miles of other hostelries and cottages, forming the 
nucleus of the community, Virginia Beach presents a colorful pic- 
ture and offers many opportunities for the pleasure-seekers. 

Innumerable recreational pursuits are daily enjoyed with 
dancing nightly at the Cavalier Beach Club and at the casinos and 
night clubs. To fishermen, the beach offers facilities rarely equalled 
anywhere in the country. Those who cater to angling for deep sea 
denizens or surf casting will find their fondest hopes gratified, while 
others inclined to fresh water fishing will find plenty of this sport a 
few miles inland. 

In the outskirts of Norfolk and on the road to Virginia Beach 
lies Ocean View with its amusement park and its own separate 
resort colony. Located on Chesapeake Bay, this resort is renowned 
for the excellent fishing available and the large catches of drum, 
bluefish, spot, trout, croakers, fiounders, white perch and rock that 
are made annually. 

To those thousands of pleasure seeking visitors who trek an- 
nually to Virginia Beach to play along its expansive shore arc offered 
a wealth of recreational pursuits, among which are the popular 
sports of horseback riding and hiking. 

The moving sand dunes at Cape Henry and in Virginia Sea- 
shore Park attract many of the visitors who are inclined to natural 
phenomena. Many of the dunes have been working their way in- 




i 



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Scent at famous Cavalier Beach Club, Virginia Beach. 



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land for hundreds of years, some reaching a height of 50 feet with 
sheer drops to dense forests and matted undergrowth of vegetation. 

The many miles of bridle paths beckon to lovers of the horse 
while the picturesque sand dunes of nearby Cape Henry, where is 
located the famous John Smith Trails and Virginia Seashore Park, 
are the delight of those who fit themselves with hiking toggery for 
long walks through this historic section. 

Spirited equines of thoroughbred strain are available for the 
expert horseman and, for the novice, there are mounts requiring 
only a snafTlc rein to guide them. A riding ring with graduating 
jumps has an inviting allure for the finished rider and is the locale 
for a number of horse shows and special exhibitions throughout the 
year. 

Enroute from the beach along carefully maintained bridle paths 
cut through strips of virgin forests to Cape Henry, the horseman 
will find many picturesque scenes to hold his interest. At many 
points along the miles of winding paths are verdure-covered arches 
which furnish resting spots for the riders. 

The tree-bordered bridle paths furnish an escape from civiliza- 
tion amid surroundings peaceful to the eye and mind while the many 
trails for the hiker provide an isolation to those desiring to get away 
from the world for a brief respite from their usual environment. 






\\ 



w 




NORFOLK AND TOBACCO 

Norfolk was once an Indian town where the members of the 
city council, meeting to discuss public matters, sat in a circle, or 
semi-circle, smoking long-stemmed pipes of clay, some of them 
gaily decorated. They smoked a native weed : Tobacco. 

Today Norfolk and what was once an Indian weed is known 
in the four corners of the globe, from (jreenland's icy mountains 
to India's coral strand and way stations in the hinterlands of China, 
the Gobi desert and the country of the Nigero. 

And when Norfolk celebrates its SOOth birthday it also cele- 
brates the growth of the tobacco trade. 

To be sure Norfolk is the peanut port of the world and divides 
with Cardiff the distinction of being the greatest of all coal ports 
but it is with tobacco that its greatest fame is associated in the com- 
merce of the world. Besides 10,000 pounds of tobacco "in caske" 
was paid for the site of the city. 

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Tobacco is still referred to as a weed, despite the intensive culti- 
vation given plants, but more as a matter of convenience rather 
than in the interest of accuracy. 

It is still described as an Indian weed although the natives who 
first brought it to the attention of the white race were not Indians 
but Americans. Columbians might be a more precise designation 
but the continent getting the name of America whether rightly or 
wrongly in view of the performance of Christopher Columbus, or 
Colon, as some insist the natives of America naturally must have 
been Americans and not Indians. 

However, Indians thev were christened bv the white folk and 
Indians they will remain, whether in three syllables, or just plain 
everyday Injuns. And tobacco will be tobacco. 

They say Norfolk's first name was Skicoak, spread into three 
sections: Ski-Co-Ak. But on copies of old maps and in old manu- 
scripts the place is also indentified as Ap-A-Sus, O-Ris-Key-Ek and 
Nal-La-Mon. Also Ches-A-Pi-Co and Ches. A. Peack. 

Somewhere in one of his letters or his diary, Capt. John Smith 
mentions how he and certain companions came scudding down the 
estuary of the Elizabeth river, before a stifif breeze that threatened 
to broach the boat, and how they passed a village of the Chisso- 
peakes, or Chissopeaks, as the doughty captain spelled the word. 
That village must have been where the City of Norfolk now spreads 
itself out. 

That was nearly 330 years ago — 329 according to the reckon- 
ing of historians, some of whom have made a hero of Capt. John 
Smith and some of whom have not hesitated to call him a braggart. 

The latter sort, naturally, would be of the easy chair variety. 
Fireside far-farers. Yet historians of the Post Sargent type, ad- 
venturers themselves, have never ceased in their admiration of the 
Englishman who was the best fighting man of his day. Any man 
who could win a commission in foreign service, overcome with lance 
and sword the pick of Moslem warriors, one of them a Pasha, or 
Bashaw, was no novice at fighting. Any man who was ready to 
brave the Virginia wilderness with Powhatan's warriors in ambush 
certainly was no coward. 

Captain John Smith was not only a soldier of fortune but he 
was an explorer, who in a small shallop sailed the seaboard as far 
North as the bay where Portland, Maine, boasts a fine harbor. 
Smith's island in Chesapeake Bay and the names borne today by 
rivers, townships, capes and counties given them by Capt. John 
Smith, are revelations of his enthusiasm for seeing the country. 

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It is quite likely thiit he even gave the name of Norfolk to the 
village on the Elizabeth, burned by Powhatan's braves, although 
that distinction is claimed by Adam Thoroughgood and the gentle- 
man who got the original patent — Lord Maltravers, kin to the Duke 
of Norfolk. 

Capt. John Smith, in his role of historian, geographer, and 
leader of the colonists, was easily the foremost man of his time in 
the new world and of considerable importance in the old. So it is 
utterly consistent to give him extended attention in any reference 
to the early history of Norfolk. 

Norfolk was not only destroyed as an Indian village but in the 
Revolutionary War Lord Dunmorc did his best to wipe it from the 
map. 

Norfolk, however, proved to be a Phoenix. It rose from its 
ashes and now Lord Dunmore appears in history as the revengeful 
royal governor who did a dastardly deed as he ran away from the 
people who repudiated him. Old St. Paul's still stands as a monu- 
ment to the folly of Dunmore. 

Norfolk's part in history could be enlarged to many V(5lumes. 
Tales could be told of Blackbeard and Lieutenant Mavnard who 
killed the pirate in hand to hand conflict, and brought his head to 
Norfolk. And of the valor of Commodore Truxtun and the Con- 
stellation in the war with France, when that noble frigate and 
ecjually gallant captain, fought and defeated two sturdy French 
ships, "LTnsurgent" and "La Vengeance." And of the War of 
1812 and incidents prior to and after that period, like the Chesa- 
peake and the Leopard, and the iluel that brought death to Decatur, 
in whose honor Tripoli Street, now iNIonticello Avenue, was named. 

Norfolk had its share in the War Between the States. It was 
from Sewells Point and other places of vantage on the waterfront 
that the people saw the destruction of the Federal fleet and the epic 
fight between the Monitor and the .Merrimac. 

And Norfolk had its share in the \\'orld War, as the Army 
Base piers and the great guns and the giant crane that lifted them 
aboard and off the ships, might tell if inspired to do so. But it as 
a port and in times of peace that the people of Norfolk are inclined 
to point with pride: its magnificent harbor and trade to all parts 
of the world, trade that begun with barter for that lowly but prized 
Indian leaf, tobacco, now a commercial factor of world-wide im- 
portance with values in the hundreds of millions. 



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WILLIAMSBURG 

Colonial Capital of Virginia 

The restoration of Colonial Williamsburg by John D. Rocke- 
feller, Jr., is an endeavor to restore accurately and to preserve for 
all time the most significant portions of an historical and typical 
city of America's colonial period. The keynote of the entire under- 
taking is authenticity and every other consideration has been sub- 
ordinated to this essential requirement. 

The work of structural restoration may be summarized briefly 
as follows: 

Sixty-seven Colonial buildings restored — including the ^\'ren Building, 
Brafferton Building, and the President's House, the three original Buildings 
of the College of William and Mary. Ninety-one colonial buildings^ — - 
mostly outbuildings — have been constructed. Thirty-three shops and stores 
have been erected to provide a suitable business district and a number of old 
gardens have been restored. Four hundred and fifty-nine buildings of modern 
construction have been torn down. 

In addition, gardens of a number of historic homes have been 
restored or reconstructed as an essential part of the colonial setting 
which is being re-created here. 

There are many historic buildings to see in Williamsburg. 



/^- 




Old Colonial Capitol rebuilt by John 1). Rockefeller, Jr. 



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There is the famous George Wythe House, the home of a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence and the Headquarters of General 
Washington and General Rochambeau during the Revolutionary 
War, and there is Bruton Parish Church and other buildings which 
space will not permit listing herein. 

Williamsburg was laid out in 1632. It was then known as 
Middle Plantation. The present Bruton Parish Church building 
was finished in 1715 and was preceded by two earlier buildings. 
Bruton Parish Church has three sets of Communion Silver — the 
Jamestown set, a set bearing the coat-of-arms of George III, and a 
set given by Lady Gooch to the College of William and Mary for 
use in the College Chapel. The old Parish Register dates back, to 
1662. Rev. Wm. A. R. (loodwin, D. D., credited with being re- 
sponsible for interesting John D. Rockefeller, Jr., in restoring 
Williamsburg, is Rector of Bruton Parish Church. 



YORKTOWN 



Where the United States Earned the Right to Function 
As An Independent N.ation 

Yorktown, a part of the Colonial National Monument and 
scene of surrender of Lord Cornwallis and his British forces to 
General George Washington and his American patriots, like \A^il- 
liamsburg and Jamestown, is in the Norfolk- Portsmouth-Newport 
News-Virginia Seashore area. The historic old town is about 30 
miles distant from Norfolk. 

Yorktown is one of the oldest towns and most important historic 
shrines in America. Here can be seen relics of the very earliest 
days of the American nation. Among the most interesting are : York 
Hall, formerly the Nelson House; the Moore House, where the 
terms of the surrender of Cornwallis were drawn up; Grace Church, 
built in 1700; the first Custom House in America, built in 1715; 
Battlefields of the Revolutionary ^^^lr and the War Between the 
States. 

A huge monument, towering into the sky and erected by the 
Federal Government, commemorates the surrender of Cornwallis 
to Washington and the birth of the Ignited States as a separate and 
independent nation. 

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4. 




Moore House, restored by United States Government and where articles covering 
Cornwallis' surrender to Washington on October 19, 1781, were signed. 

The Yorktown Sesquicentennial which drew attendance from 
practically all parts of the world, was held at Yorktown during 
October of 1931 and today Yorktown, with Williamsburg and James- 

The stafif is twenty-eight inches long, of irregular sizes, and 
town, forms the Colonial National Monument, a project of the 
National Parks Service of the l^. S. Department of the Interior. 

During the War Between the States, Yorktown served as a 
base of supplies during iMcClellan's Peninsula Campaign. During 
the World War the I'nited States Cjovernment used Yorktown as a 
Naval Base, together with the great base at Norfolk. 

The United States Government, The Association for the Preser- 
vation of Virginia Antiquities, the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, the Rockefeller interests and many other agencies and 
individuals guard Yorktown's heritage. 



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9 

5 PLACES OF SPECIAL INTEREST AT 

^ RESTORED WILLIAMSBURG 

The Wrex Building. 1695 

This is the oldest academic building in America, one of the three historic buildings 
of the College of AVilliam aiui .Mar\ that have been restored and are now used by the 
College. 

The Powder Magazixe. 1714 

This arsenal, in which were stored the arms and ammunition of the Virginia 
Colony, has been restored. It is owned by the Association for the Preservation of 
Virginia Antiquities. 

The Capitol. 1699-1705 

This structure, closely identified with the political life of colonial Virginia, has 
been rebuilt on original foundations as the earlier of two buildings that stood here 
during the eighteenth century. Its furnishings and unusual interior painting conform 
to descriptions in contemporary records. 

The Raleigh Taverx. 1742 

One of the most historic tavens of colonial America, this building has been recon- 
structed on original foundations. Its antique furniture and furnishings were selected 
on the basis of inventories of its early keepers. 

The Ludwell-Par^adise House. 1717-1719 

Restored as a typical home of the gentry in eighteenth century Williamsburg, this 
house and kitchen are now used to exhibit Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr.'s Loan Col- 
lection of American Folk Art. 

The Old Court House. 1770 

The central location of this restored building makes it a desirable starting point ,'-" 

tfor a tour of the city. Here will be found the Information Bureau of the Restoration ■■ 
and the display collection of colonial china, glass, hardware, utensils and building 

r^ materials recovered in excavating more than one hundred foundations. ■n-^ 

Bruton Parish Church. 1710-1715 

Closely linked with the city's history, this edifice dates from 1715, at which time 
it was completed on the site of an earlier church. 

The Wythe House. 1755 

This was the home of George Wythe, first professor of the first law course offered 
by an American college. George Washington made his headquarters here prior to 
the siege of Yorktown. 

The Governor's Palace. 1710-1715 

The Palace and its dependencies, preeminent among notable estates in colonial 
America, have been rebuilt on original foundations. Although only partially fur- 
nished, many rooms are of special interest because of the rare old Chinese wall paper, 
antique furniture and other furnishings that have been chosen to conform with in- 
ventories of royal governors. The gardens are considered more typical of formal 
eighteenth century English gardens than any others in America. 

The Public G.aol. 1701-1704 

The building dates from the beginning of the eighteenth century and has been 
restored on original foundations. It includes part of the original structure. The 
findings of archaeological and documentary research furnished a very complete record ^_ 

for guidance in restoring this unusual structure. / 

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OLD POINT COMFORT 

(With lluinks to \'cjc York 1 Icrdlii-Trihunc) 



Three hundred and twenty-five years a');o the first fort to be 
erected in the English-speaking Colonies of America was constructed 
at Point Comfort, Va., on the site now occupied by Fort Monroe, 
which consists of 68 acres, largest enclosed military reservation in 
the world. 

Since that time this point of land on the western shores of Chesa- 
peake Bay has been occupied more or less continuously by defensive 
works, and no station has played a greater part in the development 
of the military efficiency of the nation. It also has a colorful his- 
toric background, the Coast Artillery School, oldest specialty train- 
ing school in the countrv (organized April 5, 1824), and continues 
to hold its prestige as one of the most popular social centers for the 
Army in the East. 

Work on the present tort, designed by Brevet General Simon 
Bernard, colonel on the staff of Napoleon Bonaparte, was begun in 
1818 and belonged to the State of Virginia until it became the prop- 
erty of the United States in 1821. 

Much has been written of the famous battle of the Merrimac 
and Monitor which raged for four hours near here in 1862, but 
little has been said of other events of equal importance in the annals 
of the fort. 

It was here that Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, 
was imprisoned after the collapse of the Southern cause. General 
Lafayette visited the post and received the officers on the evening 
of October 24, 1824. Edgar Allan Poe reported for duty in the ad- 
jutant's office December 20, 1828, under the assumed name of Pri- 
vate E. A. Perry. Cieorge \A'ashingt()n Park Custis-Lee, eldest son 
of General Robert E. Lee, was born in the fort in 1832, and General 
Lee's sec<Mid son, William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, was held here as a 
hostage for nine months during the War Between the States. 

About a mile off Old Point Comfort Beach, on a shoal lying 
opposite Fort Monroe, directly across the main ship channel leading 
from Chesapeake Bav into Hampton Roads and the James River, 
is Fort Wool, an artificial island of stone commonly known as the 
Rip Raps. The island and Fort were begun in 1818, because of the 
splendid site for fortifications with which to supplement the works 
of Old Point Comfort, built about the same time. Since Fort Monroe 
was named after the fifth President of the Lnited States, it was 

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thought logical to name the works to be associated with it for the 
Secretary of War. And so the island fort was called Fort Calhoun 
(sometimes Castle Calhoun) until the War Between the States, 
when the name was changed to Fort Wool, in honor of General 
Wool, one of Fort Monroe's most distinguished commanders. 

The start of Old Point Comfort as a resort dates back 103 years 
to the time Chief Black Hawk and several of his leading warriors 
were brought to Fort Monroe as hostages during the Black Hawk 
War. So distinguished a warrior attracted crowds of visitors taxing 
the capacity of the little hotel Hygeia and making it necessary to 
enlarge the Hygeia from time-to-time until it was finally replaced 
by the Chamberlin Hotel (burned in 1920) on the same site as the 
modern New Chamberlin, center for the social life of the com- 
munity and popular resort hotel. 

The influx continued until June, 1833, when Black Hawk was 
conducted through the large cities of the country to gratify public 
interest. This stay of the Indian chief at Old Point Comfort made 
its climate, fishing grounds and bathing beaches famous throughout 
the country as a watering place. From 1850 until 1860 it was the 
most fashionable resort for planters and statesmen, taking the place 
in the South that Saratoga occupied in the North. 







old Church ar Jamestown. 

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JAMESTOWN 

Where the American Nation Began 

Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America, 
was established on May 13, 1607. The settlers first landed at Cape 
Henry, a few miles northeast of Norfolk, where they set up a cross 
and claimed the land for England. The first landing at Cape Henry 
was on April 26, 1607 and the second landing at the Cape was on 
April 29th. 

The first permanent English settlers in America came over in 
three small ships: the "Sarah Constant," sometimes referred to as 
the "Susan Constant;" the "Godspeed," occasionally called the 
"Goodspeed;" and the "Discovery." Captain John Smith, it is al- 
leged, was in irons, in the hold of the "Sarah Constant." 

Some of the High Points in Jamestown's History 
Are As Follows : 



May 13, 
Sept. 10, 
Oct. 4, 

Oct. 

June 

June 7, 
June 9, 

Sept. 



Mar. 27, 
June 30, 
Mar. 22, 

June 26, 



April 18, 

Oct. 26, 
Oct. 31, 
April 

TULV 7, 



1607 — First pernianeiit English settlement in America established. 

1608 — Captain John Smith takes office as President of Council. 

1609 — Captain John Smith leaves Jamestown owing to injuries sustained in 

explosion of barrel of gunpowder. 
1609 — Starvation threatens colony. 
1610 — Only 60 survivors remaining out of a population of 500 in 1609 — 

440 people die of starvation. 
1610 — Survivors leave Jamestown. 
1610 — Survivors return to Jamestown upon anival of Lord De La \Vare 

with supplies and new settlers. 
1611 — Henrico established bi, Sir Thomas Dale. 
1612 — John Rolfe cultivates tobacco. 
1614 — Pocahontas marries John Rolfe. 
1617 — Pocahontas dies in England. 

1619 — First legislative assembly in America convenes at Jamestown. 
1622 — First Indian Massacre. Population of Jamestown and vicinit\ , 1,240 

— 347 massacred by Indians. 
1624 — Virginia declared a royal piovince. Charter of London comparn' 

revoked. 
1630 — Sir John Harvey arrives as Governor. 

1641 — Sir William Herkley commissioned Governor for Virginia. 
1644 — Second Indian Massacre — 300 killed. 

1676 — Nathaniel Bacon's (Jr.) rebellion. Jamestown burned Sept. 19, lh76. 
1676 — Bacon dies in Gloucester. 
1698 — Capitol at Jamestown burns. 
1699 — Middle Plantation (\Villiamsburg) declared seat of Government. 

Act passed by General Assembly. Jamestown abandoned as a town. 
1781 — Lord Cornwallis crosses river at Jamestown and on July 7th Lafay- 
ette engages him in battle. 
1837 — One residence only, remains at Jamestown (The Ambler House). 
1861 — Confederates fortify Jamestown. 
1907 — Jamestown Exposition at Norfolk. 
1934 — United States Govenmient decides to include Jamestown as a part 

of the Colonial National Monument. 

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HOLLY LODGE 



The picture ot Holly Lodge shown on this page appeared in 
the Nortolk Ledger-Dispatch ot November 10, 191L The caption 
or underline was as follows: 



'^^ 



'^ 



"One ot the most comtortable ot the many tine suburban 
homes around Nortolk is that of H. B. Goodridge on the 
north side ot Tanner's Creek, only a short distance east 
ot the Country Club. Mr. Goodridge was the first to ob- 
serve the beauties and advantages of that particular com- 
munity, and, tour years ago, he purchased the entire penin- 
sula, containing torty-two acres. This was divided into 
two tracts, Mr. Goodridge retaining one and selling the 
other to F. W. McCullough. Subsequently he sold a two- 
acre tract to Henry H. Little. These three compose the 
little community, that lies separate and distinct from the 
outside world." 

For years now Holly Lodge has been an outstanding show 
place of Norfolk tor its owner, the same H. B. Goodridge referred 
to in 1911, spared neither time nor money to add to its horticul- 
tural beautv. 




HOI I.V LODGE IN THF. YFAR mil 
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The Richmond News-Leader had this to state with regard to 
Holly Lodge: 

"Gardening is in itself a strenuous business, yet how 
many men of affairs of the most diverse character have found 
in it a happy relaxation and rest from the wear and tear of 
occupations of greater strain and stress. It was for this 
reason, about seventeen years ago, that one such business 
man was inspired to take up gardening, not in the usual 
sense of gardening with lovely flowers, but in the more 
masculine way of growing hne and rare plants. This was the 
interesting beginning of plantings at Holly Lodge by Mr. 
Goodridge. 

"Holly Lodge, located on Lafayette River, with a 
gently rolling lawn, falling to the water's edge and saved 
from the glare of the afternoon sun by a fringe of patriarchal \. 
live oaks, in its beginning was a simple cottage filling ade- 
quately the needs of a bachelor with his Chow dogs, his '^^1 
beautiful gray parrot, John Silver — his trumpeter bird that .^^ 
sleeps at night in a canvas hammock — golden oriole and 
Malayan minah bird. 



•^K/..*il 





HOLLY LODGE IN THE YEAR 1936 

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"Because he was not satisfied with the use of the usual 
nursery materials Mr. Goodridge planted Japanese per- 
simmons, pomegranates, bay trees, osmanthus, and the 
like, with the result today ot a most unusual collection ot 
plant materials rarely seen in Mrginia. 

"To grow these varied things alone did not long satisfy 
a mind so keen and active. Mr. Goodridge, with a desire 
to grow to perfection something unusual and distinctive, 
began an experiment with Camellia Japonicas. The results 
were so satisfactory that he purchased thru E. A. Mcllhenny, 
Avery Island, Louisiana, several carloads of large grown 
specimens of gorgeous camellias in a variety of colors col- 
lected from the old plantations in that State. To these 
he added small plants of the rarer varieties that can only 
be secured as cuttings from collectors and now the largest 
collection of camellias in Mrginia is growing at Holly Lodge. 
And azaleas are also growing there in profusion. 

"When one speaks of hollies he seldom thinks of other 
than the native holly or perhaps the English holly, but 
there are scores of varieties of holly, some of which are 
most unusual and rare. With Holly Lodge as the name of 
his place Mr. Goodridge has planted a large number of 
the unusual varieties ot holly and this list will be increased 
as other varieties can be secured. 

"Ten years ago, Mr. Goodridge decided that his plants 
growing in more or less wanton abandon without any pre- 
conceived order or plan, were injured by the lack of fore- 
thought and so he made additional plans which would pro- 
vide an even more attractive place as well as a complete 
horticultural list. A brick wall was erected on the boundary 
line on the three sides away from the water, as a place 
of refuge for the more delicate plants which were grouped 
within its protecting nearness. Other plants were lifted 
and moved to where they would grow in comfort and where 
they would contribute to the making ot a picture more com- 
plete. 

"We must not under-rate the practical value of a garden 
of this kind. Its motive and equipment is entirely dis- 
tinct from that of the botanic garden and in some ways it 
concerns even more intimately the every day life ot the State. 
It touches the commercial side of the community as it 
tests out varieties not usually known, it has proved that 
pomegranates and Japanese persimmons can be grown in 
a commercial as well as ornamental way. It shows to the 
nurserymen the kind of plants they can grow and Mr. 
Goodridge, in his kind way, has permitted some of the 
nurserymen of his neighborhood to make cuttings of his 
unusual plants. The general public gains a warranty of 
merit which is of signal importance to them in their own 

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garden work. It helps to solve difficult problems ot cul- 
ture, it brings to light new plant materials for use in par- 
ticular effects and it keeps alive the enthusiasm in garden- 
ing matters without which progress must come to a stand- 
still. Here, too, the amateur, if he will, has ample oppor- 
tunity ot studying object lessons which are inestimable in 
their helpfulness for his personal guidance. 

"In fact, it is only when we have learned to recognize 
the full meaning of the influence exerted by the private 
gardens of Virginia upon the welfare of our national life that 
we appreciate at their true value the far-reaching benefits 
of the work of such a man as Mr. Goodridge." 

On another page of this article is a picture of Holly Lodge as it 
appears in the year 1936, from Lafayette River. What a contrast 
between the two pictures — the picture of today and that of 191 L 
Now the gateway beyond the patriarchal live oaks opens up vistas 
beautiful and enthralling and reveal what one man with infinite 
patience and loving care did to make his home one of the most 
beautiful garden spots in America — and also proof daily of Norfolk's 
equable climate and flora possibilities. 



HISTORIC SMITHFIELD, VIRGINIA 

Quaint is the town of Smithfield, situated on the South bank 
of the James River, a short distance from Norfolk. 

Its antiquity, healthful location, sporting and social life, culture 
and charm, together with its varied business activities both in the 
town and surrounding country, all contribute to make it an ideal place. 

In 1662 Smithfield was a village and was incorporated into a 
town some years later by Arthur Smith, a relative of Captain John 
Smith who visited the place in 1608. 

Only four miles away stands the Old Brick Church, oldest 
Protestant church in America, built in 1632 and visited almost 
daily by tourists from all over the world. 

The foremost industry of Smithfield is the curing and packing 
of Smithfield Hams. These hams are famous the world over. This 
industry, over 300 years old, and one of the first established on 
the American Continent, was originated here. Other business 
activities are: banking, mercantile, lumber, fish and oyster packing. 
The soil in the surrounding country is well adapted to any agricultural 
product that can be grown anywhere in Virginia and North Carolina. 
Isle of Wight melons are famous; its peanuts, cotton and truck 
crops are unsurpassed. It also has many large dairy farms. 

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BAYVILLE MANOR— BUILT ABOUT 1727 



HISTORIC "BAYVILLE FARMS" 

"Bayville Farms," famous for its dairy and other farm products, 
is a part of the land granted to Colonel Adam Thoroughgood in 
1643. The tract of land originally covered in the patent was later 
divided by Colonel Thoroughgood's son and the divisions became 
known as "Bayville Farm," "Church Point Farm," and "Old Lynn- 
haven Farm." 

C. F. Burroughs, President of Royster Guano Company, pur- 
chased "Bayville Farm" about 20 years ago and recently he acquired 
"Church Point Farm," which adjoined. 

The farms are located about 12 miles from Norfolk, in Princess 
Anne County. They front on the historic Lynnhaven River to the 
extent of one mile and consist of 500 acres of land. 

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The beautiful and original colonial residence — "Bayville Manor" 
— built more than 100 years ago and now restored and thoroughly 
modernized, is one of the many assets ot the farm. 

Under the capable direction of Mr. Burroughs, with the assist- 
ance of farm manager E. C. Turner, graduate of ^'irginia Poly- 
technic Institute, "Bayville Farms" have been developeci to an 
unusually high state of cultivation. 

As a successful manufacturer of an extensively used fertilizer, 
Mr. Burroughs numbers thousands of farmers as his customers and 
demonstrates in a practical way the profitable use of Royster's 
products. "Bayville Farms" are modern in all respects, reveal 
scientific farming at the highest point of efficiency, and are operated 
on a practical and profitable basis. 

At "Bayville Farms" is one of the prize herds of about 200 head 
of pure bred and well groomed Guernsey cattle, secured as a result 
of Mr. Burroughs' interest in dairy farming. 

Most of the farming operations at "Bayville Farms" are cen- 
tered around the production of feed for the cattle, but truck farming 
— covering the production of spinach, kale, potatoes and other 
vegetable crops — is done on about 80 of the 500 acres. 

Another crop produced at "Bayville Farms" is the famous 
Lynnhaven oyster. There are over 100 acres of oyster beds in Lynn- 
haven Inlet touching and acijacent to the farms. 

Here is one place where it is not necessary to wait for Old 
Sol to shine in order to make hay. The farms own and operate 




HISTORIC OLD TREES AND ENGLISH BOXWOOD ON LAWN OF BAYVILLE MANOR 

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a dehydrater — a hay drying machine — and altaUa grown on the 100 
acres devoted to it, is cut in the morning and ready for the night 
feeding. 

CleanHness is the motto at the modern bottling and pasteurizing 
plant where the milk is prepared and put in bottles by machinery 
without coming into contact with human hands. Two grades of 
milk— GRADE AA and VITAMIN D— are bottled at the farms 
and distributed in the Norfolk and Virginia Beach areas, at a pre- 
mium. 

Historic "Bayville Farms" retain the natural beauty and at- 
mosphere ot the past and are among the outstanding show places of 
Tidewater \'irginia. Regarciing the history of "Church Point 
Farm" — the last addition to Bayville — it haci its own graveyard. 
In it, among other citizens of note, was buried Colonel Francis 
Yeardley, one of the outstanding colonial Virginians. 

When Nature unfolds her beauty, the flower gardens at "Bay- 
ville Farms" present all the colors of the rainbow and a sight one 
will never forget. Standing on the lawn of "Bayville Manor" a 
beautiful picture is presented. Rows of peonies, azaleas, tulips, 
and other flowering plants, bulbs and shrubs grow in profusion as 
far as the eye can see. Thousands of vari-colored blooms — more 
than 1,000 peonies for instance — blend perfectly as proof that no 
artist can paint a picture as Nature does. 




CAUGHT IN ONE HOUR AT OCEAN VIEW 

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THE NORFOLK NAVY YARD 

The Norfolk Navy Yard has an area of 353 acres measured to 
the pier-head Hne. Of this, 282 acres are land and 71 acres are 
water. The St. Helena Reservation, now under charge of the U. S. 
Coast Guard, has, in addition, 81 acres, ot which 63 acres are hard 
land and 18 acres are water. This makes a total of 434 acres in 
use for the Government's sea forces, comparing as follows, with 
other principal yards: 

Portsmouth, N. H 210 acres 

Boston 124 acres 

New York 197 acres 

Philadelphia 1,030 acres 

Charleston 1,189 acres 

Mare Island, Cal 1,578 acres 

Puget Sound 373 acres 

The Norfolk Yard has 210 buildings, with a total floor space of 
about 55 acres. The Norfolk Yard has 30 berths on the Navy Yard 
side of the river, totaling more than 7,600 feet, nearly II2 miles. 
All this distance has 30 feet depth of water alongside, and two- 
thirds of it has 35 feet or more. 



ySS?^?N, 




[ 191 ] 



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Battleship and Destroyer at Norfolk Navy Yard, situated on Portsmouth's side of the Elizabeth River. # 



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THE OT.D U. S. S. TEXAS, OF SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR FAME. 

The picture shows the Texas in drydock at Norfolk Navy Yard. In her day the Texas was 
regarded as a powerful and speedy warship. 



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More than a quarter ot all the naval dry docks in continental 
United States and a third ot those on the Atlantic Seaboard are 
situated at the Norfolk Yard. No other Uniteci States Navy Yard 
anywhere else has so many. There are six of them, ranging from 
1,011 feet to 324 feet in length and from 40 feet, 3 inches, depth ot 
water (mean high water to keel blocks) in the case ot the long dock 
to 15 teet, 10 inches, in the case ot one ot the short ones. 

Portsmouth, N. H., has a single dock of about the same di- 
mensions as the second largest at Norfolk. Boston has three docks, 
of which the largest is slightly greater than the large one at Nortolk, 
but while Navy-owned, it is not in the Boston Navy Yard. 

New York has tour, none ot which approaches the Nortolk 
dock in size; Philadelphia three, one ot which matches the largest 
at Nortolk; Charleston one, ot about the average size of the six 
Nortolk docks; Mare Island, two, rating about with the second 
largest at Nortolk and one comparing with the Nortolk average 
size. Puget Sound has three dry docks, two ot them comparing 
approximately with the second largest Nortolk dock. The third 
is longer, but has a depth ot water only ec|ual to that ot the two 
smallest Norfolk docks. Only two yards of those named, besides 
Nortolk, have dry docks with sufficient depth of water to have taken 
the U. S. S. Orion in the crippled condition in which she came into 
Norfolk on the night of December 2, 1925. 




SCENE AT NORFOLK NAVY YARD 
[ 193 ] 






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THE NORFOLK NAVAL OPERATING BASE 



The Naval Operating Base at Norfolk, one ot the most modern 
in the world, was established and is maintained on a water front 
site occupying 950 acres, with berthing accommodations at piers 
to the extent ot 6,500 lineal teet. It has within its confines six major 
activities, viz.: Naval Training Station, Air Station, Supply 
Depot, Receiving Station, Depot ot Supplies and Marine Barracks; 
the headciuarters tor the Norfolk Naval District are also situated 
there. 

Naval Training Station 

The Training Station operates two training departments, viz.: 
(a) Drill Department, where recruits are given training before 
being sent to sea; (b) Service Schools Department, which maintains 
schools where enlisted men ot the Navy and Marme Corps are given 
technical training in trades necessary to the maintenance and oper- 
ation ot ships. A preparatory school tor enlisted candidates tor the 
Naval Academy at Annapolis is also maintained. During the 
World War nearly 50,000 recruits were trained at the Station and 
25,000 graduated from the technical schools. As many as 14,500 
men have been in training at this Station at one tune. 








The Old U. S. S. Frigate "Delaware" in stone drydock at Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, 
June, 1833. The Del.iware carried 74 guns and was one of the most powerful ships of her day. 

1 I'M 1 



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Naval Air Station 



One ot the important activities of the Naval Operating Base 
is the Naval Air Station, the largest on the Atlantic Coast. This 
station serves as a repair base tor fleet aircraft, and the shops have 
a capacity tor major overhaul ot 130 planes per year. These shops 
employ about 325 men. 

At certain times ot the year, all ot the ship based aircratt of the 
Scouting Force, about 75 planes, with 220 officers and 485 sailors, 
concentrate here tor combined maneuvers, gunnery and bombing 
practices. 

The Experimental Division of the Air Station tests all new 
types ot planes with respect to their suitability tor landing on board 
aircratt carriers, and, in the case of seaplanes, their ability to land 
in heavy seas. This Division also tests new types of planes and 
equipment to determine their suitability tor general service. Part 
of its work concerns the development ot airplane arresting gear 
in use on board aircraft carriers. 



S 
^ 



Receiving Station 

The Receiving Station serves as a center for forming drafts 
destined tor ships of the fleet, discharges men completing enlist- 
ments, issues all commercial transportation tor ot?icers and men 
received and tor turther transportation, and distributes all enlisted 
personnel other than recruits to activities ot the District. 



Naval Supply Depot 

The Supply Depot is used as a base tor the tieet and it repre- 
sents the largest single activity ot the Bureau ot Supplies and Ac- 
counts, handling supplies tor the United States tleet, no matter where 
located, for the European squadrons, Guantanamo, and other opera- 
tions tar and near. 

The depot is perhaps the finest example of naval efficiency in 
the Service, being organized along lines ot a business establishment. 
It occupies 12 warehouses with a total tloor space ot 55 acres. Naval 
passengers, baggage and supplies are torwarded through the depot 
to the Pacific Coast, the West Indies and other ports, transports 
making scheduled sailings, while supply ships go trom the base to all 
parts of the world. There is a fuel oil depot at the base with a 
capacity in tour tanks ot more than 215,000 barrels. 



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Marine Corps Activities 



The Depot ot Supplies assembles equipment for Marines and 
is prepared to equip men going on expeditions or foreign duty. It 
is the Marine supply base for all Marine Corps supplies on the 
Atlantic Coast. 

The Marine Barracks is a center tor forwarding Marines for 
the purpose ot forming contingents ordered to outlying stations tor 
duty, in addition to policing the Naval Operating Base. 

Brief Facts on the Norfolk Naval Operating Base 

Number of buildings — 453. 

Number of acres ot land — 950. 

Total investment tor buildings and lanci — .125,013,758.87. This 
includes $2,334,114.64 carried as value of buildings in Plant Account 
of the Air Station. 

Total value of other items ot property carried in Plant Account 
of Base— $3,856,933.25, of the Air Station— $791,933.85, Grand 
total $4,648,867.10. 

Total value of entire plant nearly $30,000,000.00. 

Supplies purchased at Norfolk in excess of $1,000,000.00 an- 
nually. 





1 



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U. S. Marines in Anniversaries Year Parade, passing Main and Bank Streets, October 12, 1936. ^^ 

[ 196 ] 



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THE NORFOLK ADVERTISING BOARD 

The Norfolk Advertising Board is entering its twelfth year ot 
service rendered to the community by reason ot the enthusiastic 
and energetic support given by the bvisiness men. 

Much of the work performed in the interest of the area was of 
such character as to quality for permanent recording to indicate some 
of the milestones along Norfolk's path of progress. In view of this 
it is deemed advisable to include in this book extracts from some 
of the Manager's reports made to the board. The extracts follow: 

(From 1925-1928 Reports) 

"The $300,000 Community Advertising Fund was provided 
by popular subscription during May, 1925. 

"A special committee of fifty-two on June 2, 1925, elected a 
board of control, with Colonel S. L. Slover, Publisher, Ledger-Dis- 
patch, as Chairman; Mr. Goldsborough Serpell, Banker, then Chair- 
man of the Board, Seaboard National Bank, as Treasurer; and 
Messrs. T. P. Thompson, Architect anci Engineer, NefF and Thomp- 
son; E. W. Maupin, Jr., Merchant, Hawks-Maupin Company 
(Portsmouth), and W. W. Mitchell, Manager, Ford Assembly 
Plant, as members. 

"On July 27, 1925, in New York, the board in a special meeting 
selected Francis E. Turin, of St. Louis, Mo., as Manager, and the 
J. Walter Thompson Company, as the advertising agency for the 
Fund. 

"The Board of Control or Governing Board, began its actual 
work when the Manager reported for duty on August 10, 1925. 
After nearly ninety (90) days of investigation, the board unanimously 
agreed that the program in general should be: 

"(a) Advertise for new industries — assist in enlarging the in- 
dustries already located in the district. 

"(b) Advertise to attract more tourists and conventions to 
the section. 

"(c) Extend the trade territory. 

"(d) Increase the population by inducing more people to move 
to the area. 

"(e) Increase the use of the port as a distributing center. 

"(f) Increase the production and sale of sea foods. 

"(g) Increase the production of agricultural, dairy, truck, food 
products and flowers in the territory. 

I 197 ] 



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L. H. WINDHOLZ. President 
Norfolk Advertising Board 



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"(h) Increase the shipphig done through the port — exports, 

imports, coastwise. 
"(i) Interest capitaHsts and others in various development 

projects. 

"After taking stock it was decided that booklets, folders, and 
pamphlets would be required tor the initial and follow-up work in 
connection with the advertising campaign. Numerous attractive 
pieces of literature were prepared, covering all subjects selected for 
the program. This work required considerable time due to the 
fact that in the majority of cases all new photographs and cuts had 
to be made. Thousands of copies of each booklet, folder and pamph- 
let were distributed. 

Cavalier and Norfolk Hotels 

"Shortly before the Cavalier was ready for business, it was 
decided by the Advertising Board that the Cavalier should receive 
particular attention, as it was community built, community owned, 
and would in a sense be operated almost exclusively from a com- 
munity standpoint. With this decision came instructions to the 
Advertising Board's Manager to exert every effort possible to arouse 
the interest of the carriers and other agencies, in order to take ad- 
vantage of every opportunity to protect the investment representing 
nearly .$2,000,000, and immediately the Manager busied himself 
with the job at hand. As a result of the work done by the Ad- 
vertising Board on this project, the Cavalier is known among hotel 
men as one of the best advertised hotels in the country. It is be- 
lieved in order to state here that it was not the paid advertising alone 
that did the job — the volumes of literature published by the carriers, 
the announcements on menu cards, the special copy in Time Tables 
and regular folders issued by the carriers, the direct mail campaigns 
conducted by several of the railroads and steamship lines, the "All 
Expense Trips," the conventions and groups brought to the Cavalier 
through the efficient Convention Bureau of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, and the cooperation of many of Norfolk's outstanding citi- 
zens — all this work aided materially to put the hotel over with the 
traveling public. 

"In connection with the above, it must be kept in mind that 
the Advertising Board referred to all the leading hotels and cottages 
in the Norfolk-Portsmouth area, along with the Cavalier, either in 
newspaper and magazine advertisements or in special folders and 
booklets. 

1 199 1 




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H. B, GOODRIDGE, First Vice-President 
Norfolk Advertising Board 



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Photographic Service 

"The Advertising Board maintained a photographic service tor 
newspapers, magazines, railroads, steamship companies and direct 
mail work and today, as a result of the service, Norfolk is better 
known from one end oi the country to the other. In many instances 
the Advertising Board staff recommended style, type faces, and 
furnished layouts tor special booklets, tolders and pamphlets tor 
the railroad and steamship companies. A regular routine was 
followed and no opportunity was overlooked to procure maximum 
publicity for Norfolk-Portsmouth through these agencies. 

Industrial Aoxertisinc; 

"The Advertising Board realized the importance ot going to 
work without dela\' on the first item of the general program — 'Adver- 
tise tor new industries — assist in enlarging the industries already 
located in the district.' joint meetings ut the Advertising Board 
and the Industrial Commissit)n were held, and after an investigation 
or survey which required more than three months, a campaign was 
worked out by all concerned. It was found that in most instances 
port facilities and port activities could be featured in the 'copy' and 
in a majoritv of cases the lead was 'NORFOLK-PORTSMOUTH— 
THE INDUSTRIAL PORT.' 

"The industrial campaign began in the Fall ot 1925 and was 
continued in sections throughout the period covered by this report. 

Full pages and half pages were run in magazines and 200, 
300, 480 and 800 line advertisements were run in newspapers. The 
newspapers and magazines in which the advertisements appeared 
had a grand circulation in excess of 7,000,000. 

Railroad and Steavship Companies 

"One of the objectives of the Advertising Board was that 
of railroad and steamship company co-operation. In the opinion 
of many this objective was obtained. 

"It was realized by the members of the Advertising Board that 
the efforts of the board could be notched-up by having the carriers 
serving this area tie-in on the Advertising Campaign, to induce 
more tourist traffic to this area. 

"Shortly after beginning operations, the Advertising Board 
furnished a plan to interest the railroad and steamship companies 
in the highly important work of bringing the tourist dollars to the 
Norfolk-Portsmouth area, in a major manner. 

[ 201 1 




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G. SERPELL. Second Vice-President 
Norfolk Advertising Board 



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19 

"It was believed that first it would be necessary to demonstrate 
to the transportation agencies that the Advertising Board would do 
its share of the work and to show its sincerity in this respect, an 
ambitious newspaper and magazine campaign was inaugurated and 
continued through to a successful conclusion by the board. This 
campaign called tor space in some oi the leading newspapers and 
magazines of the country. 

Railroad and Steamship Company Cooperation and 
Booklets, Folders, Etc. 

"According to the records, prior to the raising ot the $300,000 
Advertising Fund, practically all railroad and steamship company 
literature — folders, booklets and pamphlets — were published with 
little or no mention of points in the Norfolk-Portsmouth area. 
There were a few notable exceptions, however, but even in some of 
^ these cases, the reading matter anci photographs were out-ot-date. 

"In order to make it easy for the carriers to cooperate, the 
board began its work on a photograph, cut anci reading matter 
service. 

"The board had indicated that it stood ready to furnish cuts, 
photographs, and reading matter in order to provide for Norrolk- 
Portsmouth representation in railroad and steamship company 
literature and as a result of this particular work, the Norfolk-Ports- 
mouth area is well advertised now throughout the United States, 
through railroad and steamship comp)any time-tables, folders, 
pamphlets anci special booklets. In many cases, the companies 
gave the board every opportunity to make suggestions concerning 
the style or manner in which the area should be featured. 

Trade Territory 
"The work to extend the trade territory of Norfolk and Ports- 
mouth was inaugurated during the first year ot the campaign. Con- 
siderable preliminary work was necessary in order to make the de- 
cision concerning the boundaries. The Advertising managers and 
chief executives of the leading retail establishments ot both cities 
were visited and frequent conferences were held with them in order 
to obtain information on the territory they covered. Charts were 
prepared showing the territory of each merchant called on, and 
finally sections ot Virginia and North Carolina were designated as 
the logical trade territory. The editors ot country newspapers, 
daily and weekly, were asked to furnish the latest information on 
their respective communities, covering population, road conditions 
and other important points. 

f 203 1 



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P. S. HUBER. Third Vice-President 
Norfolk Advertising Board 



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"Schedules for advertisements were worked out to cover the 
leading daily and weekly newspapers in the trade territory and the 
urge in the advertisements was 'Come to Norfolk-Portsmouth to 
Play — to Rest.' The Advertising Board featured the beaches, 
fishing, hunting. Water Carnival and Regatta, Schneider Cup Race 
and other Norfolk-Portsmouth events and attractions. The work 
on trade territory reclamation or extension produced excellent 
results. 

Signboards or Ottdoor Bi'i.i.etins 

"In addition to the Tourist and Trade Territory Advertising 
Campaigns in the newspapers and magazines, the Advertising Board 
provided for ten (10) large de luxe outdoor bulletin boards, size 
fifty (50) feet. Representatives of the Advertising Board rode the 
highways selected as carrying good tourist traffic ami spotted lo- 
cations for the hoards. 



The Norfolk-Portsmouth News Bureau 

"In August, 1925, when the present Advertising Board staff 
took over the functions of the old publicity department of the Nor- 
folk-Portsmouth Chamber of Commerce, and established the Nor- 
folk-Portsmouth News Bureau with Mr. C. H. Hoofnagle, an ex- 
perienced newspaper man, in charge, there was nothing that could 
be called a photograph library covering this section. There were 
only a numbej of ill-assorted views collected at random, and not 
indexed. 

"One of the first tasks undertaken by the News Bureau was 
the building up of a really complete and creditable photograph 
library. The work was intensified in the beginning and has been 
going forward steadily ever since. The library now consists of 
approximately 2,000 master copies covering all points of interest 
in the Norfolk-Portsmouth section, thoroughly indexed and protected 
by durable mounting on linen and filing in leather covered albums in 
a steel cabinet. 

"Mr. Henry W. Gillen, President, Acme Photo Company, ren- 
dered excellent cooperation on this project. 

"When French Strother, Associate Editor of World's Work, 
was recently in Norfolk he went through the photograph file and 
enthusiastically declared it to be 'the finest and best arranged collec- 
tion of photographs he had seen in any Chamber of Commerce from 
New York to Los Angeles.' 

"The News Bureau has also undertaken a number of special 

1 205 I 




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E. W. BERARD, JR. Treasurer 
Norfolk Advertising Board 



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photographic jobs. For instance, a series showing the crabbing 
industry from the catching of the crabs through the process of 
canning and packing was taken tor the Bray Studios, to be used in 
an educational fihii for showing in pubhc schools. 

"The News Bureau has always given special attention to out- 
standing news events such as the 1925 Princess Anne GoU Tourna- 
ment, 1925 Water Carnival, Schneidqf Cup Races, the retin-n ot 
Lindbergh through the Virginia Capes, President Coolidge's review 
of the Fleet, etc. This work included co-operation with visiting 
newspaper and press association representatives in making their 
work easier and impressing upon them the desirability ot using the 
Norfolk date line instead of Hampton Roads, as otten used to happen. 

"For years the Associated Press had been using 'Hampton Roads' 
tor the date line tor items referring to any event, or in covering any 
particular news tor the Hampton Roads area; e. g. — when the 
Schneider Cup Race was held at Norfolk, the early press dispatches 
were sent out under a Hampton Roads date line. 

"By careful work it was shown to the Associated Press that it 
was not fair to Norfolk and also that the news was not correct 
with such date lines. It was pointed out that Hampton Roads 
was not a village, town or city but was a water-way, miles wide. 
As a result of this work the Associated Press notified the manager 
for the Advertising Board that in the future the city where the 
event took place would be included in the date line, it the dispatch 
was filed in such city. 

"With this new order, no opportunity was overlooked by the 
staff of the Advertising Board including the News Bureau, to obtain 
the date line; e. g. — when Lindbergh returned to the United States 
he was met at sea by a destroyer carrying the Norfolk party and 
more than fifty newspaper men, photographers, news weekly photog- 
raphers and Press Association men. Special arrangements were 
made with both the Postal Telegraph Company and the Western 
Union and buses were on hand to rush the members ot the party to 
both offices where the dispatches were filed. Each telegraph com- 
pany had a typewriter and a table tor each reporter and every effort 
was made by the telegraph companies and the Advertising Board 
to make it easy for the members ot the press party. Needless to 
state, Norfolk was given the date line. 

"When President Coolidge reviewed the Fleet off Cape Henry, 
the director of the News Bureau, cooperating with the Associated 
Press representatives, saw to it that a line was run to the historic 
old lighthouse, and due to this work, the review was reported by 

[ 207 j 





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Norfolk Advertising Board 



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wire to all papers in the United States, with a Cape Henry date 
line and short reference to the lighthouse. After the review the 
representative was rushed to Norfolk where he filed additional 
items under a Norfolk date line. 

"In connection with this it is desired to report that fifty-five 
reporters and press association men and ten photographers repre- 
senting the news weeklies and 'movies' were on hand tor the review 
and filed their stories at Norfolk. Again the telegraph companies 
cooperated and again buses were furnished through the courtesy of 
the Virginia Electric and Power Company and The Transit Corpora- 
tion of Norfolk. Several automobiles were also available for dis- 
patch work and motorcycle police were on hand to clear the road to 
town. Members of the Advertising Board and News Bureau 
staffs were aboard the U. S. S. Seattle (the flagship) and the May- 
flower — the President's yacht. 

"Another branch of the News Bureau's work has been to fur- 
nish general, historic, shipping, agricultural, and other types of 
stories on the Norfolk section to trade periodicals, together with 
pictures and cuts illustrating them. Several hundred magazines 
have been covered in this way and they have given as a result many 
thousands of column inches of Norfolk pviblicity. 

"The Bureau has also continued all the functions of the old 
publicity department of the Chamber of Commerce, answering 
inquiries and filling in questionnaires of statistical information on 
this section. 

"The News Bureau prepared a complete preface for the latest 
Norfolk-Portsmouth City Directory and furnished cuts to illustrate it. 

The Water Carnivai, and Regatta 

"The first Norfolk-Portsmouth Water Carnival and Regatta 
was held here August 18th to 21st, 1926, inclusive. The high 
points of the program of the Water Carnival and Regatta were as 
follows: 

Wednesday, August i8th 

Arrival of King Neptune in the Hague at 2:30 p. m. 
Military, Naval, Civic and Fraternal Parade. 

Wednesday Night, August iSth 

Dinner at Ocean Mew Hotel in honor of distinguished 
guests in attendance at the Water Carnival and Regatta. 

[ 209 1 



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Thursday, August igth 

Mammoth Marine Parade, under supervision of U. S. 
Coast Guard. 

Eleven Work Boat Races, Yacht Races, Local Speed 
Boat Races and Water Bug Races. 

Thursday Night, August igth 

"A colorful pageant in the Hague, special illumination of 
the Hague, coronation ot the Queen and Block Dancing. 

Friday Morn i tig, August 20th 

"Star Boat Races, Schooner Races, Skipjack Races and 
Batteau Races. 

Friday Night, August 20th 

"Virginia Beach Night — Carnival and Mardi Gras at 
the Beach. 

Saturday, August 2ist 

"Speed Boat Races were held. This was the big day. 
Probably never before had there been as much activity from 
a sport standpoint in the Eastern Branch of the Elizabeth 
River. The famous Biscayne Babies, the boats from Florida, 
were entered in nearly all the races. Hydroplanes of the 510 
class and 151 class were also present and entered in the race. 

Saturday Night, August 2ist 
Ball at (ihent Club and fireworks. 



The Schneider Cup Race 

"The Schneider Cup Race was held here November 13, 1926, 
and was won by Major Mario de Bernadi, of Italy, at an average 
speed ot more than 246 miles per hour. The race without doubt 
was the means ot obtaining tor Norfolk more national and inter- 
national publicity than ever before had been obtained for the city. 
Every effort was made to provide for the comfort and convenience 
of distinguished out-of-town guests. Particular attention was paid 
to newspaper men and photographers. Representatives from all 
the New York and other big city newspapers and news syndicates, 
were in attendance at the race and banquet; in fact representatives 
from all the leading papers ot the world were on hand. 

I 210 1 



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"The 'get together meeting' held at the Princess Anne Country 
Club, for the benefit of the visiting newspaper men and photog- 
raphers proved highly successful. Mayor Tyler, all the members of 
the Advertising Board and many other leading citizens ot Norfolk 
and Portsmouth were at the meeting and functioned admirably in 
the interest of Norfolk and Portsmouth, the idea being to see to it 
that nothing was left undone to demonstrate to the visiting news- 
paper men and photographers that the Norfolk-Portsmouth area 
was thoroughly wide-awake and knew how to handle a big party. 

"Comments made after the race by prominent Norfolk and 
Portsmouth citizens indicated that everybody was pleased with 
the manner in which the affair was conducted. Insofar as the race 
itself is concerned it has been estimated that more than 200,000 
people saw it. Everything went off like clock work. The Navy's co- 
operation contributed very materially to the success of the affair. 

"Concerning the banquet held in honor of the Italian and 
American pilots, it was quite an event. Cabinet officers, admirals, 
generals, foreign diplomats and some of the outstanding citizens of 
the world were present at the banquet. Representatives from 
Japan, Italy, Siam, France, Canada, and other foreign countries 
made the affair international. The banquet hall at the Monticello 
Hotel was filled to capacity, with three hundred and fifty-seven 
(357) men and women present, at five dollars per plate. 

"The Schneider Cup Race was featured in newspapers through- 
out the world. It was also shown in motion pictures. Everywhere 
special layouts appeared in the rotogravure sections of the leading 
papers of the country and Mussolini commented on it in Italv's 
Congress and decorated the winner. 

"At the time Norfolk was selected as the race city, through the 
efforts of the Advertising Board, America, England, France, and 
Germany and Italy were in line for the race, but unfortunately 
England, France and Germany dropped out in turn because of pro- 
duction and other troubles, and on November 13, only the Italian 
and the American teams were ready for the race. New York, Chicago, 
Detroit, Cleveland, Los Angeles and Miami were among the cities 
competing with Norfolk for the race. 

"The Italian team, composed of Major Mario de Bernadi 
(team captain), Captain Arturo Ferrarin, Captain A. A. Guascone 
Guasconi, Lieutenant Adriano Baculo and Major Aldo Guglielmetti, 
arrived about two weeks before the race and the members of the 
team were provided with accommodations at the Monticello Hotel. 

I 211 ] 



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Muzio Macchi, foreign representative, Macchi Company of Italy, 
and fifteen mechanics were also with the team and were quartered 
at the Naval Base. 

"Actual Italian pilots in the race were Major de Bernadi, 
Captain Ferrain and I.ieut. Bacula. American pilots were Lieut. 
C. C. Champion, U. S. N., Lieut. G. T. Cuddihv, U. S. N., and 1st 
Lieut. C. F. Schilt, U. S. M. C. 

"The manager lor the Advertising Board — F. E. Turin — served 
as Chairman ot the General Arrangements Committee. Ex-officio 
members ot the committee — U. S. Naval officers — included Rear 
Admiral MofFett, Chief of the Navy Aviation Bureau. 






Fleet Week 

(A Chamber of Commerce activity on -niiich the 
Advertising Board cooperated) 

"Fleet Week brought back the days when Norfolk was the 
rendezvous for warships and the streets ot the city teemed with 
thousands ot bluejackets and marines on parade or on liberty. 
More than one hundred (100) battleships ot the first line, cruisers, 
destroyers, airplane carriers, submarines, mine layers, mine swwepers 
and tenders with 25,000 officers and men were at Norfolk during 
Fleet Week and the review by the President on May 30th was an 
impressive sight and drew additional thousands to Norfolk. 

"The Advertising Board printed and distributed an attractive 32- 
page booklet, with cover in colors, at the hotels, on steamers, and 
through the railroads and advertised Fleet Week in newspapers on 
trade territory and tourist schedules, in an effort to draw the crowds 
to Norfolk. The booklet was later used as a guide on governmental 
activities in the Norfolk-Portsmouth area owing to the comprehen- 
sive manner in which the various subjects were treated. 



Brazilian Party 

(A Norfolk-Portsmouth Chamber of Commerce and Virginia State 

Chamber of Commerce Activity on Which the 

Advertising Board Co-operated ) 

"The manager for the Advertising Board served on this Commit- 
tee and cooperated to the limit with the Committee. His Excellency 
Senor Doctor Alarica da Silveira, Secretary to the President and per- 

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,<^~Ti 



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sonal representative of the President of Brazil, and Senor Lindolfe 
Callor, member of the Chamber of Deputies, National Congress of the 
United States of Brazil, were in the party. 

"An inspection of the Norfolk-Portsmouth area was made by 
the part)' and a complimentary dinner-dance was given at the Cava- 
lier Hotel. The party arrived here on March 2nd and left March 
4th, 1928. 

"F'avorable publicity on the visit was given to Norfolk throughout 
the United States. 

National Industri.<\l Conference Board 

"It will be remembered that in December, 1925, the National In- 
dustrial Conference Board, made up of representatives from the lead- 
ing Trade Associations, such as the American Klectric Railway Asso- 
ciation, The American Hardware Association of Manufacturers and 
other like organizations and including on its board outstanding busi- 
ness men of the country — Loyall A. Osborne, President, Westinghouse 
Electric International Company; William H. Nichols, Jr., President, 
General Chemical Companj-; Fayette R. Plumb, President, Fayette 
R. Plumb Company, and John W. O. Leary (then president of the 
United States Chamber of Commerce) — published several charts in 
connection with a report covering living conditions in the principal 
cities of the United States, with Norfolk listed as one of the cities where 
living costs were highest. One of the charts appeared in the Literary 
Digest and several items dealing with the charts were sent out over 
press wires to newspapers in all parts of the United States. This pub- 
licity began to react unfavorably on Norfolk, especially so in view of 
the fact thr.t the first national advertising campaign for new industries 
had been launched by the Advertising Board. 

"No time was lest by the Advertising Board and in order to refute 
the charges that living costs were unusually high in Norfolk, the mana- 
ger for the board conferred with V. S. Department of Labor othcials, 
V. S. Chamber cf Commerce executives in W ashi:ngton, and also with 
members of the staff of the National Industrial Conference Board in 
New York. As a result of such conferences the manager for the Ad- 
\ertising Board prepared a thirty-two page report on the subject, with 
tables showing that evidently through inadvertence several mistakes 
had been made in various other reports made on conditions in more 
than thirty cities, and further, that the chart instead of showing living 
costs really showed living standards and that because of this fact Nor- 

I 215 J 




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folk was being penalized b>' representatives from the railroad and 
steamship companies. 

"The manager for the Advertising Board, acting as advertising 
agent or as ad\-ertising counsellor, cleared through the Convention 
Bureau on the All-Expense Tours. The Convention Bureau was es- 
tablished and the set-up permitted the Advertising Board to turn to 
0;n this work without any loss of time. Mr. Fairfield H. Hodges, 
the director of the Convention Bureau, reported that 23,874 men, 
women and children in 185 groups visited Norfolk from the time this 
work began to July 30, 1928. 

"Special folders were prepared by the carriers in many instances 
and cuts were furnished by the Advertising Board for such folders. 
Visiting ticket agents w ere greeted cordially when they visited Norfolk 
and sightseeing trips were arranged for them. Photographs were fur- 
nished to field representatives for use in solicitation work and colored 
slides showing scenes at Norfolk-Portsmouth, Yorktown, Jamestown, 
Williamsburg, Ocean \'iew, Cape Henry and \'irginia Beach were 
made to be projected on screens used in lectures before school groups. 

The Convention Bureau 

"The Advertising Board cooperated with the Convention Bureau 
to the fullest extent. A special booklet w^as prepared for the bureau 
by the board. The News Bureau handled the publicity for the con- 
ventions and prepared special articles for publication published by or 
for the organizations that had selected Norfolk as the Convention City. 
In several cases direct-mail campaigns on conventions were conducted 
by the Advertising Board and Convention Bureau working together. 
Branch information booths were operated at the hotels for large con- 
ventions. Also in a few cases the Advertising Board, in an effort to 
stimulate attendance, placed special advertisements in publications 
suggested by the director for the Convention Bureau. 

Tides and Strides 

"At a Chamber of Commerce board meeting in July, 1927, the 
manager for the Advertising Board recommended that a Norfolk- 
Portsmouth Chamber of Commerce magazine be published monthly, 
to inform the members of the Chamber of Commerce of the work be- 
ing done by the Chamber in its various departments and by allied 
agencies. 

"A check on the subject was made and it was found that nearly all 
Chambers of Commerce in the United States were publishing monthly 

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or semi-monthly magazines and the manager for the Advertising 
Board was appointed Chairman of the Publication Committee with 
authority to publish a Chamber of Commerce magazine without cost 
to the Chamber. 

"It was not an eas}' job to put the idea over in view of the many 
difficulties faced. However, after a few weeks' work and many per- 
sonal calls, the manager was able to report that more than thirty con- 
tracts to run for one year and calling for space representing an income 
of $3,000 or $1,400 more than required for an ordinary one-color job 
with cheap paper, had been obtained. The manager at this time also 
reported that at his request the Retail Merchants Association had 
endorsed the idea. 

"It was decided to publish the magazine each month and accord- 
ingly the magazine made its first appearance in August, 1927, less 
than thirty days after the meeting of the board at which the project 
had been authorized. 

"The manager named the publication "Tidrs and Strides" — 
"Tides" for Norfolk's harbor and port activities and "Strides" to call 
to mind the giant steps forward during the last few years. 

Radio 

"The Ad\'ertising Board used the radio for advertising and in 
the opinion of the manager radio advertising paid and offers excellent 
opportunities for Community Advertising, although it was not possi- 
ble to obtain an accurate check on the results from a national stand- 
point. Locally, the programs were highh' successful and much good 
work was done by the Radio Committee along these lines — members 
of the Chamber were told what the Chamber was doing; residents of 
Norfolk-Portsmouth were told why they should boost for the Norfolk- 
Portsmouth area and out-of-town guests and speakers at Chamber 
of Commerce and other meetings were introduced to the people of 
Norfolk and Portsmouth \ia the radio. 

Know Norfolk Camp.aign 

"The Ad\ertising Board cooperated with the Real Estate Board 
and the Chamber of Commerce on the Know Norfolk Campaigns. 
The first campaign (1927) was designated as the 'Know Norfolk- 
Portsmouth and South Norfolk Campaign.' The second campaign 
(1928) was designated as the 'Know Norfolk Campaign,' it being 
believed by the Committee that the term 'Norfolk' covered the whole 
territory. 

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"Both campaigns lasted one week and were successful. Motion 
pictures, radio, newspapers and bulletin boards were used during each 
campaign. Special statistics prepared by the Advertising Board were 
used by speakers at the schools and also at meetings of the civic clubs. 
A trip on the Belt Line was a feature of the 1928 campaign and more 
than one hundred (100) Norfolkians learned a lot about Norfolk as 
an industrial center through this trip. 

Tourist Information Bureau 

"Not so many years ago the Norfolk-Portsmouth area was prac- 
tically unknown as a tourist center. Today, this section of the cotin- 
try is known throughout the United States and many parts of the 
world as 'The Ideal All-Year Playground.' It required hard work 
on the part of e\'erybod\- to accomplish this, along with practical 
methods and persistent a.nd intensive efforts. 

"The tourist industrx' means millions of dollars yearly in new 
business for the two communities so closeh' linked together. One has 
only to note the yearl}' increases in hotel arri\als to understand how 
valuable this business is to Norfolk and Portsmouth and the other 
small cities in this part of America. 

"From June 1, 1925, to July 31, 1928, the Tourist Information 
Bureau and its branches and the Direct Mail and Literature depart- 
ment of the Advertising Board, answered more than 200,000 inquiries. 

Local Nev\'spapers 

"The Ledger-Dispatch, the \'irginian-Pilot and the Portsmouth 
Star rendered invaluable service to the communit\" b\' co-operating 
with the Advertising Board in its work. Commendation is due the 
newspapers especialh' on account of the manner in which releases 
were made to the Associated Press, and also because of how the\' 
covered the various campaigns launched b>" the board. Few people 
in Norfolk and Portsmouth realize that an\- one of the papers would 
be a credit to cities thrice the size of Norfolk or Portsmouth. 

(From Report of 1929-1936) 

"The board is still functioning under the original productive policy 
adopted in 1925. The present members are: L. H. W'indholz, Presi- 
dent; H. B. Goodridge, 1st Vice-President; G. Serpell, 2nd \'ice-Presi- 
dent; P. S. Huber, 3rd \'ice-President ; L. \V. Berard, Jr., Treasurer; 
F. E. Turin, Secretary and Manager. 

[ 216 1 



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"The Atlantic Coastal Highway Association headquarters have 
been moved to Norfolk and as a result of the board's representation 
the route via Cape Charles has been designated as the original route. 
To date, approximately $20,000 has been spent by the Advertising 
Board and its cooperating agencies — bridge and ferry corporations — 
to popularize the highway. 

"Approximately $2,000,000 in collateral advertising was gener- 
ated by the Advertising Board. This advertising was developed 
through the Administration or Executive Department of the board, 
under the direction of the board and manager. 

"Full credit must be given to the railroads, the steamship lines, 
the bus lines, hotels, bridge and ferry corporations and other agencies 
which spent the money on the collateral advertising. 

"For the benefit of those who do not understand what is meant 
in this instance, collateral advertising is that advertising which the 
carriers and other agencies place and pay for direct in cooperation 
with the Advertising Board. 

"In 1924, the year before the board began its work, the collateral 
advertising for all agencies as referred to was less than $50,000. The 
greatest year — 1929 — it amounted to approximately $350,000; from 
1925 to the summer of 1936 the total amount was in excess of $2,300,000. 

"The Advertising Board operates a special department for this 
work and in many instances actually outlined newspaper advertising 
campaigns and furnished plates (electrotypes, halftones, etc.) and 
photographs, for use in booklets, folders, and pamphlets for the follow- 
up work. 

"Of the total amount of money paid in to the Advertising Board 
on subscriptions since 1925, more than $200,000 was spent on Indus- 
trial and Port De\elopment work. Newspaper and magazine adver- 
tising campaigns were conducted in many of the leading newspapers 
and magazines of the country — more than 50. 

"The Advertising Board will continue to manifest a keen interest 
in Industrial and Port Development work and will be guided b}' the 
Norfolk-Portsmouth Industrial Commission and the Norfolk Port 
Traffic Commission, as it has in the past. Concerning Trade Terri- 
tor)' work, the Advertising Board spent in excess of $100,000 in de- 
veloping the trading area of Norfolk. Special advertising campaigns 
were carried at times in more than 40 of the country newspapers and 
special mailing lists of shoppers were made up for special direct-mail 
campaigns. Concerning this, the Advertising Board made the first 

f 217 1 




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complete published survey on Norfolk's shopping area, covering 16 
counties and five cities in Virginia and 16 counties and one city in 
i\orth Carolina. 

"More than 1,700 various advertisements were placed in 322 dif- 
ferent publications with an estimated reader circulation of 32,278,510. 
The Advertising Board also used radio stations for advertising pur- 
poses and also used outdoor bulletin boards — or signboards as they 
are commonly called. Altogether, more than fifty signboards were 
used for highway advertising. 

"Another outstanding accomplishment of the Norfolk Advertis- 
ing Board and one very closely related to Tourist Work is what has 
been done to secure national publicity for Norfolk, Portsmouth, Ocean 
View, Virginia Beach, Cape Henry and other Norfolk area points. 

"A total of 11,045,062 lines of favorable publicity were secured. 
Figured at an average cost of 30 cents per line this means that the 
actual money value of the space given without charge to the board be- 
cause of its publicity efforts was $3,313,518. 

"More than 34,000 feature articles and news items alone were 
written and released by the manager of the board and publicity assist- 
ants, since the board was organized in 1925. A total of 44,758 photo- 
graphs of all sizes of Norfolk area points and places were furnished 
to the Associated Press News Picture Bureau, Acme, Wide-World, Un- 
derwood and Underwood, etc., and publishers, including The Saturday 
Evening Post, National Geographic Magazine and to colleges, grade 
and high schools and such newspapers as the New York Times, New 
York Herald-Tribune, St. Louis Globe Democrat, Detroit Free Press 
and other big city newspapers. 

"The board furnished 24,642 cuts, electrotypes, halftones, plates 
and 'mats' to various agencies who used the material in booklets, fold- 
ers, etc. 

"The Advertising Board is on the job day in and day out, for 
Norfolk. No opportunit\' is overlooked to keep Norfolk on the map. 

"The Tourist Industry- is one industry which offers immediate 
results. More than $30,000,000 is invested in resort properties, in 
the Norfolk area, on this side of the water. 

"The railroads, the steamer lines, the hotels, and other agencies 
with a direct interest in the tourist industry here are among the larger 
taxpayers on the City of Norfolk tax lists. 

"Everybody profits. The tourist dollar spreads over the whole 
city. The population of Norfolk is only 129,710 and if the retail 

[ 218 1 



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merchants of the community had to depend on local business only, a 
lot of them would be forced to go out of business. 

"The transportation agencies, the hotels, the amusement enter- 
prises, all lines of business depending almost entirely on tourists for 
business, employ thousands of local people who live here day in and day 
out — and these people because of the tourists, draw their wages and 
in turn spend their money at the Norfolk stores for food, clothing, 
rent, gas and electricity, etc. 

"The United States Department of Commerce gives the distribu- 
tion of the tourist dollar as follows : To the Retailer, 25% ; For Food, 
20%; For Hotel Accommodation, 17%; For Gas, Oil, etc., including 
Garage, 12%"; For Transportation, \Q% \ For Amusement, including 
Theatres, 10% ; For Candy, C^onfectionery, etc., 6%. 

"Roger Babson, in commenting on the Advertising Board's Tour- 
ist work, said : 

" 'Norfolk has been far-sighted. You have recognized 
changes in the habits of a nation. You have established and 
cultivated the industry, and your success is most encouraging. 
By making Norfolk a tourist center you have not only brought 
in new wealth and activity, but at the same time have made 
your community advertise its permanent advantages to all 
visitors who have enjoyed its temporary hospitality. 

" 'From the statistics furnished to me, it is evident that 
the careful planning and vigorous execution of your cam- 
paigns are bringing very tangible results." 




NORFOLK -PORTSMOUTH CLIMATE 

Winds from the northeast :uul southeast, passing over large bodies ot water before 
reaching the shores, coupled with the proximity ot the Gulf Stream, are contributing factors 
in the delightful all-year climate of Norfolk-Portsmouth. 

Statistics of the United States Weather Bureau show the following: 

Mean .'Innnal Temperature 50.4 degrees 

Mean Spring Temperature jy.2 degrees 

Mean Summer Temperature '6.8 degrees 

Mean Jiitumn Temperature (5/. (5 degrees 

The average number of days without rain is HO a year, while the sunshine in summer 
is 59 per cent of the possible time, and in winter j'i per cent of the possible time. 



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V 



A FK\\ ACCOMPLISHMENTS BY NORFOLK ADVERTISING BOARD 
SINCE IT WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1925 



National Publicity secured through Norfolk News Service — Lines 11.045,062 

Conservative estimate of value of publicity received $3,331,518 

Collateral Advertising $2,470,000 

Feature articles and items written for newspapers and magazines 34,100 

Photographs furnished to newspapers, magazines, news photograph 

agencies, etc. 44,758 

Electrotypes, halftones, other plates and mats furnished to newspapers, 

magazines, publishers, etc 24.642 

Number of out-of-town inquiries answered by Advertising Board and 

all board departments 356.791 

Booklets, folders, maps, pamphlets, etc. — 158 different kinds — published 

and distributed by Advertising Board — pieces 5,261,500 

Booklets, folders, pamphlets, maps, etc., furnished to Advertising Board 
by other agencies (furnished without cost to the board and featured 

Norfolk and Norfolk area points), pieces distributed 10,562,108 

Advertisements placed by board — in newspapers and magazines 1,761 

Circulation of publications in which Norfolk advertisements appeared 32,278,510 

Signboards used SO 

Individual requests handled by manager's office and not included in 
other figures (Information on trade territory, other statistical in- 
formation, etc.) 10,042 

Number of agencies contacted and solicited for cooperation in develop- 
ing Norfolk as a resort area — travel bureaus, railroads, steamer lines, 

bus lines, etc 2,302 

Estimated number of visitors brought to Norfolk area through Adver- 
tising Board's work (for stay of at least one day) 5,000,000 

Radio Advertising, programs 206 



J. 



1 



What Captain John Smith said about Norfolli-Portsmouth in IfiO". 

"H'itkin is n country that may have the prerogatives over the most pleasant places 
oj Europe, Asia or Africa. Heaven and Earth never better agreed to frame a place for 
tnan's habitation. The mildness o] the air, the fertility of the so'l, and the situation 
of the rivers are so propitious to the use of man that no place is more convenient for pleasure, 
profit and mans sustenance under any latitude or climate. The vesture of the earth doth 
manifestly prove the nature of the soil to he lusty and very rich." 



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"^: 



THE NORFOLK ASSOCIATION OF COMMERCE 



Authentic records show that Norfolk had the benefit of a com- 
mercial organization — a Chamber of Commerce — more than a 
hundred years ago. In 1801 a Chamber ot Commerce was formed, 
and since that time, with perhaps a break or two, Norfolk has had 
its organized manpower tor its commercial, industrial and civic 
development. 

For years, the old Norfolk Board ot Trade functioned in this 
capacity, however, it was more of a social club than a Chamber of 
Commerce. These business men awoke to the needs of a highly 
specialized work and on May 12, 1913, a charter was granted to 
the Chamber of Commerce-Board of Trade, Inc., of Norfolk. The 
late F. S. Royster was the first president of this newly-formed or- 
ganization. Following Mr. Royster, who served one year. May 1, 
1913-April 30, 1914, with a splendid record in the leading position, 
were, the late Barton Myers, who served as president from May 1, 
1914, to December 31, 1918; Senator John A. Lesner from January 
1, 1919, to December 31, 1920; Henry G. Barbee from January 1, 
1921, to December 31, 1922; H. H. Rumble from January 1, 1923, 
to December 31, 1923; Thos. P. Thompson from January 1, 1924, 
to December 31, 1925; Leon T. Seawell from January 1, 1926, 
to December 31, 1927; the late Dr. Southgate Leigh from January 
1, 1928, to December 31, 1929; J. C. Nelms, Jr., from Jamiary 1, 
1930, to December 31, 1931; and, A. B. Schwarzkopf, the present 
incumbent, who took office January 1, 1932, and is now serving his 
fifth term as president. 

The name of the organization remained Norfolk Chamber of 
Commerce-Board of Trade until May 17, 1918, when the charter 
was amended and the name changed to the Norfolk Chamber of 
Commerce. On November 20, 1922, it was again changed to 
Norfolk-Portsmouth Chamber of Commerce. It is understood 
there was no Chamber of Commerce in Portsmouth at that time 
and leaders in both cities endeavored to build up the organization 
to serve both Norfolk and Portsmouth. The membership was 
increased materially through the support of Portsmouth business 
interests; however, at a later date, the Portsmouth Chamber of 
Commerce was organized and accumulated strength and force in 
that city and is today one of the most outstanding commercial 
organizations in the State. 

[ 221 ] 



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A. B. SCHWARZKOPF 
President Norfolk Association of Commerce; President Hampton Roads Maritime Exchange; \'ice-President 
National Bank of Commerce; Honorary Vice-President Norfolk Chapter Isaac Walton League of America; Vice- 
President N'lrginia Atlantic Deeper Water\K'ays Association; Manager Norfolk-Portsmouth Clearing House 
Association. Treasurer Virginia Seashore State Park Association; Past President \'irginia Bankers Association; 
Past President Norfolk Country Club; Past Delegate State Chamber of Commerce. Fourth Pan-American Con- 
gress. Washington. D. C; Selected as outstanding citizen for Cosmopolitan Club Distinguished Service Medal 
for year 1936. 



1 222 ] 




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The fact that the nature of the name ot the Norfolk organiza- 
tion caused a little contusion and tended to indicate the Portsmouth 
Chamber was a subsidiary of the Norfolk organization, thereby 
doing the Portsmouth group an unforeseen and inadvertant injustice, 
and with the realization that the great worthiness of that organiza- 
tion entitled it to every cooperation possible, the directors of the 
Norfolk Chamber caused another amendment of the charter Sep- 
tember 14, 1932, bringing about another change in the name to 
Norfolk Association of Commerce as the organization is at present 
designated. 

When the Norfolk Chamber of Commerce was formeci in 1913 — 
Norfolk Board of Trade — the first secretary was E. L. McColgin. 
At that time, W. A. Cox, at present Director of the Port for the 
Virginia State Port Authority, was Traffic and Industrial Manager. 
Following Mr. McColgin's resignation in 1914, Mr. Cox was ap- 
pointed Secretary and served in that capacity until May, 1924, at 
which time he resigned to follow other lines. Following Mr. Cox 
as secretary came A. R. Gould from the Portsmouth organization, 
who served for one year. In 1926 the late Fred B. Brunyate was 
appointed secretary and served until late in 1927, at which time he 
resigned to go in business for himself. 

In February, 1928, VV. S. Harney, then assistant to the manager 
of the Jacksonville (Florida) Chamber of Commerce, and a native 
of North Carolina, was selected for secretary and is the present 
incumbent. The title of the position was changed to Secretary- 
Manager in 1928. 

The organization has always been aggressive and forceful in 
giving expression to the collective reasoning of a very high class 
cross-section of the business and professional business structure of 
this area. Its history and accomplishments, during the World War 
period, and since, would make a book of intensively interesting facts. 
It stands for the best and its programs, especially that of the present, 
place it at the top in the business of community development in 
all its phases. 

Outstanding among the departments operated by the Asso- 
ciation of Commerce is the Convention Bureau, Fairfield H. Hodges, 
Director. 

The Association has a ground floor located at 107 West Main 
Street — in the Talbot Building at the foot of Granby Street — easily 
accessible to visitors and members. 



[ 223 ] 




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THE NORFOLK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

By Mary D. Pretlow 



The Norfolk Library came into being during one of the most 
depressing periods of the city's history — a little more than five years 
after the close of the Civil War. The four years of the war had 
left their devastating mark on property and souls — the five years 
that followed had been filled with the bitterness of local government 
by Northern men; with the unavoidable clash of two races so lately 
master and slave; with poverty and conditions that gave little hope 
for the future. A group of prominent men met at the City Hall 
August 18, 1870, and organized a stock company under the name 
of the Norfolk Library Association. Its officers were Dr. Samuel 
Selden, President; J. F. Welborne, Vice-President; R. W. Byrd, 
Secretary; T. R. Borland, Corresponding Secretary, and George 
Chamberlainc, Treasurer. T. B. West was appointed Librarian. 

All members of the Library, with the exception of the stock- 
holders, were required to pay a fee of $5.00 per year. Members 
were entitled to the privilege of withdrawing one book at a time 
for a period of ten days. Any member taking a book out of the 
library without having it charged against his name was fined one 
dollar for each ofifense. The first home of the Library was the second 
fioor of the Academy building. It was moved later to the new 
Y. M. C. A. building on Main Street, and still later to the Newton 
House at the corner of Granby Street and College Place, where it 
remained until moved to its present location. 

The books were carefully selected — much time being given 
to this by both Librarian and Board of Directors. And from the 
very begmning there was a fine list of magazines — F^nglish and 
American. 

But the Library did not prosper -its only source of income was 
its membership fees, and through these it was caught in a circle — 
no new subscribers — no new books; no new books — no new sub- 
scribers. The stockholders met and decided to make some changes. 
The name of the library was changed to The Norfolk Public Li- 
brary, and it was incorporated under that name by act of the General 
Assembly February 12, 1894. The affairs of the Library were vested 
in a self-continuing Board of fifteen directors, from whom and by 
whom the officers were to be elected. Colonel William Lamb was 
elected President of the Board of Directors. 

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In the meantime several persons had held the position of li- 
brarian. Mr. West had been followed by Miss Nina Tunstall, she 
by Miss Nannie E. Smith, and she in turn by Miss Fanny Garnett 
Miss Garnett was succeeded by Mr. William Henry Sargeant in 
March, 1895. 

Mr. Sargeant brought to the position business training com- 
bined with a fine knowledge of books. I'nder him the Library ac- 
quired many rare items of Virginiana, and the general collection 
of books was strengthened. That year — 1895 — the city made its 
first appropriation to the Library — $750.00 for the last six months 
of the year. About this time Andrew Carnegie was demonstrating 
his belief in education by presenting libraries to towns and cities 
of America. Mr. Sargeant urged the Board to apply for aid to 
establish a free public library in Norfolk. In February, 1901 the 
Board decided to act and two of its members — Mr. John B. Jenkins 
and Mr. Barton Myers, acting then and afterwards for the Board, 
applied to Mr. Carnegie for a grant for a library building. Within 
a week an answer was received. Mr. Carnegie offered to give 
$50,000 for a building on condition that the city would provide a 
site and guarantee the maintenance of the Library. The city agreed 




CENTRAL BUILDING— NORFOLK PUBLIC LIBRARY 
[ 225 ] 



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to guarantee the required maintenance and the daughters of Dr. 
William Sclden, the second president of the Library offered to do- 
nate a site as a memorial to their father. This offer was brought 
to the Board by Major J. \V. Grandy, whose wife was one of the 
donors. The site offered was at the corner of Freemason and Thomas 
Streets and was considered excellent. The plans for the building 
w'ere drawn by Herbert D. Hale of Boston. On Thursday, October 
8, 1903 the cornerstone of the new building was laid under Masonic 
auspices by Owens Lodge, of which the Librarian's son, William 
H. Sargeant, Jr., was Worshipful Master. The new building was 
thrown open to the public, without special ceremonies, on Novem- 
ber 21, 1904. It was a free public library. 

Some months before this Colonel Lamb had resigned as Presi- 
dent of the Board and Captain John L. Roper had been elected to 
succeed him. The Librarian's report for 1904, the year the new 
Library was opened showed that the Library had 2,712 members, 
with 11,403 books for their use, and that these books had a circula- 
tion of 34,225. Thirty years later — 1934 — the city's population 
numbered 129,710. The Library reported for that year 50,972 mem- 
bers, with 80,833 books for their use, and that these books had a 
circulation of 385,747. 

The Library received several important gifts besides that of 
the Main Library and its site; Miss S. E. Taylor, who died in 1900 
had left a legacy of $2,000; Mr. H. D. Van Wyck left a provision 
in his will for the purchase of "A lot in the Citv of Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia, for the purpose of having erected thereon a building for a 
public library." E. W. James, a director of the Library and well 
known for his Lower Norfolk County Antic]uary gave many books. 
(When he died in 1908 his will provided a legacy of $1,000 for the 
Library.) Mr. Carrington Grigsby and his sister, Mrs. W. W. Gait, 
donated the valuable Cirigsby collection of Norfolk newspapers. 

The Board decided to use the Van Wyck bequest to purchase 
a site for a branch librarv, and with that end in view acquired a 
site on 15th Street opposite Maury High School. 

Application was made to Mr. Carnegie, who agreed, upon the 
same conditions as those in his first bequest, to give the sum of $20,- 
000 for a branch librarv. The plans for this building were drawn 
by Ferguson, Calrow, and \^Tenn. 

The building, the first branch library — was opened May 15, 
1916, and was called the T^an JFyck Branch. 

Mr. Sargeant died on March 23, 1917. He had come to a small 
library of limited use and had seen it grow into a strong institution 

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whose influence was felt throughout the city. It was as a memorial 
to Mr. Sargeant that the Board later set aside in a special room 
to be known as the JVilUam Henry Saryennt AI etnorial Room 
the Library's important and valuable collection of V^irgianiana. 

In May, 1917, Mary D. Prctlow was appointed Librarian. 
The country was at war and Norfolk was filled with sailors and 
soldiers. The city was ringed about with camps, forts, Naval and 
Marine bases, training stations, embarkation camps, and ammuni- 
tion depots. The Library "public" was taking second place to the 
needs of the men in uniform. Camps, bases, and transports were 
clamouring for reading matter. The people of Norfolk gave 
thousands of books and tens of thousands of magazines. All of these 
had to be sorted and packed for delivery at many points, and this 
was done by the Librarian and members of the staff, working with 
details of sailors. 

In September, 1918 the Librarian was granted a leave of absence 
for overseas work with the Y. M. C. A., and Janet Carter Berkley, 
First Assistant in the Library was made Acting Librarian until the 
Librarian's return a year later. 

Miss Berkley developed and carried on the war work as well 
as the regular work of the Library. 




\A.\ W\C'K BR.\.\CH— NORFOLK PCBLK' LIBR.VRV 
Site given by H. D. Van Wyck of Norfolk. Building given by Andrew Carnegie 

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Captain Roper died June 24, 1921, and Mr. Robert M. Hughes 
was elected President of the Board. 

The Berkley Branch, serving a section separated from the rest 
of the city by the river and a toll bridge, was opened April 20, 1921. 
The same year — July 19 — the Blyden Branch was opened for the 
benefit of Norfolk's large Negro population. This branch was the 
first library for Negroes supported by a municipality to be opened 
in the State. It was fitting that this forward step should have been 
taken by the oldest public library in Virginia. Both of these branch 
libraries as well as the four that were to follow, were opened by 
the Library at the direction of the City Council. 

The following year — April 26, 1922, a branch was opened in 
Branibleton, a section that, like Berkley and Ocean View, was an 
independent town before its annexation to Norfolk. 

The Ocean View Branch, situated in the very heart of a popular 
seaside resort and more than seven miles distant from the Main 
Library was opened July 21, 1923. The same year — September 
24 — the Tanner's Creek Branch was opened in the Larchmont 
section. 

The Lafayette Branch, the seventh and last branch, was opened 
July 1, 1930.' 

When the Library was organized in 1870 Norfolk was a city 
of 19,229 persons. I'he Library has grown with the city, but its 
greatest period of growth came with the opening of the branch 
libraries. Books were within reach of a largely increased number 
of people. The year of the Library's greatest activity, aside from 
war time, was 1932 when the reading rooms were always crowded 
beyond their capacity and when the circulation reached its highest 
point — nearly half a million. 

The Main Library is delightfully situated on an old residential 
street, from its west windows one looks out across a lovely garden 
to the blue waters of the harbor. But this location once admirable 
for a city of 46,000 people is now quite outside the lines of traffic, 
and a city grown to 130,000 finds it difficult to reach. 

The city has been fortunate in the high type of men that have 
always formed the Library's Board of Directors, and the Library 
has been fortunate in that the city which supplies the entire revenue 
of the Library, has never suggested an appointment. Politics play 
no part in the management of the Library nor in the selection of 
its staff'. 



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NORFOLK ANNIVERSARIES YEAR COMMITTEES 

The Honorable W. R. L. Taylor, Mayor, City of Nor/oik, Ho>iorary Chairman. 

V. E. Turin, General Chairman. 

A. H. Foreman, Vice-Chairman. 

W. H. T. Squires, Vice-Chairniaii and Historian. 

E. W. Berard, Jr., Treasurer. 

Charles Day, Poet Laureate. 

Honorary Members of Committee: 
T. P. Thompson, City Manager. 
J. D. Wood, Member, City Council. 
H. L. Butler, Member, City Council. 
J. A. Gurkin, Member, City Council. 
J. W. Reed, M.D., Member, City Council. 
George C. Coleman, Chairman, Norfolk County Board of Supervisors. 

Executive Committee {.^Iso includes officers): 

L. H. Windholz, H. B. Goodridge, P. S. Huber, G. Serpell, E. W. Berard, 
Jr., Charles J. Consolvo, Miss Lillian Johnson, Robert M. Hughes, 
Jr., A. B. Schwarzkopf, W. S. Harney, J. Frank Bell, Taylor Willis, 
b.D., George N. Badran, F. H. Hodges, Otto Wells, Mrs. Frantz 
Naylor, Mrs. R. W. Shultice, Karl C. Edwards. 

Committee on Anniversaries Book.: 

F. E. Turin, M. E. Bennett, W. H. T. Squires. 

Publicity Committee: 

P. S. Huber, Winder R. Harris, Thomas A. Hanes, Co-Chairmen. 

Campbell Arnoux, Louis L Jaffe, Douglas Gordon, H. D. Perkins^ N. R. 
Hamilton, Joseph .\. Leslie, Jr., W. E. Debnam, E. E. Edgar, Charles 
Riley and W. N. Cox, Members. 

School Pageant Executive Committee: 

C. L. Robinson, A. P. S. Robinson, J. J. Brewbaker, Miss Lucy S. Saunders 
and E. S. Brinklev, Co-Chairmen and Executive Committee, including 
Dr. W. H. T. Squires, E. S. Brinkley and Mrs. J. D. Leitch (Mary 
Sinton Leitch); Special Committee on Story and Poetic Monologue: 
Miss Rose Willis, Pageant Director; Miss ^'irginia Hardin, Narrator. 

Special Council Meeting Committee: 

W. S. Harney awe/ John D. Corbell, Co-Chairmen. 

Celebration Parade Committee: 

R. W. Webb, Chairman and Grand Marshal. 
C. B. Borland and F. E. Turin, Co-Chairmen. 

J. G. Moore, A. Obici, Hugo Bernagozzi, Samuel G. Jones and'Yowy Lagiglia, 
Assistant Marshals. 

Speakers' Committee (Organized by Junior Chamber of Commerce): 
Louis M. Saunders and George N. Badran, Co-Chairmen. 
Louis Kesser, Winston W. Wynne, Michael Lagiglia, Gordon E. Campbell. 

T^ouis Lee Guy, LeRoy M. Ober, Walter Hoffman a>id Albert Hawkins, 

Members. 

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FoREMAN^ Field Committee: 

A. H. Foreman, T. P. Thompson, John D. Corbell. 

Transportation Committee: 

C. U. Freund, R. S. Barrett, C. R. Welton, W. B. Dougherty, A. S. Johnson, 
R. J. Throckmorton, Henry Miller, E. F. Railsback. 

Armistice Day Committee: 

S. R. Heller, Chairman. 

Thomas C. Dugan, Allen M. Cook, W. P. Boehmer, Paul Decker, L. R. 
Brown, John Rav, F. H. Cox, T. V. Williamson, George Loeb, Wade 
Morton,' Henry \V. Gillen, John Twohy, II, Alex N. Bell, M. H. House, 
J. A. Lanier, Jr., Members. 

Committee on Street Decorations: 
F. H. Hodges, Chairman. 

Committee on Norfolk Commemorative 50-Cent Piece: 
F. E. Turin, Chairman. 

Committee ox Program for Colored People: 
James FI. Smith, Chairman. 




Mr. Bryan (applauding), Mayor Taylor fat extreme left), Mr. Foreman (standing at right), 
City Manager Thompson fcenter and also applauding), and other distinguished guests and mem- 
bers of Committee at Foreman Field, October 3, 1936. 

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5 NORFOLK ANNIVERSARIES YEAR PROGRAM 

f\ (Commemorating 300th Anniversary of Original Norfolk Land Grant 

^^ and 200th Anniversary of Creation of Norfolk as a Borough) 



1936 

September 15 — 



September 15 — 
October 3 — 

October 3 
October 3 — 

October 2, 3, 4 — 
October 6 — 

October 7, 8, 9— 
October 10, 11, 12- 

October 12 — 



November 11- 



1937 

Spring of 1937- 



Summer of 1937- 



Special program at City Council meeting in City Audi- 
torium, at 3:00 p. m. Parading and presentation of His- 
toric Norfolk Mace presented by Lieutenant Governor 
Dinwiddle in 1753. Address by the Honorable W. R. L. 
Taylor, Mayor, City of Norfolk and others. Musical 
selections. 

Airplanes in maneuvers over city — just prior to City 
Council meeting. 

Dedicatory ceremonies at new William and Mary Stadium, 
with seating capacity of 18,000 (2:00 p. m.). His Excel- 
lency, the Governor of Virginia, and other distinguished 
guests will be present. 

William and Mary-LTniversity of Virginia Football Game — 
new stadium — 2:30 p. m. 

At 8:00 p. m. — 12th Street Armory — Subscription Dance in 
honor of William and Mary College. Junior Chamber of 
Commerce in charge of arrangements. 

Special services in churches and synagogues of Norfolk. 

Colorful pageant at William and Mary stadium. To be 
staged by Norfolk Public Schools and to depict principal 
historical Norfolk events from time Original Norfolk Land 
Grant was issued. Cast of more than 1,000 men, women 
and children. 

Program for colored people — to be arranged by committee 
of colored men and women. 

-Convention of 29th Division Association Drum and Bugle 
Corps competitions at William and Mary Stadium on 
October 11th. 

Celebration Parade — 20 divisions, including one with 
floats — Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, National 
Guard, American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars, Spanish 
American War Veterans, Disabled War Veterans, patriotic 
societies and others participating. Parade gets under 
way at 11:00 a. m. Street decorations will be hung by 
October 2nd and will remain up until after the parade on 
October 12th. 

American Legion Armistice Day Celebration at William 
and Mary Stadium at 8:00 p. m. Committees from 40 and 8 
in charge of arrangements. Special program includes one 
hour of fireworks. 

Festival. Date to be set. Will include Home-coming 
Period for all former Norfolkians. 

Water Carnival, including boat races and swimming events. 
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THE CITY COUNCIL MEETING ON SEPTEMBER 15, 1936 

(Reprinted from Norfolk. Firginian- Pilot) 

Recalling that it was exactly 200 years ago yesterday that a royal charter 
was granted, creating the Borough of Norfolk, Mayor W. R. L. Taylor yesterday 
led an official city celebration in the City Auditorium in honor of that event and 
of the 300th anniversary of the original land grant. 

Mayor Taylor, who traced the history of the forms of city government for 
Norfolk, was joined by the Rev. W. H. T. Squires, D.D., historian, in praising 
and relating the events which have led Norfolk to her present greatness. 

In colorful ceremonies in a brightly decorated City Auditorium and before 
approximately 1,500 people, more than halt of whom were school children, the 
two speakers cited the high lights of the city's history and pointed with pride to 
the historic Norfolk City Mace, the gift of Lieut. Gov. Robert Dinwiddle in 1753, 
on display with other relics on the speakers' stand yesterday. 

The celebration was a bright and colorful affair from the first. Practically 
all seats were taken as the Norfolk Firemen's Band played a lively air and three 
uniformed police officers led the official procession into the auditorium. They 
carried the flags of the United States, Virginia and Norfolk. Back of them was 
another officer with the mace. 

Then Mayor Taylor and Mr. Corbell marched to the front, followed by 
Councilmen J. W. Reed, J. D. Wood, Hugh L. Butler and John A. Gurkin. The 
audience stood. In the official party near the front were staff officers from the 
French cruiser now in port. Hundreds of school children craned their necks to 
see the mace, the bright flags, the various officials and the uniformed naval officers. 

The Rev. Vincent C. Franks, D.D., rector of Old St. Paul's Church, opened 
the meeting with prayer and the audience again stood as the band played 
"America." Mayor Taylor's address followed. Then Mr. Corbell read from 
the old records and Dr. Squires spoke. 

Big Noise Through City 

Mayor Taylor was loud in his praise of the Firemen's Band, composed of 
men who give their time to their organization, bought their own instruments and 
help in city celebrations. The band played "airs of yesterday" and the Rev. 
W. Taylor Willis, rector of Christ and St. l-uke's Church, spoke the benediction. 

The audience then sang "The Star-Spangled Banner" and "Les Marseillaise" 
was played over the loud speaker system for the visiting Frenchmen from the 
French Cruiser U Enbrecasteaitx. 

Mayor Taylor touched briefly on the times of distress through which the 
city passed, the black days of the Revolutionary War when the city was burned 
entirely to the ground except for the "walls of one building and that a house of 
God, which was rebuilt from the old ruins," the four long years of the War Between 
the States, the yellow fever epidemic of 1855. But each time the city came 
back and grew greater, he pointed out. 

In introducing City Clerk John D. Corbell, Mayor Taylor said he was, 
officially, a descendant of Sir John Randolph, recorder for the first City Council, 
and Mr. Corbell read the minutes of the meeting of the council of November 18, 
1736, written by Sir John, when he recorded that he had taken his oath of office 

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and that the citx's first mayor, Samuel Boiish, had died. Mr. Corbell had on 
display the official records ot that day, preserveii through all the 200 years that 
have passed since then. 

The auditorium ceremonies were expected to be over by 2:45 o'clock, but 
they ran over time a few minutes and were interrupted by the deafening din 
raised by virtualh- every noise-making instrument in the community. The 
general committee in charge of the celebration had arranged to have all rail- 
road, steamship and factory whistles, automobile horns and sirens blown, bells 
rung and other noise-makers operated from ^2:4,5 to 3 o'clock, and, judging from 
the results, there were no slackers. Mayor Taylor's voice, even with the aid ot 
the loudspeaker system turned on full blast, was all but drowned out by the 
terrific sound outside, and the benediction hardly could be heard. 

The celebration was further enlivened by large squadrons of airplanes from 
the Naval Air Station flying over the city in formation. The Navy contributed 
this part of the exercises at the request ot the general committee in charge. 

With these features of the program functioning 100 per cent., there could 
have been no doubt that every person within the city was celebrating its '•200th 
and 300th birthdav. 



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City Hall Avenue and Granby Street at turn of Twentieth Century. Old Monticello Hotel 
before fire in 1918. Note that at time picture was taken there were no street car tracks on City 
Hall Avenue. Also note rig on wrong side of street. 

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FOREMAN FIELD DEDICATED 

(One of Major Featlres on Anniversaries Year Program) 



(Extracts from Norfolk Virginian-Pilot of October 4. 1936) 

Foreman Field. Norfolk's new $300,000 stadium of white concrete silhouetted 
beautifully against a rich green turf — the realization of an old civic ambition — was 
dedicated to public use yesterday afternoon before a cheering crowd of football 
enthusiasts variously estimated at between 13,000 and 15,000. 

In this pageant setting of music, vivid colors and athletic rivalry — with clear 
weather of a temperature more aptly described as "perfect" idr football — this 
largest assembly ever to witness a football game in Norfolk participated in a 
program which lasted uninterruptedly from shortly after 2 o'clock until sunset. 

They heard a brief dedication program presided over by John Stewart Bryan, 
president, of the College of William and Mary, with crisp, pointed addresses by 
Governor George C. Peery and Mayor \\'. R. L. Taylor, of Norfolk. 

They saw a powerful eleven from the University of \'irginia march to its eighth 
straight victory over a game William and Mary team by a score of 7 to 0. 

They exclaimed at the simple beauty of an 18,000-capacity amphitheatre, 
situated on Hampton boulevard at its intersection with Boiling avenue, erected 
through the joint efforts of the Norfolk Division, College of William and Mary- 
V. P. I., the City of Norfolk and the United States Government. 

They gave rousing recognition to the stadium's namesake — A. H. Foreman, 
chairman of the Norfolk School Board and member of the William and Alary board 
of visitors, whose vision and energy led to the establishment six years ago of the 
Norfolk unit of the college and the ultimate erection of the athletic field. 

Early in the afternoon, the beaming sun giving promise of the excellent cli- 
matic conditions which were to follow, spectators began streaming into the huge 
oval, and by 2 o'clock the two towering concrete stands showed a ripplmg surface 
of humanity. 

Governor Peery, Mr. Bryan and other city and State officials, who had taken 
seats in the president's box in the east stand, went forth at this juncture for a brief 
inspection of the physical propeities of the college. As he passed the stands on 
both sides of the field, the Governor was cheered by the exhilarated audience. 

Drum Corps Drill 

\^'hile spectators continued to pour into the stadium in a surging stream, there 
marched upon the field the glistening drum and bugle corps of the American Legion 
from Norfolk and Portsmouth. Drums rattling and bugles singing, they paraded 
together around and across the field, stepping high and handsome. 

First to leave the field was the spangled corps of the Portsmouth American 
Legion Post 37, which took a tier of seats in the east stand. They left the field to 
the Norfolk corps, which swung then into concentrated action. Forming an an- 
chor of men, the buglers burst into "Anchors Aweigh" and paraded from one goal 
post to the other. Wheeling, they returned to the center of the field, executed 
a series of complicated drill figures and lined up in front of the east stand for a 
concert. Their selections, made doubly pleasing because of the recognized diffi- 

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Governor Peery speaking at Foreman Fielil, October I!, 1030, at Dedicatory Services, before 
game between University of Virginia and College of William and Mary football teams. 

culty of extracting melody from a bugle, included "Auld Lang Syne," the University 
of Virginia anthem, and "Carry Me Back to Old Virginia." 

Out in front of the Norfolk corps, wheeling her baton like a circus trouper, was 
Miss Virginia Hoedins, the organization's 17-year-old mascot, whose flawless 
handling of the silver staff brought frequent applause. The entire drum corps' 
performance won enthusiastic approval. 

When the hour of 2 : 30 arrived — appointed time for the beginning of the speech- 
making — the drum major still swung his baton and the drums rolled. Came 2:40, 
and Mr. Bryan, master of ceremonies, arose from his seat. 



Df 



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"Ladies and gentlemen," Mr. Bryan spoke into the microphone, "we are come 
here today " 

Another burst of rattling drums and his words were lost. The LIniversity of 
Virginia band could be seen assembling at the north gate. 

"We see here today the culmination of a great ideal," Mr. Bryan got up again 
to continue. "William and Mary furnished the motive, Norfolk the manpower, 
and the Government the money; and," he turned to hear the first chords go up 
from the University band, "somebody furnished the band. Anyhow, we are going 
to begin the game at 3 o'clock." 

Mr. Bryan sat down again to let the band play out its piece. A few minutes 
later he arose to announce: 

"I present Governor George Campbell Peery of Virginia." 



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"This is a happ\' day for William and Mary." the Governor be^an. "and die 
State shares her just pride. It is a happy day for Norfolk and the whole State of 
Virginia. 

"I am happy for the privilege to come here and participate in the pleasantry. 
pageantry and beauty of the moment; and 1 am happy that the I'niversity of \'ir- 
ginia can come here to take part in this program. I am sure it will be a contest of 
real gladiators living up to the ideals of \ irginia gentlemen. 

"I congratulate all who have had a part in this big undertaking, the dream of 
J. A. C. Chandler and the vision of Herbert Foreman." 

Magnificent Spect.-vcle 

Describing the occasion as a "magnificent spectacle" in a "magnificent forum," 
Ma}-or Taylor likewise referred to the "indefatigable energy, zeal and ambition" of 
Mr. Foreman in making the stadium a fciit accompli. 

"\ trust we well see a long line of events in these grounds." the Mayor con- 
tinued, "and I invite the people to its use."" 

When the mayor had concluded, Mr. Bryan asked Mr. Foreman to stand. He 
arose amid tumultuous applause. 

True to his word. Mr. Bryan had trimmed the 20-minute e.xercises appro.ximately 
in half, and at six minutes to 3 the Virginia squad raced upon the field, followed in 
close order by the footballers from William and Mary. 

.'Xt 3 o'clock, the pigskin was placed for the kick-off. and the game was 
under way. 

Buffet Luncheon 

Prior to the dedication program and game, the city of Norfolk was host to 
Governor and Mrs. Peery and his staff; President Bryan, \^'illiam A. Smith, \"ir- 
ginia WPA Administrator, and other officials of the cil\'. State and Federal Go\- 
ernment at a buffet luncheon at the Norfolk ^'acht and Countiy Club. More than 
200 persons attended. 

Present from the Washington office of WI'A were Corrington Gill, assistant 
administrator in charge of finance, and Thad Holt, assistant administrator in charge 
of labor relations. 

Mayor Ta\lor and City Councilmen John A. Gurkin. j. \\ . Reed. j. D. Wood 
and Hugh L. Butler and City Manager Thomas P. Thompson headed the lis"^ of 
city officials who played host to the guests. 

At the stadium, other guests were in attendance. Among these were Rear 
Adm. C. S. Freeman, commandant of the Norfolk Navy Yard; Dr. Sidney B. Hall, 
Slate Superintendent of Public Instruction; James E. Bradford, director of the 
Slate budget; Representative Colgate W. Darden, Col. E. E. Holland, of Suffolk, 
chairman of the Senate education committee; Lester Hooker, chairman of the State 
Corporation Commission; Col. E. Griffith Dodson, clerk of the General Assembh' 
and military aide to the Governor, and Norman R. Hamilton, Democratic candi- 
date for the House of Representatives. 

College "Dressed Up" 

The educational center, of which Foreman Field is a part, was in holiday dress 
for the occasion. Artful landscaping, fresh paint and lawn-mowers had been used 
effectTvely to beautify the groimds of the Larchmont School and the Norfolk Divi- 

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sion. College of William and Mary and \'. P. I., which face each other across 
Hampton boulevard. 

Of almost equal interest with the athletic held was the new combination ad- 
ministration, classroom and gymnasium building, recently completed with the assist- 
ance of Government funds at a total cost of approximately $125,000. 

One of the principal beauties of the stadium itself was the green carpet of a 
playing field, a genth' rolling gridiron with grass cropped as close as a putting 
green. In all of this man-designed beauty, however, was left one lone sentinel of 
nature, a giant oak bordering the cinder track at the south end of the field, its base 
protected by a carefully outlined concrete border. 



15,000 SEE ANNIVERSARY PAGEANTRY 

(Reprinted from Norfolk Virginian-Pilot of October 29, 1936) 

Two thousand school children of this modern age, gaily dressed and excellently 
trained, moved through the colorful history of the City of Norfolk last night at 
Foreman Field in a comprehensive and glittering pageant that was witnessed by 
about 15,000 persons. 

The entire program, one of the largest and most elaborate of its kind e\'er 
presented in the city, was titled "The Story of Norfolk" and was de\'eIoped by the 
Norfolk Education Association in celebration of the bicentennial of the citys estab- 
lishment as a borough and the 300th anniversar\- of the original land grant for this 
area. It was the third major episode in the anniversaries celebration since Septem- 
ber rs. 

Starting with a simple scene portraying the life of Indians in their village of 
Ski-co-ak, which stood about on what is now the site of the Union Station, the 
pageant told in color and movement of the landing of the English at Cape Henry, 
the grant of land to Thomas VMUoughby in 1636, the presentation of the historic 
Mace in 1754, the Battle of Great Bridge, the impressing of three .American seamen 
into service in the English Navy in 1807, the raising of the Confederate flag, the 
battle of the Merrimac and the .Monitor, and the development in peace time, along 
with many more tableaux vividly bringing to life again the ephochal events that 
forged the character of this city today. 

Costuming Authentic 

Not only was the performance in the pageant of the highest type, but the cos- 
tuming was authentic and brilliant. Teachers in various city schools represented 
in the pageant devoted considerable time to research work in order to assure ac- 
curacy in the costumes, and in none of the 19 units presented could a flaw in mode 
of dress be detected. 

The stage for the giant performance was set at the northern end of the field, 
and consisted of a bright blue back drop flanked by two silver pylons, one bearing 
"1636" and the other "1936." Immediately in front of the blue drapery was a 
low set representing the ocean, which was flanked by painted pine trees and a 
stage siding. 

Before this floodlighted background the history of Norfolk, as interpreted 
today, moved without a pause or break, building a strong impression in its con- 

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tinuit\' and evident accuracy. At the beginning of each unit. Miss Virginia Harden 
recited an appropriate piece of poetry, composed by Mary Sinton Leitch. to give 
the audience an understanding of the epoch about to be presented. 

T\pical of the pieces of poetic monologue was that before the scene showing 
the port of Norfolk in 1736 until 1812, which was: 

"Young Xorfolk, the sea's daughter, waxes strong; 
The Negroes toil with laughter on their lips 
To load rich cargo into alien ships. 
Wind in strange rigging sings a prophetic song." 

Chesapeake Incident 

Or the piece identifying Captain Barron's capture of the British ship Leopard 
in the Chesapeake in 1807, which was: 

''How should the young America be meek 
To endure an insult to the Chesapeake.' 
Her colors lowered at the harsh behest 
Of England, now her seamen are impressed 
For alien service. On the outraged air 
Flicker those fires that into war shall flare." 

It would be difficult to say which of the units was most appreciated in the 
pageant, but it was clear from the volume of applause and cheers that the Singing 
of Booker T. Washington High School students in the section showing Negroes 
loading foreign vessels was adjudged by the audience as one of the best. 

The young Negroes sang two songs their fathers knew well, ''Old Fclks At 
Home" and "Old Black Joe," led by the deep voice of Isaiah Addington, who sang 
behind the scenes over the loudspeaker system temporarily installed for the pageant. 

Other sections outstanding, judging from the audience's reaction, were the 
battle of the Merrimac and the Monitor, the charge of the Minute Men at Great 
Bridge, the Colonial dance, the raising of the Confederate flag, dances of the Civil 
War period, the landing of the English at Cape Henry, and the presentation of 
the Mace. 

The east stand at the field filled rapidly, and the west side at the end of the 
pageant was about three-fourths occupied. Hundreds of persons stood around 
the rims of the two stands, and others lined the edge of the fields where they would 
not interfere with the view of those sitting. The flood lights at the field were trained 
on the stage, and a portable spot light, brought especialh' for the pageant, was set 
up in the middle of the football field. 

There were 12 special officers patrolling the stands and eight traffic officers out- 
side to direct the crowds. The \ irginia Electricand Power Company put on 13 
street cars on Hampton boulevard in addition to th© seven that are on the run regu- 
larly. Two e.xtra buses were put on the Larchmont run. 

Traffic on the way to the field jammed about 8 o'clock as far south as the 
Xorfolk & Western Railway crossing on Hampton boulevard, and every available 
space for parking was utilized in the neighborhood of the stadium. There was but 
little trouble in leaving, so far as traffic was concerned. 

f 238 1 



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The pageant was directed by Rose Johnson Willis, and was written by Dr. 
W. H. T. Squires, historian of Norfolk, and E. S. Brinkley. It opened with a pro- 
logue by Dr. Squires, which was followed by two selections by the Maury High 
School Band. 

The sets were designed and built by Herman Nowitzky and were painted by 
Frank de Wolf. Miss Elizabeth Richmond was chairman of the costume committee. 

The units of the pageant, in the order in which they were presented, and the 
schools or organizations which presented them, were: 

(1) "Before the White Men Came," James Monroe School; (2) "Landing of 
the English at Cape Henry," Hi-Y Club of Maury High School; (3) Adam Thor- 
oughgood Names This Section New Norfolk," Dramatic Club, Maury High School; 
(4) "Grant of Land to Capt. Thomas Willoughby," Dramatic Club, Maury High 
School; (S) "Organization of Norfolk Borough, September 15, 1736," Ruffner 
Junior High School; (6) "Mace Presented by Governor Dinwiddle, 1754," Blair 
Junior High School; (7) "Colonial Dance — the Minuet," Physical Education De- 
partment of Ruffner Junior High School; (8) "The Port of Norfolk," Booker T. 
Washington High School; (9) "Norfolk's Early Occupations, 1736-1812,' James 
Madison School; (10) "Capture of Blackbeard, the Pirate," Campostella School; 
(11) "The Charge of the Minute Men at Great Bridge," Company K, First Infan- 
try, Virginia National Guard; (12) "Captain Barron and the Chesapeake, 1807," 
Larchmont School; (13) "Raising of the Confederate Flag," Walter Herron Taylor 
School; (14) "The Merrimac and the Monitor," Ruffner Junior High School; (15) 
"Dance of the Civil War Period," Physical Education Department, Blair Junior 
High School; (16) "Norfolk Takes Part in the World War," Company K, First 
Infantry, National Guard; recruits of the Naval Operating Base, Norfolk General 
Hospital nurses representing the Red Cross, the American Legion Drum and Bugle 
Corps and the Naval Base Band; (17) "Norfolk's Trade Develops in Peace Time," 
J. E. B. Stuart School; (18) "Sports Review," Physical Education Department, 
Maury High School, and (19) "Norfolk's Future," Robert E. Lee School, John 
Marshall School and Miss Preston's School of Dancing. At the conclusion of the 
pageant, the Naval Base Band played "The Star Spangled Banner." 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



THE ANNIVERSARIES YEAR PARADE 



(Reprinted from Norfolk LedKer-Dispalch of Oitolier 12, 1936) 

Clear skies and a crisp October day formed a perfect combination for the 
parade today of the Norfolk Anniversaries celebration, the bright sun high in the 
heavens smiling down on the thousands who were in the line of march. 

Granby and Main streets were packed with throngs during the procession. The 
procession was so long that more than an hour was taken in passing the reviewing 
stand. 

Probably never in the history of Norfolk has a more colorful parade been 
seen and seldom has there been a more perfect setting, the gay uniforms of the 
Navy. Army, and Marine Corps giving a spectacular comparison to the moving men 
and women, marching in their civilian costumes but all imbued with the spirit of 
patriotism and a desire to help celebrate the 300th anniversary of the original 
grant of land and the 200th anniversary of Norfolk as a borough. 

The parade started from Ninth and Granby streets at 11 a. m. with Capt. R. W. 
Webb, of the lllih Field Artillery, marshal, giving the signal to form ranks. 

Floats Spect.^cular 

Never in the historj' of Norfolk has a more spectacular parade of Achats been 
seen than that presented today in the long anticipated Norfolk ./Vnuiversaries cele- 
bration pageant. 

Probably the most pretentious was the float entered by the Planters Nut & 
Chocolate Company, of Suffolk. 

Moving along at a low rate of speed, the float, made up of one-half a million 
peanuts and requiring four weeks" work to construct, received a generous amount 
of applause. 

A throne on which sat the king and queen of Spain and before which stood 
Christopher Columbus was made of peanuts, threaded on long strings reaching to 
the floor of the float. Columbus, pointing to a revolving ball, representing the 
world, was endeavoring to persuade the royal pair to finance him sufficiently to make 
his voyage to the new world. 

During the progress of the parade the scenes so well known to school children 
were depicted, even to the handing to Columbus of the royal jewels. Riding mid- 
way of the float were three Indians, encountered by Columbus, ami on the extreme 
rear of the float the progress of the world was shown in the man\' up-to-date 
appliances. 

Other attractive floats which made up the division were from the Seaboard- 
Citizens National Bank, Sears, Roebuck & Co., with Miss Norfolk 1936 and Miss 
Norfolk 1886 riding; Southern Breweries, D. Pender Grocer)' Company, .\nne 
Lee Candy, and the N. & W. Railway miniature locomotive. 



O 



FFICIAL,S I 



N R 



EVIEWING 



Sta 



The presence of a number of dignitaries in the reviewmg stand at the Con- 
federate Monument added color to the parade, among those present being Gov. 
Harold G. Hoffman, of New Jersey, a member of the fighting Twenty-ninth Divi- 
sion; representatives of Governors Peery and Nice, of Maryland; Rear Admiral 

f 240 1 






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-^) 



Frank H. Biumby, Rear Admiral C. S. Freeman, F. E. Turin. W. S. Harney. A. B. 
Scliwarzi<opf, J. I). Corbel!, Comdi. Walter E. Black, retiring commander of tlic 
Twenty-ninth, and Col. C. B. Borland, newl)' elected commander of the division. 

The mace, cherished treasure of Norfolk, was brought from its vault for the 
occasion and took the leading position with its police escort. 

At the signal to start, the Fifty-first Coast Artillery from Fort Monroe, with 
colors and band, swung into Granby street and marched south, with the following 
in line: U. S. Marine Corps units from the Norfolk Navy Yard and Naval Operat- 
ing Base with band and colors; detachments from N. O. B. with band and colors; 
First Infantry, Virginia National Guard with regimental band; 111th Field Artil- 
lery with motorized artillery band and colors; Twenty-ninth Division Association 
with bands and drum and bugle corps. 

Italian societies with band and colors; Veterans' organizations, American 
Legion contingent with other organizations including Sons of Confederate Vet- 
erans; Daughters of the Confederacy and drum and bugle corps. 

The Boy Scouts with drum and bugle corps, led the miniature locomotive, 
from the Norfolk & Western Railway shops at Roanoke. 

One of the most colorful and spectacular features of the parade was the long 
list of floats. The floats were followed by the Maury High School band. 

Prizes were to be awarded for the three best floats. 

Tonight the Italians of the city will observe the birthday of Christopher Colum- 
bus, with a banquet and dance at the Town Club. 



;Ss» 




Float Awarded First Prize — Sponsored by Planters Nut and Chocolate Company 

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-THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



THE PAGEANT STAGED BY THE COLORED COMMITTEE 

ON OCTOBER 9, 1936 

(Reprinted from Norfolk Journal and Guide) 

"Norfolk's Unwritten History'" was the title of the pageant written and produced 
by Mrs. iMattie H. Javins as chairman of the colored committee on Norfolk anni- 
versary celebration. The 200th anniversary of the borough of Norfolk and the 
300th anniversary of the land grant for the site of Norfolk were celebrated with 
this pageant at the CityAuditorium last Friday night. 

The program opened with music by the anniversary choir, headed by Miss Cora 
Colden. This group sang the Negro National Anthem at the close of the exer- 
cises also. 

Memory 

In the first of a series of scenes in the pageant, Thomas Standi acted as ''Mem- 
ory" and reviewed the history of the Negro in Norfolk and in this country, pointing 
out the good things about the Negro race that so often do not get recorded in the 
pages of history. He was ably supported in this role by Albert Dinkins and Mrs. 
King Smith. At the close of his review, he brought Prof. D. G. Jacox on the stage 
as an example of Negro achievement in the city of Norfolk. 

The next scene depicted the coming of the slaves. Miss Jessie Cousins read a 
poem while the cast headed by Miss Viola Cousins pantomimed the hardships of 
the Negroes in slavery. 

The part that Negroes had in helping white people to move to Great Bridge 
and in general housework was dramatized by a group selected by Mrs. Fannie K. 
Smith. Cotton picking on the plantation was shown by a large group which list- 
ened to the singing of the immortal song, ''Old Black Joe.'' Miss Bessie Wright 
headed this group. 

One of the high spots on the program was the scene showing an old time prayer 
meeting. The ladies sang and shouted with enthusiasm in the typical revival scene. 

Miss Maryland Hall selected a group of children to do a ballet number and 
Miss Louise Meyer got another group to do a folk dance. After these two scenes 
the Mt. Olive Baptist Church Choir, trained by Prof. William Patterson, rendered 
two selections. The last song. Prof. Patterson explained, was taken from a cantata 
which he is writing. The Southland Quartet sang several pieces. 

Arts and Crafts 

The arts and crafts were represented by Mrs. Mary McCoy, Mrs. Fannie K. 
Smith, Mrs. Cherry Pope, Mrs. Nettie Goodman, John Butts and Mrs. Florence 
McAdoo. 

A group, led by Mrs. Elizabeth Davis, personified Hope. A poem was read 
during this scene. 

During the program. Prof. Jacox was introduced to the audience as the father 
of Norfolk's Negro high school. Mrs. Ida N. Paey was introduced as the only 
Negro police-woman In the South. Mrs. M. H. Javins was introduced as the 
author and director of the pageant. Thomas Stancil was master of ceremonies. 
C. Skinner had charge of the ushers. 

[ 242 ] 



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THE PARADE STAGED BY COLORED COMMITTEE 

(Reprinted from Virginian-Pilot) 

Negro residents of Xorfolk will begin their celebration of the 300th anniversary 
of the first land grant and the 200th anniversary of Norfolk as a borough Wednesday 
night, October 7, at 7:30 oclock, when an elaborate parade consisting of five bands 
and various fraternal, business, industrial, civic, and social organizations will 
be given. 

Upwards of 3,000 marchers are expected to take part in the parade. Numer- 
ous floats showing the progress of the Negroes of Norfolk also will be seen in line, 
among them the Norfolk Community Hospital, American Red Cross, Colored 
Union Mission, Jubilee Chorus of First Calvary Baptist Church, and numerous 
business floats. The parade will form as follows, and move off at 7:30 p. m.: 

First Division — On Lexington street. Marshal William Skinner; Color Guard 
from Prince A. Johnson Post 1076, V. F. W.; Excelsior Brass and Reed Band 
Corps, George W. Elliott, conductor; Eureka Lodge 5, L B. P. O. E. of W., 
Elk Temples Norfolk 1-A, Norfolk 1-B, Eureka 112, Beacon Light Lodge, L B. 
P. O. E. of W. of Portsmouth, and Greater Norfolk Lodge 132, L B. P. 0. E. of W. 

Second Division — Washington avenue. Marshals A. S. Eure and Joseph Chris- 
tian; Sons of Norfolk colors, Premier Military Band, Sons of Norfolk F. B. and S. 
Association, Female Auxiliary, Phyllis Wheatley Circle, Norfolk Social and Bene- 
ficial Associatio, Lancaster Social and Beneficial Association, White Lily Social and 
Beneficial Association, Waldorf Social and Beneficial Association, and Powhatan 
Lodge No. 2, B. P. H., of Buffaloes. 

Third Division — Johnson avenue, Marshals, James E. Jones and David Har- 
rell; Metropolitan Brass and Reed Band, of Portsmouth, International Longshore- 
men's Association, Locals 1248, 1221, 1379 and 987, Sons and Daughters of \'ir- 
ginia, of Portsmouth. 

Fourth Division — East Goff street; Marshal, Joshua Hunter; Berkley Brass 
Band, U. S. Boy Scouts of America, Girl Scouts and Metropolitan A. M. E. Zic^n 
Church and Sunday School. 

Fifth Division — Marshal, Joshua Hunter; West Goff street, B. T. W. High 
School Band, faculties and student bodies of all Negro schools. 

Sixth Division — Marshal, Irwin Reeves; West Goff street around to East 
Princess Anne Road. 

The parade will move over the following route: Church to Main to Granby 
street to Brambleton avenue to Church street to Bute street and Dunmore. At 
the close of the parade. Eureka Lodge of Elks Home will be host to the public. 

James E. Smith is chief marshal and Linwood Billups assistant chief. Irwin 
Reeves is staff secretaiy. 

On Thursday night at 7:30 o'clock a history exercise will be held in the First 
Baptist ChuFch, on Bute street, whtn the Rev. R. H. Bowling, D. D., will be the 
historian of the day. Short talks on the advancement of the Negroes of Norfolk 
also will be made by other speakers. Jubilee music will enliven the occasion. 

On Friday night at 8 o'clock, an historical pageant showing the progress of the 
race from 1619 to the present, with a cast of approximately 300 persons under 
direction of Mrs. Mattie H. Javms, president of the \ irginia State P. T. League, 
will be given in the City Auditorium, at City Hall and Monticello avenues. Ad- 
mission will be free. There will be special reservations for white people. 

[ 243 ] 



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1656 -THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

5 MISCELLANEOUS FACTS AND FIGURES OF 

^ NORFOLK,^VIRGINlA 

Form of GovernmenI — Commission-City Manager. 

Population (1930 Census) — 130,710; 85,514. while; 43,042, negroes; 254, for- 
eign. Transient population in e.xcess of 500,000. 
Area — 37.19 square miles. 
Building Permits— vahie 1935, )?2,3 1 1,079.00. 
Altitude — 12 feet above sea level. 

Climate — Mean annual temperature 59.4 degrees; mean spring temperature 
57.2 degrees; mean summer temperature 76.8 degrees and mean autumn 61.6 de- 
grees. Average annual rainfall, 45.53 inches. 

Parks — 11, with 302.65 acres, valued at ;S1, 200,000, also \ irginia Seashore 
State Park at Cape Henry. 3.000 acres. 

Resorts — 2: \'irginia Beach and Ocean \'iew. 
Post Office Receipts— $^04:505.39 (1935). 
'^?^'^T' Electric Current — Alternating and Direct, with 774 miles of transmission lines 

*",* and 14 generatmg stations. 

Number of Telephones in Use — 25,000. 

Churches — 154 in all denominations. 

,i Industrial — Nearly 200 plants. \'alue of manufactured products estimated at p 

':\ )^ 100.000,000. ^ 

Retail Stores — 1,941. with average sales of $20,210,000 and the full time em- % 

Y;l ployment of 5,41 1 men and women. Vj 

Retail Trade Territory — Serves 760,748 people in a trading area having a i^. 

radius of approximately 75 miles. Jr 

Metropolitan Area — Known as Xorfolk-Portsmouth-Xewport News Metro- \~^ 

politan Area with a population of 295,292 — largest such area in Virginia. 

Branch Colleges — 2. \^"illiam and Mary Extension College and \'irginia Poly- 
technic Institute. ' 

Education — 3S public schools, including 2 high and 2 junior high. Pupils in 
attendance total 25,S26. Maury High School is the largest high school in the State 
of Virginia with a total of 3,172 pupils. Teaching corps of 744 (all schools). School 
buildings valued at ;^6, 191,000, including grounds. Three parochial high schools, 
one of which is colored; also three parochial grammar schools, of which one is 
colored. 

Libraries — 8, one main building with 7 branches, nearly 80,000 volumes on 
shelves of libraries. 

Hospitals — 9, with ample accommodations. 

Newspapers — 2 dailies: Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, morning paper; Norfolk 
Ledger-Dispatch, evening paper; and Norfolk Jotirnal and Guide for colored people; 
also several trade publications. 

Radio Stations— 2: Station WTAR of NBC chain and WCH (Newport News 
Station with Norfolk branch). 



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Hotels — 8 leading hotels, with total guest capacity of 2.145. (Moie than 100 
hotels and cottages at Ocean View and \'irginia Beach). 

Railroads — Serving Norfolk, 8: .Atlantic Coast Line, Chesapeake & Ohio, 
Norfolk Southern, Norfolk & \^'estern, Pennsylvania, Seaboard Air Line, Southern, 
Virginian and one belt line railroad which connects railways with pier, terminal and 
industrial districts. 

Steamships — More than 50 coastwise, overseas and inland waterways steam- 
ship lines, with direct service to New York, Boston and other New England points, 
Washington, D. C, Baltimore and foreign countries, including one home-owned 
line — American-Hampton Roads Line — and Baltimore Mail Steamship Line with 
direct service to L^nited Kingdom and Central European ports. 



1 

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>M 





NORFOLK PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

By C. W. Mason 

Superintendent of Schools 

The value of public education was recognized in Norfolk in the 
early Colonial days. We find records of deeds dated as early as 
1728 transferring land to be used for school purposes: 

"... for ye Consideration ot ye sum or quantity of 
one hundred pounds of Tobacco to them in hand paid by 
the said Samuel Smith, Samuel Boush,iunr., and Nathaniel 
Newton for ye proper use and Behoof of ye Inhabitance of 
Norfolk Town for Ever and for no other Desire or use 
whatsoever or purpose for ye Erecting building & keeping 
the Same for a Schoolhouse for Ever for ye said Inhabitance 
of Norfolk Town, That is to say one half Acre or Lott of 
land lying on ye southside (south East side) of ye Street 
going out of Norfolk Town. 

"... that ye said Samuel Smith, Samuel Boush, junr., 
Nathaniel Newton ye two surveyors of them to Chuse any 
other person So that ye number of three gent shall always 
Continue that they or any two of them may always agree 
with a schoolmaster for ye Inhabitants of Norfolk Town ..." 

"... To have and to hold ye said lott or parcell of 
Land' and all and Singular other ye premises therein men- 
tioned and Intended to be hereby bargained and Sold with 
there and Every of there appurtenances for ye uses of ye 
Inhabitance for ye building a School one ye same and for 
ye uses of any Schoolmaster or masters ye said Samuel 
Smith, Samuel Boush, Nathaniel Newton; or any two of 
them shall Imploy at any time ye said Inhabitance yielding 
and paying yearly therefore one grain of peper corn at ye 
feast of St. Michaels only if ye lawfully demanded to ye 
intent that by Virtue of these presents and by the Statute 
for transferring uses into posesion ye said Samuel Smith, 
Samuel Boush, junr., and Nathaniel Newton for and in ye 
behalf of ye said Inhabitance In Norfolk Town may be in 
ye Actuall posesion of ye premises and Inabled to accept a 
grant of ye Reversion and Inheritance thereof;"" 

Further reference is found 'to this early school in the minutes 
of the Common Council of the Borough of Norfolk held June 24, 
1751, when it was decided to receive proposals of the workmen to 
make four public wells, one of which was to be located "on the 
school house Land,"' and in the Statutes, in the law enacted in Feb- 
ruary, 1752: 

^Mr. D Caltendar. Jr.. of Public Works Defiarlment. fjtaces this one-half acre site on the St. Vincent's Hosf>itai 
grounds "in the front yard of the hosfyital." 

^ Lower Norfolk County Antiquary — Vol. r — pfi. 78-81. 
^City Clerk's of/ice records. 

[ 246 ] 



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"I. — Whereas by an Act of Assembly, made in the 
twenty-fifth year of the reign of his late majesty, King 
George II, entitled An Act to Explain the Charter and 
Enlarge the Privileges of the Borough of Norfolk, and for 
other purposes therein mentioned, the Court ot the County 
of Norfolk and the mayor, recorder, and aldermen of the 
said Borough, or the major part of them, were invested with 
full power and authority to build on or let a certain lot or 
parcel of land therein mentioned, which at the laying off the 
said Borough, had been set apart for the use of a school for 
the benefit of the inhabitants of the said Borough and 
County of Norfolk, and to provide and agree with an able 
master for the said school, capable to teach the Greek and 
Latin tongues; which said master, before he should be 
received or admitteci to keep school should undergo an 
examination before the masters of the College of William 
and Mary, and the minister of Elizabeth Parish for the time 
being, and produce a certificate of his capacity, and also a 
license from the governor or commander-in-chief of this 
Dominion for the time being, agreeable to His Majesty's 
instruction. 

"II. — Whereas, in pursuance of said Act, a school 
house has been built on the said lot; but, by reason of 
variety of opinions frequently happening between the 
justices of said county, and the mayor, recorder, and alder- 
men of the said Borough, in the choice of a master for the 
said school, and in other matters relative to the govern- 
ment thereof the said school hath been greatly neglected 
and the good intentions of the said Act in a great measure 
frustrated : 

"Be It Therefore Enacted by the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, Council, and Burgesses of this present General As- 
sembly, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the 
same, that from after the passage of this Act the sole and 
absolute right of nominating and appointing rules and 
ordinances for the good government and regulation of said 
school, as may be thought necessary, shall be and the same 
is hereby vested in the mayor, recorder, and aldermen of 
the said Borough of Norfolk for the time being, anything 
in the above in part recited Act to the contrary thereof in 
any wise not withstanding.'" 

The School Committee appointed by this Act of the Assembly 
may be considered the first Norfolk School Board. Those serving 
as officials of Norfolk at the Borough meeting held June 24, 1751, 
the last recorded meeting before this law was enacted, and who, 

^Lourr Norfolk County Antiquary — Vol t. pt> 2;-22. 
Hcnning's Statutes at Large — Vol. VII. pp no-^i i. 



247 



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1636-^ THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

^^ in all probability became the members of the School Committee, 

6 were : 

Mayor: Wilson Newton, Esq. 

Recorder: Samuel Boush, Jr. 
Aldermen: John Hatchings 
Robert Tucker 
John Tucker 
Josiah Smith 
George Aby\'on 
Christopher Perkins '' 

Little is recorded ot the teachers selected by the School Com- 
mittee. On January 1, 1756, Mr. Richard Collinson was "examined 
I by the president and masters of William and Mary College and was 

thought capable of teaching the Grammar School at Norfolk.'" 
At a Common Hall assembled June 24, 1763, it was "ordered that 
Robert Fry, Schoolmaster, take care of the church pump.'" 
■'H^ It is noted that great care was taken in these early days of 

public schools in the selection of the teacher. To become eligible 
•^ the applicant tor the teaching position was required to meet the 

character and educational standards established by the college and ^' 

the minister of the parish. He was required to present a certificate R 

ot his capacity (probably a diploma) and a license (which apparently 

corresponded with the present State teachers certificate). "^ 

J In 1850 the General Assembly of \'irginia' established a system ;' 

ot Free Schools throughout the State. Under this law any city <^' 

haxinti a corporation court was riermitted to adopt such a system. >^ 

To ascertain the wishes of the people of Nortolk as to the es- ' 

tabhshment ot these schools a poll was opened and the schools were 
adopted by a large majorit).' 

It was not until August, 1853, that a committee was appointed 
by the City Council "to take into consideration the immediate 
establishment of common schools" and to suggest plans deemed 
"best calculated to carry out the instructions ot the people as hereto- 
tore expressed at the ballot bt)x."' 

In the meantime, a free school, following the Lancasterian plan 
ot instruction and referred to as the Lancaster School, ot which 
Mr. W. B. Micks was the teacher and Mr. Tazewell Taylor the 
President, was conducted on the southwest corner ot Fenchurch 
and Holt Streets." \\'hen this school was closed a school ot two 



^Lower Norfolk County Anuquary — Vol. i, f>p. zt-22 
WtUtam and Mary Quarterly — October, iSqj, p. IZ7 
^City Clerk's Records. 
^Code Title 23. Chapter 82. 
*Cily Clerk's Recants — Book S, p. 220. 
5Ci(y Clerk's Records — Book 7. p. jSj, No ^iS6. 
^City Directory lSji~f2. 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IK NORFOLK- 



rooms was conducted in Ashland Hall, Talbot Street, with Mr. \V. 
B. Micks as teacher of the boys and Miss Laura Cuthrell teacher 
of the girls.' Another school of which Mr. William G. Driver was 
the teacher, was located on William Street, opposite the Court House 
Grounds. 

In the Fall of 1854 the School Committee "recommended the 
establishment of a Free School in each ot the tour wards antl the 
building ot suitable houses tor the purpose, and the employment 
of competent teachers.'" 

The city was divided into tour districts and a school com- 
missioner was appointed for each district, as provided for by the 
General Assembly in 1850: 

1st Ward— R. A. Worrell. 
2nd Ward— W. H. Barrett. 
3rd Ward— T. D. Toy. 
4th Ward— W. H. Times.' 

A capitation tax of .f2.00 was assessed on persons ov^er twenty- 
one to be used only tor the public schools. 

Four sites were purchased at a total cost ot $8,000 and tour 
school houses were erected at a cost ot about $6,000 each. The 
City Council issued City Script to cover this appropriation. These 
schools were located on Boush Street, Bank and Charlotte Streets, 
Queen Street (now Brambleton Avenue), and Holt and Fenchurch 
Streets. 

Since the establishment ot the public tree schools in \'irginia 
under the Act of Assembly of 1850, the tollowing Superintendents 
of Schools have served in Norfolk: 

1857-1865 Thos. C. Tabb 

1865-1867 William D. Bagnall 

1867-1874 William W. Lamb 

1874-1882 General Richard L. Page 

1882-1884 Rev. C. S. Blackwell 

1884-1886 R. G. Banks 

1886-1887 James Barron Hope 

1887-1890 George W. Taylor 

1890-1896 Kenton C. Murray 

1896-1923 Richard A. Dobie 

1923- C. W. Mason 



'Ci!y Clerk's Records — Book 8, fy. 2S3. No. 3407, and Southern Argus. April zo, 1S57. 
^City Clerk's Records — Book S. p. qi. No 3267. 
^City Clerk's Records—Book S. p. 132. No. 3203. 
Book S, p. 103, No. 3346. 



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•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 







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As the years passed and the boundaries of the City expanded 
to include more and more territory, the City was redistricted and 
divided into two school districts only. The three representatives 
from each district, appointed by the City Council, who serve as 
members ot the School Board of the City of Norfolk are: 

Mr. A. H. Foreman, Chairman 
Mr. F. E. Rogers, Vice-Chairman 
Mrs. A. O. Calcott 
Mr. J. S. Jenkins, Jr. 
Dr. H. W*. Rogers 
Mr. M. B. Wagenheim 

Today the public schools of the City of Norfolk have increased 
to thirty-eight buildings in which approximately 25,500 pupils are 
enrolled annually (about 16,500 white and 9,000 colored chilciren), 
under the direction of a teaching staff ot about 765 teachers, princi- 
pals, and supervisors. The present value of the public school 
property — sites, buildings and equipment — is about $6,200,000.00; 
the 1937 budget is $1,265,322.81; and the total number of employees 
nearly a thousand. The public school system of the City ot Norfolk 
is ranked with the progressive systems of the nation. 




Matthew Fontaine Maury High School. 

1 250 1 



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High schools, junior high schools, and elementary grades offer 
a program contributing to the continuous development of child- 
hood and youth. Health, including recreation, fine and industrial 
arts, and music have taken a place in the curriculum with the funda- 
mentals of earlier days and are even more important than the Greek 
and Latin ot the first schools. 



in 







Blair Junior High School. 

The philosophy of education is adapted to the changing life of 
the twentieth century. Emphasis is placed on thinking rather 
than memorization, on present day life rather than life of the past, 
and on understanding of lite about us rather than the mastery of 
the text. 

In place of the isolation of former tiays, schools are today in 
a position of world contacts. The radio and moving picture are 
factors in present day life which the Norfolk Schools are utilizing 
as instruments in education. 

The personality ot the child is considered more than ever be- 
fore, yet always it is remembered that his highest development comes 
in relation to the group. Behavior becomes a c]uestion of under- 
standing and adjustment instead ot domination by the will of the 
adult. With schools as with the world today, the problem is one 
of human understanding. 

Fully recognizing the magnitude of this responsibility the 
Norfolk Public Schools press forward towards a realization of their 
goal. 



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'THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 





C. W. MASON 
Superintendent o/ Schools 



5?«^^'3 



EXECUTIVES— NORFOLK PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Chairman of School Board Mr. A. H. Foreman 

Vice-Chairman of School Board Mr. F. E. Rogers 

Superintendent of Schools Mr. C. W. Mason 

Secretary Miss Leah C. Haller 

Auditor Mr. Charles V. Cooke 

Supervisor of High Schools Mr. E. S. Brinkley 

Director of ElemeJitary Grades Mrss Lucy S. Saunders 

Assistant Supervisor of Elementary Grades . . Miss Gladys Charlton 

Medical Director Dr. W. L. Harris 

Art Director Mrs. Marrow S. Smith 

Music Director Mr. Cecil W. Wilkins 

Physical Education Director Mr. Kirk. Montague 

Vocational Director Mr. T. G. Rydingsvard 

Assistant Vocational Director Miss Elmira E. Noyes 

Attendance Officer Mrs. Katherine H. Williams 

Superintendent of Buildings Mr. J- F. Beamon 

[ 252 ] 



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^THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 



BOOK III 
COMMERCIAL and INDUSTRLAL NORFOLK 

By 
M. E. BENNETT 



/^*ji<?* 



,^ 



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m. 



Contents — Book III 



A & P Food Stores 

Abbott, Proctor & Paine 

Acme Photo Company 

Ames and Brownlev 

Atlantic Permanent Building and Loan Association 

Baltimore Steam Paci^et Company 

Ballard Fish & Oyster Co., Inc. 

Batchelder & Collins, Inc. 

J. S. Bell, Jr. & Co, Inc. 

Berkley Machine Worhs & Foundry Co., Inc. 

Berkley Permanent Building and Loan .^ssoci.-vtion 

N. Block. & Company 

Building and Loan Associations of Norfolk 

Burrow, Martin & Co., Inc. 

Cavalier Hotei 

Chamberi.in Hotel 

W. L. Chase & Company, Inc. 

Chesapeake Bl'ildinc .'\ssoci.4tion 

Chesapeake Ferry Company 

Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co.m 

Chesapeake Steamship Co. 

Colonial Oil Company, Inc. 

Co.M.V.ONiVEALTH Bl'ILDING AND LoAN AsSN. 

E. Lee Cox & Brother 
CouPER Marble Works 
W. J. Crosby & Company, Inc. 
Geo. W. Duvall & Company, Inc. 
Eastern Steamship Lines 

Isaac Fass, Inc 

First Federal Savings and Loan .^ssoci.vpion 

Hofheimer's 

Merchants and Planters Bank 

J. H. Miles & Company, Inc. 

Mutual Federal Savings and Loan .Association 

N.vitonal Bank of Co.mmerce 

Norfolk & Washington Steambo.at Company 

Norfolk County Ferries .... 

Norfolk Dredging Company 

Norfolk Federal Savings and Loan Assn. 

Norfolk-Portsmouth Bridge 

Norfolk Tidewater Terminals, Inc. 

Ocean View Mutual Building and Loan ."^ssn 

Old Dominion Marine Railway Corp, 

Harry D. Oliver 

Penrod, JuRDEN & Clark Co. 

Post and Flagg 

Pender Food .Stores .... 
R. R. Richardson & Company, Inc. . 
Robertson Chemical Corpor.^tion 

F. S. Royster Guano Company . 
Seaboard Citizens National Bank . 
Seafood Industry .... 
Sears, Roebuck and Co. 

Seaside Park 

Smith-Douglass Co., Inc. 
Southern Breweries 

Sponsors 

W. G. SwARTZ Co., Inc. 

George Tait & Sons, Inc. 

Tatem's Pharmacy .... 

The House of .Arther Morris 

Tidewater Perpetual Building and Loan .'\ss 

Twin City Permanent Building .Assn. 

Virginia Electric and Power Company 

Virginia Pilot .Association 

\'irginia .Smelting Company 

Whaley Engineering Corporation 

A. Wrenn & Sons, Inc 







353 


275 


,347 




298 






294 






336 






313 






338 


279 


,351 


318 


,353 


307 


,358 


271, 336 


,348 


311 


,358 




269 


289 


,356 




337 




345 




338 




336 


'■2m 


340 


320 


355 




314 


237 


312 




336 




302 


277 


351 




338 


307 


352 




299 




338 




336 


. 


291 




348 




338 


273,336 


.347 




334 




312 


256 


339 


288 


355 




336 




280 




354 




336 


306, 


358 




315 


328, 


352 


27'5, 


349 


323, 


345 


324, 


358 


301, 


344 


304, 


.343 




335 




263 


282, 


349 




357 


326, 


354 


329, 


346 




331 




29) 


289 


3.56 


319, 


353 


284, 


350 




336 




336 


316, 


341 




258 


309, 


351 




350 


308, 


352 



I 



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■f% 



Breathes 'here the man, with soul so dead. 
Who never to himself hath said. 
This is my Own — my Native Land. 

— Sir Walter Scott. 



This section of "Through the Years in Norfolk" 
contains word sketches and advertisements of many of 
the outstanding and leading business institutions and 
organizations of the Norfolk area. An analysis will 
reveal that Norfolk can boast of the oldest Public 
Service Utility in the United States, with continuous 
operation for three hundred years, and that a number 
of the enterprises were established years ago and have 
been important factors in the development of Norfolk 
as one of the South's leading influstrial and trading- 
centers. 

The executives of the firms and organizations repre- 
sented herein realize that Norfolk is their city, carved 
out of the wilderness by their forefathers, and that 
here, with all the natural advantages, including the 
world's greatest harbor, and an equable climate, should 
be made one of America's greatest communities. The 
progressive leaders in cooperation in this work demon- 
strated that this is their city — their home, where they 
live and work — and that they will get out of Norfolk 
all the good things in life, in just the same measure as 
they put their energy, loyalty and support into it. 

All Norfolk business institutions were invited to 
participate in this movement and while responses are 
as indicated herein, it is wished to state that lack of 
mention of any business house, while not through the 
fault of the publishers, is not to be interpreted that the 
establishment is not a vital factor in 
Norfolk's business life. 



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NORFOLK COUNTY FERRIES 

300 Years of Progress and Continuous Service 



I'rom the early days oi primitive canoe navigation to this 
modern era of Diesel electric ferries, the boats of the Portsmouth- 
Norfolk County Ferries have become a "Watermark" on the pages 
of Norfolk Harbor History. 

The first terry, a crude skirt', was established by Adam Thorough- 
good in 1636 and one year later found 
three hand-powered terries operating 
in lower Norfolk County, supported 
by a levy of six pounds of tobacco on 
each tithable person. These ferries 
were small boats, for foot passengers 
only. In 1641 the General Assembly 
passed an act providing for paying 
ferrymen by a levy made by the 
County Commissioners. The charges 
tor the ferries becoming too burden- 
some for the taxpayers, the law pro- 
viding for the ferries to be kept at 
public expense was repealed and the 
county court was authorized to grant 
a franchise tor a term of years and fix 
rates, and in 1665 the County Court 
was authorized to license the ferry. 
In 1702 the General Assembly en- 
acted regulations tor the terries operating from Norfolk Towne to 
Sawyer's Point, or Lovitt's Plantation, Portsmouth's side, and fixed 
the rates of six pence for a man, and one shilling for a man and a 
horse. 

An act passed in 1766 authorized the Norfolk County Court 
to lease the terries and apply the money towards lessening the 
coimty levy. 

In December, 1821, a team-boat, built in the shipyard of William 
Dyson, in Portsmouth, was placed in operation. A "team-boat" 
was a commodious ferryboat propelled by blind horses as wheat 
threshers were formerly run. 

In 1831 the ferries were leased to William Wilson and John 
Tunis for a period of seven years at an annual rental of .13,000 and 
steamboats were placed in operation between Norfolk and Ports- 
mouth. The first steamboat was named the "Gosport," then 
followed the "Portsmouth," the "Union," and the "Norfolk." 

[ 256 ] 




CEO C COLEMAN, Chairman. 
Joint Ferry Committee 



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<&, 



The General Assembly in 1857 awarded to the City of Ports- 
mouth one-halt interest in the ferry system. The name of the new 
ownership was listed as Norfolk County Ferries. 

The Federal Government took over the ferries on the evacuation 
of this section hy the Confederate troops and was held by them until 
April 20, 1866. 

Again, during the World War the ferries were taken over by 
the Federal Government and operated by the U. S. Housing Cor- 
poration until June 1, 1926. 

Today six modern ferries maintain a continuous schedule, day 
and night and serve the two communities, which have a combined 
population of nearly 200,000. Four of the ferries are steam driven 
and two are powered with Diesel electric engines. 

Another modern Diesel electric ferry is under construction and 
will be put in service the latter part of this year. 

During the past year the six ferries have carried 4,013,189 
passengers and 1,428,352 vehicles with no major accidents. 

A five-minute schedule is maintained during the day, with 
accommodations for any size bus or truck. 

The ferries are operated under the joint management of the 
Norfolk County Board of Supervisors and the City Council of Ports- 
mouth. The members of the Joint Board are: (For Norfolk County) 
— George C. Coleman, Chairman; John \N. Taylor, Jr.; W. E 
Hudgins, Jr.; Joseph C. Smith; N. V. Pearson; Colon L. Hall 
(For Portsmouth) — John P. Leigh, Sr., \^ice-Chairman; Leslie T 
Fox; Frank D. Lawrence; C. E. Warren; W. Raymond Hutchins 
J. Pearle Wilson; H. Earl Wsiseman; J. N. Howard; George L 
Grimes. 

Under this able management of the joint Board of control, 
with Charles LI. Freund, C.E., E.E., as general superintendent, who 
also served as Federal Manager when the U. S. Government operated 
the ferries from 1917 to 1926, the Norfolk County Ferries from in- 
dustrial and public service standpoints have done much to contribute 
to the development of the Norfolk-Portsmouth community. As an 
example of what is added to the purchasing power of Norfolk and 
Portsmouth, the annual payroll for the 150 employees in the organ- 
ization is in excess of $200,000 yearly. 

The ferries provide an excellent connection between downtown 
Norfolk and downtown Portsmouth, and also, annually, more than 
half; a million tourists and vacationists use the gateway for entrance 
to the beach resort area of Norfolk-Portsmouth. 

I 2S7 \ 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 




CAPT. W. R. BOUTWELL 
President. The Virginia Pilot Association 



THE VIRGINIA PILOT ASSOCIATION 

No civic organization has been more intimately connected 
with the development of Norfolk and none has taken a more de- 
voted interest than the Virginia Pilot x'^ssociation. 

Founded in the year 1867 by Captain Oscar E. Edwards and 

others — Captain Edwards was its first 
president — its history actually goes 
back to the period known as the war 
between the states. Five ^"irginia 
pilots were aboard the Merrimac, other- 
wise the Confederate ram Virginia, 
when she sunk the Cumberland, forced 
the Congress to run aground and 
j^^jm,. V frightened the entire Federal seaboard 

^^^ ^^1^ V from Norfolk northward. 

^^^^^^ / jjt It is one of the traditions of the 

^^^^B^kV 'I association that it was by not taking 

^^^^^ft^^^' i the advice of the senior pilot, Captain 

Hjj^^^ll^ll^/^^^ William Parrish, that the ^'irginia 

broke off her ram, for the pilot sug- 
gested that she ram the Cumberland 
headed against the tide, whereas the 
commander took advantage of the tide ebbing from the James and 
used its impetus to drive home the blow more forcibly. The ram 
crasheci into the side of the Cumberland and remained fixed as the 
tide swept the stern of the ironclad around. This bent and twisted 
the ram badly. Later it was discovered missing. The five pilots 
aboard the Merrimac, or Virginia, in this battle of the Middle 
Ground off Newport News, were Captain William Parrish, Captain 
Hezekiah Williams, Captain Robert Clark, Captain George Wright 
and Captain Thomas Cunningham. 

The record of the pilots in the world war was no less renowned. 
Running out ships without lights, bringing them in under similar 
conditions they never lost a ship or a single life, though sometimes 
carried across the ocean through the stress of weather or inability 
to make their way back to the pilot boat. 

Captain W. R. Boutwell was president of the association during 
the world war, having succeeded Captain Edwards in 1906. In 
his time the association reached its highest point of prosperity but 
it also like many another body has felt the lean years of depression 
when the trade of the world fell off and shipping was laid up as 
never before in maritime history. 

[ 258 ] 






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/ 



(^f 






Today the association nunihers 43 active members with five 
on the superannuated list. All these pilots are men of recognized 
ability, some ot them having brought into port such mammoth 
ships as the Leviathan, George Washington, Monticello, Mt. ^"ernon, 
America and others scarcely less widely known. 

Their tour ot duty includes not only the water of Hampton 
Roads and Chesapeake Bay, but the James to Richmond, the York 
to Yorktown anci West Point, the Rappahannock as far as it is navi- 
gable for large vessels and the Potomac to Alexandria and W^ashing- 
ton. This area includes 350 miles ot waters navigable to big ships. 

For this work the pilots now have three boats, of which the chief 
is the Hampton Roads, tormerly the Gadtly 2nd. The craft was 
built by Herbert J. Gielow, for a Chicago banker who wished to 
engage in Arctic exploration. Her original cost was $275,000 but 
she was bought by the pilots tor $27,500. The Hampton Roads is 
125 feet long, 24 teet eight inches beam and 14 teet six inches draft. 
The boat is about seven years old and has been in commission as 
as pilot boat tor three years. 

The other two older craft are the Relief and \'irginia. The 
Relief is 137 feet long, 23 feet wide and has a draft of 12 feet. The 
Virginia is 118 feet long, 22 teet beam and draws 14 feet six inches. 

The efficiency of the Virginia Pilot Association has become a 
set phrase and is known in all ports ot the seven seas, and even to 
the South Pole, for the 
Byrd expedition fitted 
out at Norfolk and was 
piloted to sea by a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Pilot 
Association. 

The present officers 
of the Virginia Pilot As- 
sociation, in addition to 
Captain Boutwell, the 
President, are: Captain 
Elmer Wing, first vice- 
president; Captain M. 
B. Edmunds, second 
vice-president; Captain 
E. H. Scott, treasurer; 
Captain G. A. Massen- 
burg, agent, and Cap- 
tain John E. Johnson, 
secretary. 




riif ta[iKiu> I'ilut ship "Virginia." 



[ 259 



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THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 





CHESAPEAKE FERRY COMPANY 



Norfolk's geographical situation at Hampton Roads on the 
Atlantic Seaboard is ideal from many standpoints, however, the 
city is almost entirely surrounded by water, and as tar back as 
1636, when Adam Thoroughgood established the first terry service 
between Norfolk and Portsmouth, it was recognized that physical 
barriers had to be overcome before the community could be de- 
veloped as a great port and business center. 

It was early realized that connections were necessary between 
at least four important points at Hampton Roads, the points being 
Portsmouth, Old Point Comfort, Newport News and Cape Charles. 
A glance at the map will convince anyone that the early settlers 
had a job on their hands. 

Each railroad as it came to Norfolk developed its own pas- 
senger and freight ferry service. There was no regular ferry service, 
except possibly that between Norfolk, Portsmouth and Berkley, 
and this service was the only general vehicular service operated. 

Much credit is dvie John H. Rodgers and Fergus Reid, who 
recognized that before Norfolk could take its place in the forefront 
of Southern progress it would be necessary to develop modern, 
eiScient, convenient, safe and comfortable ferry service between Nor- 
folk and the other strategic points in the area. Consequently, shortly 
after the turn of the Twentieth Century, they secured a lease on the 
Norfolk County Ferries — the ferries plying between downtown 
Norfolk and downtown Portsmouth — and thus took the first step 
which launched them into a business on which much of the area's 
future growth depended. 




The "Hampton Roads," one of the modern Ferries in service between Norfolk and Newport News. 

1 260 ] 



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In the year 1912 they initiated the second step. By arrange- 
ment with the street railway company ot Norfolk they organized 
the Chesapeake Ferry Company and took over the franchises which 
covered restricted service from Norfolk to Newport News and began 
a vehicular and pedestrian ferry service on regular schedules. The 
citizenry of Norfolk and Newport News heralded this advance 
with much enthusiasm. They realized that at last through the 
foresight and enterprise of Mr. Rodgers and Mr. Reid a long needed 
service had been established — a service which automatically linked 
the historic Virginia Peninsula with the populous area of the State 
on the eastern shore of the Elizabeth River. 

When the World War came, the United States Government, 
under an emergency act, took charge of the ferry properties and 
cancelled the lease held by Mr. Rodgers and Mr. Reid. Overnight 
Norfolk, Portsmouth and Newport News became vital war points 
and the Government sought to control all services and facilities 
deemed necessary for what was shortly to become the world's greatest 
Army, Navy and Marine Corps center and base. Hampton Roads 
and its port cities because of their strategic positions geographically, 
were designated points of embarkation and supply, and the physical 
connections between the communities were to play an important 
part in winning the war. 

The third step in the development of Class "A" ferry service 
for Norfolk was taken by Messrs. Rodgers and Reid in 1929, when 
they acquired the Hampton Roads Transportation Company, 
which operated ferries between Willoughby and Old Point Com- 
fort, and which had been established in 1925 by F. J. McGuire 
and J. M. Hayden, as a general ferry service. 

The next step was taken when Mr. Rodgers formed the Penin- 
sula Ferry Company to operate from Pine Beach to Cape Charles. 
This company began operations in 1931. It continued operations 
until April, 1933, when the present Virginia P'erry Corporation 
was formed with adec|uate finances and new steamers. 

Messrs. Rodgers and Reid have consistently supported the 
Norfolk Advertising Board and other organizations in their efforts 
to attract tourists and develop business generally. In the year 
1924, prior to an organized movement to bring tourists to the Norfolk- 
Portsmouth area, the transient population, according to the records, 
was about 200,000. In the year 1935 this figure had been increased 
to more than half a million and before the final count is taken for 
the year 1936 the total will be in excess of 600,000. The ferries 

[ 261 ] 



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from Newport News and Old Point Comfort now annually transport 
in excess o\ 350,000 toot passengers and 250,000 vehicles. These 
figures prove conclusively that the ferries operated by the Chesa- 
peake Ferry Company are important links and the means by which 
the annual bvisiness of Norfolk is greatly increased. 

The present officers of the company are: John H. Rodgers, 
President; H. B. Goodridge, Vice-President; F. J. McGuire, ^ ice- 
President; George H. Taylor, Secretary and Treasurer and R. S. 
Barrett, General Superintendent. 

The directors are: John H. Rodgers, Chairman; Fergus Reid, 
F. J. McGuire, H. B. Goodridge, Robert P. Beaman and Philip 
W. Murray. 

As a result of what Messrs. Rodgers and Reid did as business 
men and far-sighted loyal citizens of Norfolk, physical barriers 
were removed, cities long separated were brought together, and 
Tidewater \'irginia became recognized as America's greatest historic 
resort area. 






u 







The new streamline steamer Princess Anne — one of the new and modern steamers 
operated by Virginia Ferry Corporation between NorfoII< and Cape Charles. The route 
via Cape Charles is the shortest and most direct between New England, New York, New- 
Jersey, Philadelphia, the Del Mar Va Peninsula, Norfolk, Virginia, and points South. 
It is also a very direct connection with Richmond and points \^^est. 



[ 262 ] 



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1 63 6 --^THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



Q OUR SEAFOOD INDUSTRY 

fS Oysters and fish have played an important part in the business 

Ufe of Norfolk and Portsmouth and today the seafood industry ranks 
as one of the most important industries in Tidewater Virginia. 

The history of Norfolk and that of the "Seafood Industry" is a 
mutual history of romance, adventure, hardship and progress — an epic 
that forever crowns a seaport and its seafood industry and the men 
who go "down to the sea in ships." 

The history of Norfolk's Seafood Industry may be said to date 
back to the early days of the colony, for its pioneer settlers depended 
greatly on seafood for their existence. 

It is almost impossible to make a surve)' of the number of people 
connected directly and indirectly with the fishing and oystering indus- 
tries because there are so many related lines of business that would 
■"^^^1 not prosper without the development of fishing and ovstering here. 

;f^v^ Wholesale fish and oyster dealers in Norfolk and Portsmouth 

'T|f employ 2,500 persons and the payrolls are in excess of $1,000,000.00 

yearly. The distribution of over $8,000,000.00 yearly for fish and 
|i oysters caught in the adjacent waters add greath' to the annual busi- 

ness volume of the twin cities. 

The wide spread of money spent by the fish and oyster dealers is 
amazing to behold. Local oil, ice, box, barrel, marine supplies, lum- 
bermen (poles for fishing nets), clothing, jewelry, groceries, marine 
railways, railroads, trucking companies, and others benefit greatly 
from the money that is paid to the fisherman and oysterman. 

To follow the production, packing and shipping of fish and oys- 
ters is interesting. In the plant of j. H. Miles and Company Nor- 
folk can claim the largest and most modernly equipped oyster shuck- 
ing plant on the Atlantic Seaboard; it is said that this plant is the 
largest in the world, for only on the Atlantic Seaboard is found oysters 
in abundance to supply such a plant. Others also plant, produce, 
shuck, pack and ship oysters in great numbers, but these houses 
which include W. J. Crosby and Company, the oldest wholesale dis- 
tributors of seafood in the Norfolk area, W. L. Chase and Company 
and Ballard Fish and Oyster Company, also maintains fish packing 
houses but does not have the extensive production that the Miles Com- 
pany has. 

Oysters are found in the waters of Chesapeake Bay, in Hampton 
Roads, the York and James Rivers, and off Lynnhaven Inlet, Ocean £ 

I 263 ] 



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•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



\'ie\\", and in other favorable places within a short distance of Nor- 
folk and Portsmouth. 

The o\'ster will propagate and develop best on rock bottoms — 
therefore the state will not lease rock bottoms to planters; it reserves 
them for the public (tongers). 

Oysters tonged soon after propagation are known as seed oysters. 
In the late fall and early winter small boats can be seen in the rivers 
tonging for seed oysters which are bought by the packers from the 
tongers working the rocks for planting in packers' private beds where 
conditions are favorable for the development and growth of the de- 
licious bivalves. When grown to marketable size, which takes from 
two to four years, they are dredged up and taken to the packing houses. 

A tong used in tonging oysters is an implement that looks like 
two huge rakes attached together like a pair of scissors. A dredge 
is a scraper with a heavy net attached which is dragged over the bot- 
toms of the beds and scrapes the oysters into the net ; it is then pulled 
upward out of the water and emptied on the boat's deck. 

In the shucking houses the oysters are opened, graded into classes 
according to size, and placed in strainers. Fresh water is run over the 
oysters and a paddle is used to swish them about, helping the operator 
of the strainer to pick from the oysters all foreign matter. They are 
then placed in w^ashers, where they are further cleaned. After this 
they go to the packing tables where they are put into cans of various 
sizes; some are packed in sealed cans with special canning machinery, 
and others have friction tops placed on them. The cans of oysters 
packed in crushed ice in barrels and boxes are shipped to all parts of 
this country and Canada. 

The lishing grounds are not as confined as the oyster beds. At 
different times of the year iish are caught in many different ways. 
During the spring, summer and fall most of the fish produced are 
caught by haul seining, in pound nets, and in drift. A few fish are 
also caught by the trawl boats. Haul seiners launch boats from the 
shore, carry a net that is floated with cork, and weighed with chain 
or heavy iron. The net is circled in the water, and gradually pulled 
toward shore, where fish caught are emptied out of the net into the 
sand on the beach. They are then placed in boxes with ice and taken 
to the packing houses in Norfolk or Portsmouth. 

The pound netters have nets that are attached to poles that are 
driven into the river beds. The formation of the poles generally run 
perpendicular to the shore. The fish, swimming either up or down 
the river, into the net, cannot get by, and swim into the part of the 

[ 264 ] 



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5 
6 







Power boat takinjj; oil seed or baby oysters in James Ri\er. The smaller boats 
along side catch these oysters from grounds belonging to the State of Virginia and sell 
thein to any one who is in the market. These oysters are planted on private beds. 
and in two or three years thev are readv for the market. 












Planting seed oysters in private beds for 
cultivation. 



Catching the oysters with dredge from 
private beds. 



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net called the purse. This purse is so constructed that one side is 
detachable from the poles, and is hauled up into the small boats so that 
the tish are brought close to the surface; in this position, they are 
"fished" out of the net with small scoop nets attached to long wooden 
handles. 

The smaller boats take their catches to the larger or run boats, 
where they are assorted into varieties, and taken to the packing houses. 
The drift netters work practically in the same manner, except that the 
net is allowed to drift in the river or bay, the fish swim into the net, 
are placed in the small boats and then taken to the run boats. The 
location of these nets are in the rivers emptying into Hampton Roads ; 
the waters surrounding Ocean View and Virginia Beach, and in the 
smaller bajs in the \icinit\'. 

During the winter months practically the entire production is 
caught by the trawl boats. These boats for the most part are North- 
ern Trawlers out of Gloucester, Boston and New Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts, which find the fishing in southern waters less hazardous and 
more profitable than stajing around the grand banks in the colder 
weather. The boats range in size from the converted sub-chaser to 
the more modern type like the Beam Trawler "Boston College," which 
drew a great deal of attention in these parts last year with a record 
catch of about one thousand barrels of fish — approximately 200,000 
pounds. These boats rather than wait for the fish to come into the 
rivers and baj's and be caught in the nets that are there waiting for them, 
go out into the ocean and make their fishing grounds in an area from 
three to twehe miles off^shore, from the New Jersej' coast on the north 
to Cape Lookout on the south. The crew depends on the size of the 
vessel, ranging from six to fifteen men on each boat, and with about 
100 boats trawling in the waters adjacent to this port, and selling 
their fish to Norfolk and Portsmouth packers, one can picture the 
amount of money these boats bring into the cofi"ers of the people of 
these cities. 

Modern inventions have helped these boats to make the most 
of their catches and to know where to find the fish. To cite an example 
of the devices that make fishing in a modern, well-equipped trawler 
profitable, let us take a mythical voj^age on one of them. Before lea\- 
ing the docks of the packing house, we buy enough fuel and motor 
oil for our Diesel engine, fill our water tanks with fresh water and 
store our galley with food enough to last two weeks, although we hope 
to return to port within the week. Our captain has determined from 
the weather bureau the forecast for the next twenty-four hours. He 

I 266 I 






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•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



has talked to other captains who have just returned from the fishing 
grounds, and has found where the most lish are being caught at that 
particular time. 

Our nets are in good shape, for the crew has worked over them, 
mending them during the short time we have been in port. We leave 
under full power, and our radio compass directs us to the place we 
have selected to make our first drag. Our fathomer tells us the depth 
of the water at that particular point, and from either the regularity 
or irregularity of the bottom, we can learn whether or not there are 
gullies in the ocean's bottom, where fish are likely to be swimming about. 

Our boat hauls a net that is from 100 to 150 feet in length slowly 
around ; and we hope that there are fish swimming in the water that it 
will entrap. Our fishometer will tell us the weight of the net, and if 
it is filling with fish. When this instrument shows that the net is full, 
the hauling gear on deck of the boat is put in motion, and the net 
hauled to the mast of the boat. A draw string is pulled from the net, 
the fish fall on deck. The crew immediately gets to work sorting the 
varieties, and storing them in the hole of the ship with crushed ice to 
preserve their freshness. While the crew of the boat is sorting, the 
net is put overboard again, and another haul is made. 

On the other hand, if our fishometer shows that the net is not filling 
up, it is hauled on deck and the boat makes to other places where there 
is likely more fish to be caught. Our two-way radio keeps us informed 
of the prices and the supply of fish on shore, and our captain decides 
that now is a good time to make the run to the market. He radios 
to his packing house that he has caught so many fish and tells the size 
and variety, and starts on his way. Upon arrival at the docks, his 
fish are sold. Varieties that we might have caught on this trip would 
be croakers, flounders, porgies, sea bass, sea robbins, trout, sea eels, 
hake, codfish, and lobsters. 

The two packing houses in Norfolk and Portsmouth best equipped 
to handle large catches of trawl fish are the Isaac Pass, Inc., fish house 
in Portsmouth and the Ballard Fish and Oyster Company's plant in 
Norfolk. When a boat arrives, if the captain has not been in com- 
munication with the executives of the packing houses, he calls for so 
many fish of such varieties and sizes. Telephone, teletype and tele- 
graph machines go into motion, and before the hour is over, the entire 
load is sold. 

The fish are taken out of the hold of the ship, by means of electric 
donkeys, placed in washers, where the slime and dirt is washed off 
the fish, then placed on tables, where each fish is hand-picked, weighed 

I 267 I 






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^ II 

^J and placed in wooden boxes, between layers of crushed ice. The boxes i, 

6 are stored in cold storage rooms where the temperature is kept at a ; 

constant low, until the fish are ready for shipment. Shipments are ! 

made from these houses in car lots, in refrigerator cars, by express, 
by boat and by truck. Regular trucking lines have regular schedules 
upon which they travel from these cities, to the northern markets. 

There are also several fish freezing plants in the Norfolk-Ports- 
mouth vicinity. These plants specialize in preparing fresh fish that 
are a surplus on the market at an}' particular time into frozen varieties 
that under government specifications and inspection will keep for at 
least twelve to eighteen months. These freezers help to supply the 

i, demand for fish when there is no supply, during storms, and such times 

when there is no production. 

The preparation of fish in the packing houses has changed greatly 
in the past decade. In former years the majority of fish handled by ^ 

^ ; the local dealers were either shipped in the rough or bunched, with '^^-fi 

"t;i>' about two pounds of fish to the bunch. Oysters were for the most 

part shipped in one, three and five-gallon cans. Now we cannot find 
an up-to-date fish house that does not have a clean and sanitary dress- '^ 

;1 ing or filleting department. In these places, the rough or round fish ji 

.5 are scaled, cleaned, and sometimes filleted, which is a process of taking i^,' 

all the bones from the fish. They are brined slightly so that they will 7^^ 

keep their freshness and firmness, wrapped in parchment paper, and 

c^ packed in tin cans which are placed in wooden boxes, encircled in "7. 

crushed ice. These fish, when placed in the retailer's stand, offer a "li- 

very appetizing morsel to the housewife. They are truly out of the 
sea into the frjing pan fish. Some of the packers at different times of 
the year prepare salt or corned fish. The fish that is best to prepare 
in this manner are spots, for which Ocean \'iew is famous, and mullets 
and herring. 

The packing of o\sters has e\olutionized from packing from the 
larger packages into the smaller. It seems that the entire seafood in- 
dustry has evolved from shipping in large packages, into the prepara- 
tion of smaller packages that are more appealing to the housewife, and 
less trouble for the retailer. 

Thus we see that the fish and oyster industries are an important 
part in the growth and development of Tidewater \'irginia, especially 
Norfolk and Portsmouth. The catchers, packers and shippers, all have 
made great progress. Today, the wholesale seafood dealers of the twin 
cities ship Norfolk's famous seafood to all ports of the United States 
and Canada. 



[ 268 



1936 



|636=-^THROUCH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

THE BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS OF NORFOLK 

^ FiFTv-six Years of Service 

In the eighteen-eighties Norfolk was a town of 21,960 popu- 
lation whose business was just reviving from the disastrous effects 
of war, military occupation and reconstruction. The population 
was increasing; people were beginning to build; bold prophets 
were even predicting that in time there would be 50,000 people 
in the city: But money was scarce and interest high. The banking 
practices of the period did not provide facilities to enable the man 
of small means to finance his home on small weekly payments com- 
mensurate with his income, and at the same time there were few 
opportunities for regular small savings by wage earners. It was 
to meet this double need that the idea of building and loan, which 
had existed in America since 1832, was introduced in Norfolk. 

It was in Norfolk in 1880 that the oldest Building and Loan 
Association now in existence in Virginia was founded. The new 
plan which provided for loans to be repaid over a term of years 
in small weekly or monthly payments and with the provision that 






fV.«is» 



no greater payment could be called for, met with immediate sue- > 

cess, and soon other associations were formed to extend the useful- i 

ness of this plan. In the early days most of them had no office. 

The officers and directors simply met once a week in the store or *^' 

office of one of the members, in order that the secretary might 'J 

receive the payments of dues, and that the other business, if any, 
of the association, might be transacted. When enough money had ^.y 

been accumulated, it would be loaned to one of the members. The % 

accumulation of funds was a slow process and there were always ' 

more prospective borrowers than there were funds available, so the 
lucky member was determined by lot, or the fund in hand was ■ 

auctioned off to the member making the highest bid, thus speeding 
up the accumulation of funds for the next successful applicant. 
The detail work was done by one of the members, serving as secre- 
tary, usually with little or no compensation. Behind the splendid 
growth of each of the older associations is the story of the sacrifice 
of time and effort of some public-spirited man or men whose abili- 
ties were devoted to its success. 

The Building and Loan movement continued to expand, growing 
as the town grew. In 1880 Norfolk had only 21,960 inhabitants, 
in 1900 there were 46,664. Ghent was laid out as a sub-division, 
and Park Place, Old Dominion Place and other "suburbs" were 
developed. The i Jamestown (Exposition brought a metropolitan 
consciousness and good streets and roads, making outlying sections "7 

[ 269 J 



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accessible and causing further expansion. In 1910 there were 67,542 
inhabitants; in 1920, 115,777, and a large percentage of the new 
homes required were financed on the easy building and loan plan. 
Not only did the Building and Loan Associations help the city's 
growth — when the depression came they were a strong defense 
against some of the worst effects of it. Thousands of persons in 
Norfolk owe the possession of their homes to the forbearance and 
cooperation shown by building and loan associations when wage- 
earners were out of work. 

In 1922 the Norfolk-Portsmouth-Berkley League of Local 
Mutual Building and Loan Associations was formed to promote 
cooperation among its members and to forward the best interests 
of all associations and of the city. The cooperation thus estab- 
lished has proven a meterial help in solving the difficulties which 
beset all lending companies during the depression. Today the assets 
of the associations of Norfolk, as reported in the State Corporation 
Commission's report for December 31, 1935, are $24,629,427.36. 
It is significant to note that while in number our Associations rep- 
resent only 20% of the total number in the State, their assets 
amount to 55% of the State total of $44,859,738.48. It is not 
without reason that Norfolk is known as one of the most progressive 
building and loan towns in the LInited States. 

No plan for the acquirement of a home superior to that of the 
building and loan method has ever been evolved. The great ad- 
vantage of this plan lies in the fact that a reasonable weekly or 
monthly basis is stipulated at the start and no matter how great 
the demand for money may be, the member can not be called on 
for any amount greater than that originally agreed on. It is the 
general opinion in financial circles that the LInited States is entering 
on another period of real estate activity. Times are better, the 
Government's activities during the past three years have con- 
tributed to greater interest in home ownership than has existed for 
a decade. During the twelve months ending October 1, 1936, the 
nine members of the League made loans amounting to over two and 
a half million dollars and they have millions more available for 
loans on suitable property. 

Despite their increased size and modern methods, the asso- 
ciations of Norfolk have maintained the spirit of friendliness and 
close cooperation with their members which is characteristic of 
building and loan at its best and the community is fortunate in the 
fact that these associations are prepared to furnish every aid for 
the extension of home ownership consistent with sound business 
principles. 

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i§ 



BERKLEY PERMANENT BUILDING AND LOAN 
ASSOCIATION 

The Berkley Permanent Building and Loan Association (or- 
ganized in 1886), one ot the oldest financial institutions in the city 
of Norfolk, was organized in the small community of Berkley by 
a group of citizens, to provide for an urgent need in financing homes 
on a plan ot easy and convenient payments and also to promote 
thrift and savings among the citizens ot the community. 

The first officers ot the institution were as toUows: President, 
M. Miller; Vice-President, P. H. Broullet; Secretary, Chas. S. 
Wood. Directors: M. Miller, J. J. Ottley, Alvah H. Martin, J. 
W. McDonough, P. H. Broullet, Chas. S. Wood, B. C. Bilisoly, 
Jno. M. Berkley, C. S. Russell, James L. Milby, P. L. Poindexter 
and G. D. Williams. 

Some ot the other influential citizens connected with the or- 
ganization were: S. W. Lyons, E. M. Tilley, J. W. Jones and John 
Cuthrell. Mr. Jones and Mr. Cuthrell are both at present active 
officials ot the institution, Mr. Jones serving as President and Mr. 
Cuthrell as ^"ice-President. 

Among others who played an important part in the develop- 
ment ot Berkley Permanent Building and Loan Association and 
the commimity at large were W. L. Berkley, Geo. G. Martin and 
Geo. T. Tilley, Mr. Berkley having served as President and Mr. 
Tilley as Secretary. 

The first loans of the institution were confined to a small area 
but as the city progressed the association grew in size and useful- 
ness to the community. Today it serves all sections ot Norfolk and 
Princess Anne Counties and the cities and towns therein. 

The tounciers ot this organization builded better than they knew, 
they laid the foundation ot an institution that tor half a century 
has contributed to the growth ot Norfolk by making loans ot millions 
for thousands ot homes that today stand as monuments to its progress. 

This association has also been a factor in promoting thrift by 
the encouragement ot systematic savings among the citizens ot the 
community, returning to both borrowers and savers millions of 
dollars in dividends since it was established fifty years ago without 
a single interruption. 

From its inception in 1886 this organization has grown to be 
one ot the largest building and loan associations in the State of 
\'irginia. With resources of nearly $3,000,000.00, the officers and 
directors not only take pride in the fact that this institution has 
contributed so largely to home-ownership and the encouragement 

1 271 J 






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/^Jkr. 



of thrift, hut that it has been so closely allied tor so long a time 
with the progress and advancement that Norfolk has made. 

The present officers and directors are: J. W. Jones, President; 
John Cuthrell, \'ice-President; J. R. Sears, Vice-President-Secre- 
tarv; C. L. Old, Treasurer. The directors are: J. \V. Jones, John 
Cuthrell, C. L. Old, D. D. Tuttle, J. C. Sleet, E."c. Savage, W. L. 
Berkley, Wni. P. Butt, H. G. Ashburn, Z. \'ance Jones, John E. 
White, Jr., J. R. Sears. 

Ample funds are available by Berkley Permanent Building and 
Loan Association to continue to perform its share of the work in 
building a greater and better Norfolk. Two branches, in addition 
to the main office, are maintained by the association for the con- 
venience of its members and those who wish to take advantage of 
the service offered. One branch is located in the Merchants and 
Planters Bank in South Norfolk, another is No. 29 Selden Arcade 
Building in downtown Norfolk, and the main office is at 231 West 
Berklev Avenue. 





^ 



Granby Street in the early 20th Century — looking South from Tazewell Street. Old 
Granbv Theatre on left, old Monticello Hotel Building beyond. Right, Tazewell Building. 
Atlantic Hotel Building in right background. 



[ 272 j 



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5 
6 



-)^ci 



o 




MUTUAL FEDERAL SAVINGS AND LOAN ASSOCIATION 

OF NORFOLK 

On April 25, 1889, a charter was granted by D. Tucker Brooke, 
Judge of the Corporation Court of Norfolk, to The Mutual Building 
Association of Norfolk, \'irginia, W. M. Hannah, President, Adam 
Tredwell, Vice-President, Ira T. Holt, 
Treasurer, Geo. \V. Black, Financial 
Secretary, A. S. J. Gammon, Recording 
Secretary, Directors the above and Hen- 
ry Brandt, Isaac Moritz, E. E. White- 
hurst, Geo. M. Pollard, John T. How- 
ard and S. Hamberger. How memories 
of the past are brought back to the older 
residents of the cit\' b}' that roster of 
names ! 

Norfolk was then a growing town of 
34,000. Business was improving after 
the hard years of reconstruction, people 
were beginning to build new homes, but 
money was scarce and interest high. It 
was difficult for the man of small means 

to finance his home and there were few opportunities for regular small 
savings. It was to meet this double need that The Mutual Building 
Association was formed. 

As its name indicates, it was primarih" for the mutual benefit of 
its members. They paid in their savings each week and so great was 
the demand for money with which to build homes that when enough 
had accumulated for a loan, it was auctioned off to the highest bidder, 
the premium going to start the fund for the next loan. Later coupon 
bonds were issued and this form of investment proved so popular that 
it was continued until November 1, 1933, when the present method 
of issuing Share Certificates was substituted. 

From the beginning the new association met with success. The 
first charter provided for maximum capital of $1,000,000 but as the 
town grew this had to be increased to $5,000,000, then in 1920 to 
$10,000,000 and in 1935 the capital was made unlimited. In 1889 
Bank Street was the business center of Norfolk and the first small office 
of the Association was located there. The location was changed as 
the city grew and on June 14, 1911, the present site, 121-123 W. Taze- 

[ 273 1 



V 

JOHN A.LESNER 






I 



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v;«2ii;> 




well Street, was purchased and the per- 
inaneiit home erected. 



Duriny those \'ears a stead}' tide of 
savings poured into the Association and 
a steady tide of loans for home financing 
poured out. Many a citizen of Norfolk 
owes his business success today to the 
small savings account he first started in 
the Mutual \"ears ago, and thousands 
owe their homes to the Alutual's plan 
of easy, regular payments. 

The welfare of the Association has 

been the lifetime work of many of its 

officers and directors. The President, 

Senator John A. Lesner, has been a 

member of the Board of Directors since August 6, 1907, and 

President since January 23, 1917, succeeding Air. R. E.xner. Mr. 

D. Carpenter, \'ice-President, has been a member of the Board since 
1907, and Mr. Fred V. Lesner, Secretary, has been Assistant Secretary 
and Secretary since 1915. Aliss Lillian Waikart, Cashier, has been in 
the Association's employ for 36 years. Of the Directors, Mr. H. D. 
Oliver has been a member of the Board since 1903, the Honorable 
Norman R. Hamilton since 1913, Air. Goldsborough Serpell since 1913 
and Air. H. T. Cruser, Jr., since 1919. Alessrs. E. R. Willcox, Fred 
\'. Lesner and W. C. Pender were elected in 1932 and Air. C. Q. Nugent 
in 1933. The Association's first attorney was the late Judge Thomas 
H. Willcox and another attorney who represented it for mam- }ears 
was the late \\ . Dorsey Pender. Today the former's son, E. R. \\ ill- 
cox of Willcox, Cooke & Willcox, and the latter's nephew, W. C. Pender 
of Foreman, Pender & Dyer, are attorneys and directors. Other direc- 
tors who have taken an active part in the Association's affairs in the 
past are Alessrs. Alax Pincus, J. W. Spagat, George Scott, Joseph Alor- 
ris, W . H. Barnard, C. H. Ferrell, AI. T. Friary, Alaurice G. Long and 

E. J. Doran, all :now deceased. 

Changing world conditions brought new ideas into building and 
loan work — the Federal Home Loan Bank System, insurance of shares, 
direct reduction loans and Federalization. The Mutual has been a 
member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Winston-Salem since it 
was founded and Senator Lesner is one of the Bank's directors. On 
April 30, 1935, the Alutual Building Association secured insurance 

[ 274 1 



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on Its shares to the amount of $5,000 per person, the maximum allowed 
by law, and on September 16, 1935, it converted on a 100% basis into 
the Mutual Federal Sa\'ings and Loan Association of Norfolk, char- 
tered by the Federal Home Loan Bank Board. 

To its rock-like strength against which the financial storms of 
the past few years battered in vain, thousands of investors owe the 
safety of their life savings today and regardless of what may come in the 
future it will be protected by Federal insurance. Despite its increased 
size and modern methods, it has maintained the spirit of friendliness 
and close co-operation which has always been its leading character- 
istic. No account and no request for a loan is too small to be received 
with courtesy and the problems its members bring to it for solution 
become its problems, too. The Mutual Federal Savings and Loan 
Association looks back on the past with pride and forward to the future 
with confidence, ready as it has always been to do its part in making 
good its slogan : "A home for every citizen of Norfolk and a citizen of 
Norfolk in every home." 



ABBOTT, PROCTOR & PAINE 

.A.bbott, Proctor & Paine, New York Stock Exchange firm, 
whose local office at 117 West Tazewell Street is under the man- 
agement of Bernard C. Smith, possesses a rich heritage in national 
business and financial history, in which the Norfolk Office has a 
goodly share. 

Walter W. Price, a senior member of the firm, began his career 
as a runner for the old Norfolk National Bank, and is himself a 
native Virginian. Today he is a national figure. Well known for 
his long and active association with Wall Street, Mr. Price is like- 
wise recognized as a pioneer in the development of the private wire 
system. It was he who in 1903, as a partner of the firm of E. & C. 
Randolph, opened Norfolk's first cotton and securities direct market, 
with Mr. Smith as manager, in what was formerly a grocery store 
in Atlantic City, close by what is now the Norfolk Cotton Exchange 
building. 

Before that time the only way Norfolk had of keeping in touch 
with the cotton market was by a telegram each hour to the old 
Cotton Exchange Building down on Water Street, which gave the 
changes in prices on the New York Cotton Exchange. When the 
Cotton Exchange was moved to Atlantic City, these bulletins were 

I 275 ] 



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1636 THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

^\ put on a half-hour schedule; but Mr. Price, realizing the importance 

6 of Norfolk as a cotton port and with tar-sighted vision recognizing 

the future growth ot the private wire system, established for E. & C. 
Randolph the modest branch office in Atlantic City, connected by 
private wire with ^^'all Street. 

With the increase ot business and need for greater facilities, 

! the office was moved in 1920 to Tazewell Street, opposite its present 

location. Upon the death ot Edmund Randolph, the remaining 

partners consolidated with the New York Stock Exchange firm of 

Livingston & Co., under whose leadership the Norfolk office continued 

to grow and expand. The first stock ticker in Norfolk was installed 

I in Livingston & Co.'s office, and oldtimers smile in reminiscence as 

i they tell ot the old days when "we all sat around a table and grabbed 

slips of papers carrying the latest quotations 'off the wire'." 

In 1928 the Nortolk office moved across the street to its present 

,^ location. In the meantime, up-to-date quotation boards, a trans- 

"^' " lux, and a financial news ticker have done their part in bringing 

Norfolk's clients in closest possible touch with Wall Street itself. 

'■^ The present tirm ot Abbott, Proctor & Paine was organized in 

.^ 1934 with the consolidation of the firm of that name and Livingston 

}\ & Co., and in the fall of 1936 the i^rm of A. J. W'right & Co., with 

a chain ot offices in the LInited States and Canada, became a part 

of the system of Abbott, Proctor & Paine. 

Partners in the present firm are successors of firms established 
when the financial center ot the country was not very far removed 
from the old "cottonwooci tree" days, one having been formed over 
seventy and another more than fifty years ago. In those days Stock 
Exchange houses did not have branches throughout the country; 
most of them operated in and around Wall Street. Today, however, 
private wires connect Wall Street with Main Street, and true to 
her pioneer history, Nortolk, with a thirty-three-year-old brokerage 
service, again by adventure has proved her spirit of courage for the 
sake of progress. 






POST AND FLAGG 



Post and Flagg was established in New York in 1888. The 
Norfolk office was opened during 1928, with James B. McCaw, as 
manager. Mr. McCaw remained in charge of the Norfolk office 
until his death in November, 1935. 

James B. McCaw, Jr., succeeded his father as active manager 
for Post and Flagg in Norfolk. 

I 276 1 



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Post and Flagg are members ot New York, Pittsburgh and 
other stock and commodity exchanges. The company deals in 
stocks, bonds, cotton, coffee, grain, and provisions. 

The Norfolk office has a full ticker service and is located at 120 
Atlantic Street. 



A 



^' 



:'4 





Iff 



Commercial Place and Main Street in 1902, before statue of Confederate Soldier was 
placed atop Monument. Both monument and statue were designed by Couper Marble Works. 



THE GOITER MARBLE WORKS 

The Couper Marble Works (established March 1, 1848) is 
said to be the oldest business institution in continuous operation 
in Norfolk. It was established on March 1, 1848, by John D. Couper, 
on the site now occupied by Willis Furniture Company at Main and 
Granby Streets. This was before the old Atlantic Hotel was built. 

During this time, two loving cups have been presented by the 
employees to the employers, in testimony of the esteem of the 
workers for those who conducted the business affairs of the com- 
pany. 

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Regarding the first loving cup presented, a Norfolk newspaper 
published March 2, 1898, had this to state in part: 

"The Couper Marble Works, Nos. 159-163 Bank Street, 
yesterciay celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its existence. 

"The occasion was one ot utmost pleasure. The day 
marked the close ot halt a century of honest dealing with 
the public and found the firm in a prosperous condition, 
with a still growing business, enjoying the confidence ot 
its many friends and the esteem of its employees. 






"The presentation was informal and informally re- 
ceived; Mr. John D. Couper, founder of the firm, being 
particularly affected by the gift. . . . 

"Mr. John D. Couper, the senior member of the firm, 
now 76 years old, began the present business on the site 
now occupied by Watt, Rettew and Clay's establishment. 
After the war he moved the plant to Bank Street, where 
it is now located." 

rhe second loving cup was presented in the same spirit by the 
then employees, in 1923. 

The news item ot 1898 also stateci this (words which are still 
true at this date in 1936): 

"The firm is one of the best known in the South in its 
line, and has a very large trade in \'irginia and North 
Carolina. They are splendidly equipped and take pride in 
the well known excellence of their work." 

Upon the death ot John D. Couper, the two sons — John D., 
who had entered the firm in 1876, and Charles C, who joined with 
it in 1888 — continued the business. Later, when John D. Couper, 
Jr., died, the sole ownership of the concern was acquired by Charles 
C. Couper, who is still actively engaged in its management. It is 
a notable fact that the establishment, now in its 89th year, has been 
in one family covering only two generations. 

The unvarying policy of the firm, since its beginning in 1848, 
has been to produce marble and granite memorials notable for 
originality in conception and artistically executed. Among the 
outstanding pieces of work by the Couper Marble Works, ranking 
with the finest of their respective class in the State, are the LeKies 
Mausoleum in Elmwood Cemetery and the Norfolk Confederate 
Monument at Main Street and Commercial Place. 

1 278 ] 



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BATCHELDER & COLLINS 

Hatchelder and Collins, Inc., Norfolk's pioneer building material 
dealers, was established in 1868, by B. M. Batchelder and W. H. 
Collins, at what was then 141 to 145 Water Street. The site is 
now occupied by the Norfolk freight terminal of the Norfolk Southern 
Railway. 

The Company from the da)' it began, took active leadership 
in the work of building a greater Norfolk. Then Norfolk was a 
city of only a few thousand people. Today Batchelder and Collins 
serve a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 300,000. 

The present plant is situated on Granby Street and Norfolk 
and Western Railway. The company specializes in Class A building 
materials, which include brick, lime, plaster, cement, terra cotta, 
roofing, etc. 

The officers of the company are: William C. Whitehead, 
President-Treasurer; Early W. Whitehead, \'ice-Presiilent; and 
Gustav J. Kirchheimer, Secretary. 

Mr. Early W. Whitehead in addition to being \'ice-President 
of Batchelder and Collins is Treasurer of Norfolk County. 




Company "E" — 4th Virginia Reginu-m, XiiKiniu Natiunal ^.uani>, in tlie Ka\ niiinit-s. 

1 279 J 



sL:'JJV'^£sa 



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NORFOLK-PORTSMOUTH BRIDGE 



The Norfolk-Portsmouth Bridge, 
or the "Jordan Bridge," as it is 
more familiarly known, is located 
just south of the Norfolk Nav}- 
Yard, connecting U. S. Route 460, 
across the Southern Branch of the 
Elizabeth River, through South Nor- 
folk to Norfolk and the beaches. 

The building of the Norfolk- 
P(jrtsmouth Bridge is commemorated 
b>- a bronze tablet placed on the 
bridge, a photograph of which is 
shown on the next page, which is a 
monument to the untiring efforts of 
C. M. Jordan, W. P. Jordan and 
Associates, who secured permission 
of Congress, Pub. Bill No. 272, 69th 
Congress, approved May 22nd, 1926, 
and financed and built the bridge. 




C. M. JORDAN 

Who led the successful fight tor a 
bridge connecting the Twin Cities. 



opening it for traffic August 24th, 1928. 

The bridge was designed by Messrs. Harrington, Howard & 
Ash, Engineers, of Kansas City, Mo., and construction was handled 
by Mr. E. R. Needles, of their New York office. The first contract 
was awardeti June 25th, 1927, work was started August 15th, 1927, 



(IT, 

'Si, 



t& 




Norfolk-Portsmouth Bridge over Southern Branch of Elizabeth River opened to traffic August 'Ji, lO'iS. 

I 280 1 



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5 
6 







His Excellency the Governor of Virginia, Harry Flood 
ByrH, cutting the riblion and opening for traffic the 
Norfolk-Portsmouth Bridge — August ii, 19'28. Mr. 
C. M. Jordan on extreme left. Sponsors are Miss 
Eugenia Portlock as Miss South Norfolk; Miss Mary 
Calvert Waike Truxton as Miss Norfolk; Miss Elizabeth 
Duke as Miss Norfolk Countv; and Miss Virginia Hanra- 
han as Miss Portsmouth. 



and the bridge was offi- 
cially opened and dedi- 
cated h)' Governor 
Harry Flood Byrd as 
the last connecting link 
in King's Highway he- 
tween Richniomi and 
the Sea .August l24th, 
192S. 

The original cost of 
the bridge was $1,125,- 
000.00. 

Mr. C. M. Jordan 
was the first President 
ot the bridge, but he 
and his brother, Mr. W. 
P. Jordan, sokl their 

entire holdings to New York interests in June, 1929, severing their 
connection with the bridge. In 1931 the bridge was placed in 
receivership, with Mr. Chas. R. Welton as Receiver. An appeal 
was made to Mr. C M. Jordan to come back and show his taith in 
the bridge by buying bonds and casting his lot in with the bond- 
holders in an efFort to put the bridge back on 
its teet. So successful was this effort that a 
basis ot reorganization was reached in De- 
cember, 1932, and the bridge was reorganized 
under the Second Mortgage with Philadelphia 
and Baltimore bankers, and taken out ot 
Receivership .August 1st, 1933, Mr. Chas. R. 
Welton being made President ot the new 
corporation. 

The Norfolk-Portsmouth Bridge has done 

nu)re to change the map ot tidewater \'irginia 

than any cievelopment which has taken place 

since the First Settlers landed. Norfolk, being 

\irtually on an islantl, had been connected 

with Portsmouth only by terries since early 

Colonial days. The building of the Norfolk-Portsmouth Bridge 

macie possible the first continuous highway between Norfolk and 

Portsmouth and from Richmond to the Sea. 

With the aid of State and Federal Funds, U. S. Route 460 has 
been extended from Bristol to the Sea, and was connected over the 

I 281 I 



THUOUOH THE UNTIRINQ 
efFOMS Of 

C, M. JORDAN 
W. P. JORDAN 

AND ASSOCIATES 

WHO SeCURED 

PERMISSION or CONGRESS- 

PUIUC IIU m.171' IITH. CONIiltESI 

Arnovio HAV u, im 

-AND FINANCtD AND 

BUILT TNM UIDCE 

OPtNINOITWRWArnC 

AUOUST 14. itta 



Tablet placed on bridge 

to commemorate work of 

Messrs. C. M. and VV. P. 

Jordan. 





wm 






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9 

^j Norfolk-Portsmouth Bridge in the spring of 1934, and is rapidly 

6 becoming the main artery of traffic in Southside Virginia. 

The present officers ot the Norfolk-Portsmouth Bridge, Inc., are: 
Chas. R. Welton, President; J. Wm. Middendorf, Vice-President; 
J. Davis Reed, Treasurer. 

The Directors are: Chas. R. Welton, J. Wm. Middendorf, J. 
Davis Reed, Robt. M. Hopkins, F. A. McCord, C. M. Jordan. 




282 



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SEARS, ROEBUCK AND COMPANY 

The birth ot an idea in tar-off North Redwood, Minnesota, a 
halt century ago has made Sears, Roebuck and Company a part of 
the colortul history ot Nortolk, Virginia. 

On that day, titty years ago, Richard W. Sears sat in the ticket 
station there where he worked as station agent. His eyes were 
gazing at a package ot watches which had been refused by a local 
jeweler. In his efforts to arrive at the most satisfactory way to 
handle the shipment, it occurred to him that he might buy the 
watches himselt at a price concession and resell them among his 
railroad triends for less than they could purchase similar watches 
elsewhere. He not only sold them by personal solicitation but by .. 

letters. |f 

That was the real beginning ot the far-flung structure of Sears, 
Roebuck and Company, which, either years ago, became a part of 
Norfolk; marching forwarci with Norfolk as she herself has pro- 
gressed. 

From the small beginning Mr. Sears' idea quickly expanded. 
The volume became too great tor so circumscribed a spot, and Mr. 
Sears, in 1886, moved to Minneapolis. His business continued to 
grow and he determined that a more centrally located place would 
be more advantageous, and earh' in 1887 he moved to Chicago and 
opened a business under the name of R. W. Sears Watch Company. 
It was about that time when he became acquainted with A. C. 
Roebuck. Like Mr. Sears, Mr. Roebuck is of English ancestry, 
and his great grandfather came from one of the earliest colonies in 
A'irginia. 

From then on the history of Sears has been one of continued 
success and healthy growth. 

Mr. Roebuck sold out his interests in 1895 and Julius Rosenwald 
entered the organization which then became incorporated, with 
Mr. Sears as President and Mr. Rosenwald Vice-President. 



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=*f 



Ten years later the institution was doing a business that had 
reached a total of almost $40,000,000 a year. In 1909 Mr. Sears 
retired from business and Mr. Rosenwald was elected President. 

So successful was the operation from Chicago that it was de- 
cided to open another mail order plant. It was done in Dallas, 
Texas, 1907. Since then eight more mail order plants have been 
established. 

In 1925 a rather daring step was taken by Sears. That was 
the establishment of retail stores. The first one was at the Chicago 
plant. It was prosperous trom the start. 

Now, more than 430 retail stores exist to supplement Sears' 
mail order in servicing Sears' millions ot customers. 

The part that Sears has played in the economic lite of \'irginia 
may be exemplified by just a tew figures. Sears has spent in this 
State during the five year period, ending with 1936, in excess ot 
$12,000,000, and those includetl depression years when more than 
$10,000,000 was poured into the State by way ot merchandise pur- 
chases, and more than $1,000,000 went tor payroll. The average 
yearly expenditure during that period was in excess ot $1,750,000. 

Sears is proud ot its record in Nortolk and is proud ot the record 
that Nortolk has made tor itself. Its only desire is that the his- 
torians ot the future may be able to write ot such high achievement 
tor both Norfolk and Sears. 



:7 




Main Street, looking east from Commerce Street, 1900. 

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IHK HOLSE OF AKTHER MORRIS 



The House ot Arrher Morris was established in the old Columbia 
Building on Granby Street, in 1887, by Arther Morris, of the fourth 
generation ot the Morns tamiK' m Norfolk. 

'\ oung Morris interrupted 
his education when thirteen 
years old and joined the staff" 
ot L'mstadter Myers, father-in- 
law ot Arther J. Morris, the 
tounder ot the Morris Plan 
Hank. 

Mr. Myers operated Nor- 
folk's outstanding d r y g o o d s 
store ot that time and the new 
young clerk at the dress goods 
counter soon began to reveal 
the talents which in later years 
earned him international tame. 
Mr. Morns was artistic- 
all\ mclmed and m his spare 
moments painted and sketched. 
In the store, after the purchase 
of goods for dresses had been 
made, he would offer his sugges- 
tions regarding how he thought 
the goods would make up. In 
many instances he drew the 
tlesigns while the customers were waiting tor their bundles to be 
wrapped. In all his creations he emphasized the purchaser's per- 
sonality and was so successful in this work that David Lowenberg 
and other business leaders ot the periotl recognized his ability and 
urged hmi to go into business for himself. 

In those days, e\erything was made to order, and what was a 
small business shortly grew to be an establishment with one huntired 
sewing girls, and .Arther Morris was recognized as the South's out- 
standing dress creator and maker. 

Early in his career, Mr. Morris ailopted as his creed: "So 
many gods — so many creeds — so many paths that wind and wind, 
when just the art ot being kind — is all this sad world needs." 

The first brick in the building at 111 Plume Street, where the 
House of Arther Morris is today carrying on as a memorial to its 

I 2S4 I 




ARTHF.R MORRIS 

Kduiulcr (if rhc tUnisc of Archer Morris 



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founder, was laid by Miss N'irginia l-eigh Morris, present liead of 
the firm. Miss Morris was a child iit the time and tliil not realize 
that she was taking the first step which wouKl later lead her to the 
desk as directing genius of the organization. 

Mr. Morris married Sadie 
Spaget, daughter ot J. \V. 
Spaget. Dr. Southgate Leigh, 
famous physician and surgeon 
who died in 1936, was Miss 
Morris' godfather. Mr. Morris 
studied art with F.ugenia Hern- 
don, of Norfolk, and his tlaugh- 
ter inherited his artistic talent 
and became famous as a sculp- 
tor, in addition to winning 
fame for her House of Arther 
Morris creations. 

Miss Morris was Cvlucated 
in Norfolk schools and studied 
sculpture under Belle lr\in, 
Harriett Whitney Krishmuth 
and Solon H. Horglum, brother 
of Gut'/um. Miss Morris also 
had two years at the Fine 
Arts School at Yale and several 
years in France. W. I'rank 
Purdy, dean of American sculp- 
ture, guided her entire career. 
She is a member of Society of Washington Artists, Norfolk Society 
ot Arts, Norfolk Art Corner, Southern States Art League, antl made 
the Henry A. Wise Memorial and designed the road markers for 
the State of \'irginia. Awards and prizes are: Florence K. Sloane 
award and Flsie Stegman prize. She exhibited at Corcoran Art 
Gallery, Washington, D. C; the Academy of Fine Arts at Phila- 
delphia, and at Birmingham, San Antonio, New Haven, New '\'ork, 
Detroit, Baltimore, New Orleans, Richmond, Norfolk antl else- 
where. 

Arther Morris made a very definite impression during his life 
time of service to the community. He was a member of the original 
commission appointed to beautify Norfolk and took an active part 
in all civic affairs and worthwhile movements. 

He always had many proteges and through his philanthropy 




Au/engiT Photo 

MISS VIRGINIA LEIGH MORRIS 

Who now manages the House of Arther Morris 



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* 



boys and girls were enabled to develop their talents without the 
worries usually natural to one gifted but financially embarrassed. 
Many famous designers of today credit their success to the helping 
hand given by Arther Morris. Prince Youcca Troubitzkoy, who 
was under contract by one of the large motion picture companies, 
was one of his proteges. 

Mr. Morris' favorite flower was a white carnation. He wore 
one daily in the lapel of his coat, and like father, like daughter, 
only Miss Morris' favorite is the brown orchid. Rarely is she seen 
without one of these beautiful flowers. 

Miss Morris, formerly Mrs. Sylvan King, has one son — Arther 
Morris, II, now aged thirteen. The House of Arther Morris is 
said to be the only Norfolk house that sends a representative to Paris 
to bring back the latest fashions. This has been the policy of the 
company since 1900, and recently Arther, IT, made the trip with 
his mother. On the way over she asked him what he planned to 
do when he grew up. His answer was that he would follow in his 
grandfather's footsteps. Even at his age now he is eviciencing a 
keen interest in the work and is especially interested when a new 
creation is being displayed. 

The House of Arther Morris has made dresses for court ap- 
pearances, for Governor's wives, for wives and members of families 
of of^cials of foreign governments, and also has many patrons among 
the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard and an excellent 
patronage from the Norfolk women generally. 

The House of Arther Morris has specialized for years in wedding 
gowns and veils. One family recently at a golden wedding cele- 
bration wore gowns from three generations — wedding gowns of 50 
years ago — gown for the wedding of a daughter and a gown for the 
little granddaughter — all of which were designed and made by this 
famous house. 

Miss Morris brought to Norfolk the first representative ex- 
hibition of American .Sculpture and established the Norfolk Free 
Art School. This school now has more than sixty pupils and is one 
of the reasons why Norfolk became art conscious. Boys and girls 
who attended this school have won many scholarships, including one 
Beaux Arts prize. 



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Boiish Street at Olney Road Ujoking South — ^h(l\villt; new Colonial t)il C'onipan\ liuildiiig at left. 



COLONIAL OIL COMPANY, INC. 

I^ounded nine years ago, in December, 1927, Colonial Oil 
Company, Inc., a A'irginia corporation, has grown rapidly anci 
steadily until today it is recognized as one of the outstanding petro- 
leum organizations in the South. 

The first officers of this company were the late W. H. Ray, 
President; S. P. McConnell, Vice-President; and Leon Landauer, 
Secretary and Treasurer. Headquarters were established at the 
company's ten-million-gallon terminal on the Southern Branch of 
the Elizabeth River in Portlock. The company's entire force con- 
sisted of but five- people, including the three officers named above. 
Today, this number has been increased to well in excess of one 

hundred. 

In November, 1930, Colonial merged with South Atlantic Oil 
Company, of which company E. R. Harden, Jr., was President. 
Mr. Harden remained with the new company in the capacity of 
Vice-President in charge of sales in the City of Norfolk. 

The lamented death of W. H. Ray in May, 1936, necessitated 
the election of new officers and, at that time, S. P. McConnell be- 
came President of the Company and Leon Landauer ^"ice-President 
and Sales Manager. 

Distributing Pure Oil Company products throughout Eastern 
Virginia and Eastern North Carolina, the Colonial Oil Company, 
Inc., has more than four hundred Blue and White Pure Oil service 
stations serving the needs of the motoring public in a territory 
that extends from Fredericksburg, ^"irginia, on the north, to More- 
head City, North Carolina, on the south. 

[ 287 ] 




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Miglu\ rankers tlelixer rheir cargoes at the company's Portlock 
terminal, from which point it is distributed by boats, tank cars, and 
triicks to the outhing points in the company's territory. 

The one tank truck that first ciistributed the company's products 
has been increased to a giant fleet ot more than forty fast trucks, 
which speed thousands of miles tiaily delivering Pure Oil products 
to stations serving hundreds of thousands of customers. 

Realizing the need for more modern office and service station 
facilities, the company started construction of such a structure in 
January, 1935, and moved into this new building on May 15th of 
this same year. I'he building, located at the intersection of Boush 
Street and Olney Road, in the City of Norfolk, is modernistic in 
design and carries out in stucco, tile and gleaming stainless steel 
the Blue and White color scheme of the company's service stations 
scattered throughout the two States. The general offices of the 
company are located on the second floor of this building. 



NORFOLK DREDGING COMPANY 

The Nort(;lk Dredging Compan)' was organized in the year 
1899 by the late Mr. Oscar F. Smith, of Campostella, who built 
and li\ed in the large Homestead, still a conspicuous lanilmark of 
the Campostella section of Norfolk. 

For more than three decades this corporation has contributed 
largely to the development and improvement of the harbors of 
Norfolk-Portsmouth and Newport News, and the tributary water- 
way's of the Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina Sounds. 

The plant is modern and consists of both the Clam Shell and 
Hydraulic type of Dredges, large sea-going Tugs, a fleet of Dump 
Scows and auxiliary ecquipment, all of which is kept fit and up-to- 
date at the company's repair yarti at the southerly end of the Campos- 
tella Bridge at Norfolk. 

The company is a helpful industrial factor \u that it gives em- 
plovment to a consicierable number of people, and holds itself in 
readiness to respond promptly, in its sphere, to the transportation 
or industrial needs of the community. 

Mr. Oscar F. Smith, Jr., son of the founder, is President of 
the company; Mr. Oscar F. Smith, 3rd, is \'ice-President, ami Mr. 
J. T. Gibbs, Secretary and Treasurer. 

I 2XS I 



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GEO. TAIT & SONS, INC. 

Few organizations can hoast ot sixty-eight years ot continuous 
leadership, without faikire, compromise, or reorganization. Yet, 
this is the remarkable record ot the well known tirm ot Geo. Tait 
p . & Sons, Inc., located at 55 Com- 

mercial Place. 

This flourishing seed business 
was establisheci sixty-eight years 
ago by Col. Geo. Tait, and has 
grown with the years, until today 
Tait's Thorobred Seeds are known 
the world over as "Best by Test" 
tor their superior quality, and are 
preferred by the most successful truckers and market gardeners. 

The House of Tait has always striven to give its customers 
only the best seeds that can be grown, and much ot its success can 
be attributed to the fact that the seal of "Tait" means the BE.ST 
in seeds. 

The present officers ot the corporation are James V. Moreland, 
President; David B. Blackwood, Vice-President; and Frank W. 
Beach, Secretary and Treasurer. 





/liJi'iajfe' 



BURROW, MARTIN & CO. 

No names have been more closely associated with the develop- 
ment and progress ot Norfolk in the last century than those of 
Burrow, Martin and Company, tor eighty-tour years tactors in the 
retail and health fields ot Norfolk and Tidewater \'irginia. 

Records show that John \V. Burrow established his first tlrug 
store on Church Street in 1850. Church Street in those days was 
the only retail business street in the city and Burrow's drug store, 
according to advertisements appearing in the old newspapers of 
that day, handled a great variety ot articles in addition to health- 
preserving drugs 

The present generation's first recollection of Burrow's drug 
store is when it was located on Main Street near Bank, opposite the 
old City Market. Here Mr. Burrow built up a reputation that 
Burrow, Martin & Co. have continued and expanded with the four 
stores now being operated. 

Mr. Burrow was an active figure in Norfolk and his family 
was prominent in the growth and development of the city for more 

I 280 I 



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than three-quarters ot a century. He was progressive, pubhc- 
spirited and was a born merchant. The poUcy adopted by Mr. 
Burrow in the early days ot his business was: "I endeavor to make 
it to the best interest of my customers to permanently deal with 
me, by treating them right in all matters pertaining to weights, 
gauges, measures and the quality ot goods." 

That policy is continued in the Burrow-Martin stores today 
and probably accounts tor the continuous and increasing popularity 
of these modern pharmacies and drug stores. 

Mr. Burrow died in 1896, perhaps the best known merchant in 
the city ot his da>' with a host ot personal triends and a reputation 
tor integrity that was a proud heritage. 

Upon Mr. Burrow's death, the late \V. R. Martin purchased a 
halt interest in the business and a partnership was tormed with 
John W. Burrow, son ot the tounder ot the business. 

Mr. Martin at that time was engaged in the drug business at 
222 Main Street, from which Martin's Pharmacy was moved to 
265 Granby Street in 1917. 

The partnership was continued until 1905 when the business 
was incorporateci with the following ot?icers: W. R. Martin, Presi- 
dent; John D. Burrow, ^^ice-President; W. A. Jones, Treasurer; 
and H. G. Murphy, Secretary. 

During the past thirty-one years there have been but tew changes 
in the personnel ot the business and today the officers are: W. J. 
Rogers, President; W. A. Jones, Vice-President; and W. W. Tharp, 
Secretary and Treasurer. 



fes/ 



f 




iiiillH 



old Norfolk Academy — ISSb. 
[ 290 ] 



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I 



HOFHEIMER'S 

Fifty-one years ago a new shoe store — "The Excelsior" — opened 
its doors for business at 192 Main Street. Its stock, neatly arranged 
on shelves and counters, was none too large, but the policy of the 

new business institution marked 



-<]GRAND OPENING !l> 



THE EXCELSIOR SHOE STORE 

192 Main Street, 192 Main Street 

Men's, Ladies' and CJiiidren's Boots and Slioes 

-WHICH THEY ARE— 

SELLINt AT PRIME MANrFiCTI'KEIIS' COST, 

Call and see for yourselves, as you can save money. 
«] THEIR PRICES DEFY COMPETITION. tx> 

Excelsior Shoe Store, 192 Main Street. 

NOKKOLK, ^■I1!C^TNIA. 



Advertisement which appeared in old Norfolk 
Virginian of March 14, 1885. 



the beginning of a new era for 
shoppers. On each box the price 
of the pair of shoes within was 
marked plainly — something 
revolutionary in shoe merchan- 
dising in Norfolk. Prior to the 
opening of "The Excelsior" 
salesman and customer bar- 
gained like horse traders. No 
merchandise was priced. 

The old Norfolk Virginian 
of March 14, 1885, announced 
that the store would have a 
"grand opening" and it did. 

Business grew trom the 
start and in 1887 a new store, 

"The Star," was opened on Church Street. A year later it was 

necessary to acid another unit on account ot the demand for shoes 

handled by the company. This new store was named "The Famous" 

— across the river in Portsmouth. Later — another store — "The 

Economy" — was established in Richmond. 
About 1889 all stores - 

were given the same name 

— "H o f h e i m e r's" — for 

the brothers who entered 

the shoe business with 

the first store with a 

capital of $7,000. 

Today there are 

eight Hofheimer Shoe 

Stores — three in Norfolk, 

two in Richmond, two 

in Portsmouth and one 

in Newport News. 

There are also numerous 

branches in department 

stores throughout A'irginia and North Carolina — all modern and 

stocked with wide assortments of shoes in all styles and sizes. 

[ 291 ] 




First floor, showing Hosiery and Boy's Department of 
new store, 32.5 Granhy Street. 




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First floor, showing section of Women's Department, 
:i25 Granbv Street. 



On June 20, 1935, the company celehrareil its l<"ifrierh Anni- 
versary and was given a surprise parry in irs old store on (iranhv 
Street. A. B. Schwarzkopf, the President of the Norfolk Asso- 
ciation ot Commerce, led the party which included representatives 
of the press, civic clubs, and men and women active in business 

affairs of the community. 
The arrival of the party 
was timed to coincicie 
with that of flowers and 
telegrams from practi- 
cally every section of the 
United States, Canada 
and South America. 
Within less than an hour 
the first floor was almost 
a soliti bank of floral 
pieces and cut flowers. 

On 1) e c e m b e r 
30, 1935, the new air-con- 
ditioned s tore at 325 
Granby Street, the most modern shoe store in the entire South, 
complete in every detail, with AIX selling space on one entire floor, 
including an auciitorium, children's "Playground," ladies' antl chil- 
dren's barber shop, and the largest retail shoe store stockroom, 
threw open its doors, ready for business. 

On January 2, 1936, the formal opening <jf the new store was 
celebrated. That night, from 7 p. m. to past midnight, thousands 
of people, including many from out of the city, visited the estab- 
lishment. Flowers and souvenirs were distributed while an or- 
chestra rendered selections. The entire staff of Hofheimer's, headed 
by Mr. David Hirschler, President, received. The Honcjrable 
Norman R. Hamilton, one of the distinguished xisitors who spoke 
iluring the radio broadcast over Staticjn WTAR, direct from the 
store, said in part: "The new store, an exposition itself in modern- 
istic design and volume of stock merchandise takes high place in 
retail business of the community and demonstrates a force supreme 
in management and progress." 

The present of^cials attribute much of the company's success 
to constant advertising. It is claimed that Hofheimer's has the 
distinction of being the largest and most consistent advertiser in 
its field, in the I'nited States. It atlvertises more than any other 
retail shoe store and uses more shoe copy in any one city than an)' 
other retail shoe organization. 



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1^636— THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK-^ 

9 

^\ The present officers ni Hotheimer's are: David S. Hirschler' 

6 President and Manager for the Children's, Boy's and Junior Women's 

Departments; Richard Hofheimer, \'ice-President and Manager ot 
the Women's Department; Walter Rosenberg, Secretary and 
Manager of Main Store. A. C. Kellman is Manager tor the Men's 
Department and Mrs. Helen Epstein is Manager of the Hosiery and 
Bag Department. \ . K. Wertheimer is Advertising Manager. 

The sales force ot tour that opened "The F^xcelsior" in 1885 has 
expanded until now it numbers 150 men and women, many ot whom 
have been actively identified with the concern tor more than 40 
years. 
|| Mr. Hirschler, the President of the company, is considered 

i one ot the country's leading authorities on shoe retailing. His 

entry into the industry, subsequent rise to leadership ot what is 
said to be the largest shoe distributing firm in the South and the 
development ot his company's business under his guiding hand, are 
three of the reasons why Hotheimer's has received international 
recognition in the shoe trade. He is a stylist on the style com- 
mittee tor men's ami women's shoes tor the National Shoe Retailers' 
Association; a member ot the Middle Atlantic Shoe Retailers' 
.Association, and manutacturers often consult him on subjects per- 
taining to the future shoe styles. His decisions are prizetl highly 
bv nearlv ever\()ne connected with the shoe business. 






tM^ 




City Hall Avenue, looking East from Housh Street — 1896. 

I 293 I 



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V 




AMES AND BROWNLEY 

Back in the "Gay Nineties" — shortly before this country de- 
clared war on Spain, D. Baker Ames and J. H. Brownley formed a 
partnership and opened a small retail store which featured white 

goods, linens and "do- 
mestics." The new en- 
terprise for the Norfolk 
of "R e m e m b e r the 
Maine" days was lo- 
cated at 3 6 6 Main 
Street, near Church, in 
what was then the only 
downtown shopping 
area. 

The annual sales 
volume for the hrst year 
of the new venture was 
such that it was neces- 
sary to secure a larger 
building in order to 
keep up with the de- 
mand tor products 
hantlled by Ames and Brownley. Herman Hornthal was admitted 
as a member ot the firm and the new store was opened at the corner 
of Granby and City Hall Avenue, in the Monticello Hotel building. 

Within five years the business grew to such proportions that it 
was again necessary to seek a location with more floor space, anci 
this time Ames and Brownley built their own building at 222 Granby 
Street. With the opening of the larger store many new lines were 
added, including women's apparel, millinery, and accessory depart- 
ments. 

The growth of the business was consistent and the year 1919 
found the firm once more searching for a new site. Mr. Hornthal 
retired from the firm and as Ames and Brownley, Incorporated, 
the move was made to Granby and Freemason Streets, the present 
location, with a floor space of more than 40,000 square feet and 
a number of enlarged departments which included homefurnish- 
ings, electrical appliances, art, gift and photography shops, and 
also more complete women's, children's, and men's departments. 

The years — 39 in number — from 1898 to 1936, inclusive, have 
witnessed many changes for Ames and Brownley, but there has 

[ 294 j 



Ames and Brownley building at 400-408 Granby 
Street, corner Freemason. This building erected on 
site of old Granby Street Methodist Church. 









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=THROUCH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



I 



not been any change in the pohcy of the firm. Today, the priceless 
assets which D. Baker Ames and J. H. Brownley value far above 
expanded area and increased volume are the respect, confidence, 
goodwill, and the 
friendliness of 
the people of Norfolk 
who shop at the store. 
Ames and Brown- 
ley has become an in- 
stitution that is a vital 
and necessary c o n - 
tributor to Norfolk's 
civic progress. The 
firm has long recog- 
nized its responsibili- 
ties from a commu- 
nity standpoint and as 
a progressive business 
institution it partici- 
pates in all worthwhile 
movements. 




Monticello Hotel in 19U1, with Ames and Brownley 
occupying corner store. 



■fsibjf 




ft 



Old Tazewell Manor, in Edgewater, facing Hampton Roads — liuiit in 17S4. One of the 
first houses erected in Norfolk after the Revolution. Owned and occupied continuously by 
descendants of Judge Benjamin Waller. 

I 295 I 






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.^^ 



f 




W. G. SWARTZ COMPANY, INC. 



_, r^ ^^ -^- _ .- ^ -= -.- 



In the year 1896, Norfolk's great possibilities being recognized, 
was selected as a desirable location for establishing a new business 
enterprise by the firm composed of L. O. Miller, W. S. Rhoads, and 

W. G. Swartz. 

T h i s firm b e i n g 
among the pioneers in 
the "Better Business" 
movement, announced in 
the Norfolk papers that 
nt)t only a new store but 
a new kind ot store was 
to be opened. The poli- 
cies adopted were that 
the new store be insti- 
tuted as a strictly one- 
price establishment, with 
all goods marked in plain 
figures and sold at such 
prices. 

The policy also pro- 
vided that only depend- 
able merchandise would 
be offered, the salespeople 
being educated with re- 




Main Street Store at head of Commercial Place, 
erected on site of Court House for Lower Norfolk 
Coimty from 1682 until 1691 when Princess Anne 
County was cut off. li remained the Court House 
(if Norfolk County until 1 784, when it became the 
Hustings Court of Burrough of Norfolk. A debtor's 
prison, jail, ducking stool and pillory were in the rear. 



thi 



s policy 



in 



gard to 
view. 

Ailxertisements were 
absoluteU' in line with 
"Truth in advertising." 
No exaggerations w ere 
made imr were rhe\- tolerated. 

I he original ipiarters occupietl b\ this reputable business enter- 
prise were locateil in the buildings 192 to 202 on the North side ot 
Main Street, near (iranbw 

As the spreatling oak evolves from the tiny acorn, so, too, was this 
modest enterprise liestineil to grow as the years passed, into a mighty 
mercantile institution. 

This store with its admirable policies was, from the beginning, 
a great success and within four years its rapid growth demanded 
the necessity for larger and more extensive qviarters. In 1900 a 

I 296 1 



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large substantial building was erected on Main Street, at the head 
of Commercial Place, near the Confederate Monument. 

This additional floor space of 45,000 square feet enabled the 
firm to introduce many additional and varied lines ot merchandise 
not heretofore carried, forming many new and desirable departments. 

The popularity of the store grew until it became necessary in 
1907 to once again ex- 
pand. The firm deemed .-:^.>J.. )l: 
it advisable to erect the 
large modern building 
corner of Bank and Plume 
Streets with 85,000 
square feet additional 
floor space, making a 
total of 130,000 square 
feet. 

The opening of this 
greater store was a mag- 
nificent and brilliant af- 
fair, still remembered and 
referred to by thousands 
of people of Norfolk, 
Portsmouth and s u r - 
rounding cities and towns as one ot the milestones in the progress oi 
Norfolk as a retail trading center. 

With this additional space came new improvements and inno- 
vations, including the splendid Cafe, located on the third floor of the 
Plume Street building. 

Its reputation tor its refinement and excellent cuisine is greatly 
appreciated by its many patrons. Its private room called the 
"Blue Room" is patronized by many organizations wishing to hold 
"meetings" and enjoy at the same time a friendly luncheon. 

In 1927 W. G. Swartz acquired the interests of L. (). Miller 
and W. S. Rhoads and since then the firm has been operated under 
the name ot W. G. Swartz Co., Inc. 

All ot the admirable policies adopted in 1896 have been adhered 
to and are still in effect in the year 1936 and are some ot the reasons 
why W. G. Swartz Co., Inc., is recognized as one ot the South's 
leading Department Stores. 

The store today with many departments is fully equipped and 
modern in every respect, due to the sterling worth of W. G. Swartz, 
who served as President of the company until his death December 

[ 297 1 



Plume Street Store at corner of Bank Street, connected 
with Main Street Store with bridge over Hill Street. 




t 



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.■?!, 1!);^."). His hroiul mtellccrual grasp ot the aH-'airs oi the (jrganiza- 
rinii and proMems ot merchantiising matie him an outstanding mer- 
chant, hclo\eil anil respected h\' employees, patrons ami his business 
associates. 

'I"hc organization is still in operation under the name of the 
\\ . (i. Swart/ Co., Inc. 

The present officers ami directors are: Mrs. \\ . (i. Svvartz, 
I'resitlent; \\ . W. Bennett, 1st \'ice-President; j. A. Watts, 2nii 
Vice-President; C H. Hansen, Secretary and Treasurer; and '!'. \\ . 
I)err\', Assistant Superintendent. 




ACMK niOlO COMPANY 

The Acme Photo Cominmy, 222 Kast Illume Street, Henr\' W. 
Ciillen, Manager, operates Tidewater's largest and most complete 
commercial photographic plant in the entire South. 

'Throuuh Mr. (iillen's business foresight the first cond)ination 
photographic pruning and finishing machine in this section of the 
country was installed hy his company. 'The machine, Iniilt hy a 
London firm from stK'cifications suhmitteil h>' Mr. Ciillen, is a tle- 
cided imjirovement upon the other machines of this character in 
operation in America. 

The new ci|uipmenl, which rctpiires an especially large oper- 
atinu room, is capable of turning out apiiro\imately 2,()()() prints, 
i) by H inches, or any number of smaller prints in combination up 
to this size, in an hour. Not onl\' tloes the machine print photos 
at this rate, but the sensitized paper goes direct from contact with 
the negative through all of the developing, fixing, washing ami 
trimming processes before it is toucheil again by the operator. In 
addition any printed matter necessary on the back of the ]M-int is 
ilone at the same time. 

Mr. (iilleii is a pluitoi^rajdier of wule experience in his business 
not only m the ordinar\ run of commercial work but also m the 
motion picture held. He is one of the pioneer motion-camera 
operators; has also worketl for the largest pictorial news sxndicates 
in New York and Chicago, ami has maintained his own estaidish- 
ment in Norfolk since 1918. 

Starting more than 24 \ears ago as first cameraman for the oKl 
i'athe Compaii), he held the same ]V)sition with Paramount and 



298 ] 



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•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



Artcraft and other companies, "shooting" for them for seven years. 
Tiring of the motion picture routine, Mr. (lillen, who still hangs 
on to his camera and uses it (jn special jobs, hranched out into the 
commercial helil. He maile the government progress pictures on 
the Panama Canal and also made a series ot pictures in and around 
Nome for the Alaska Fihii Corporation. 

When the Norfolk .'\dvertising Board was estahlisheii in 1025, 
Mr. Gillen was designateil to perform all the technical work neces- 
sary to provide the hoard with a complete library of photographs 
on the Norfolk area, from all stand]ioints- -Industrial, Port, Resort, 
Historical, etc. More than 1 (),()()() negatives were maiie and to- 
day (19.3(3) the Ad\ertising Board has what is said to be the most 
complete photographic file maintained by a Chamber of Commerce 
or a community advertising organization. Mr. Gillen's work in 
this connection was a distinct contribution to the community effort 
being made to atlvertise and publicize the Norfolk area nationally. 
Mr. (iillen is still one of the Advertising Board's staff j^hotographers 
and as a result of his work the Advertising Hoard's jihotographic 
files are kept up-to-date. 




EASTERN STEAMSHIP LINKS 

(Oi.i) Dominion Link) 

Kastern .Steamship Lines, Inc., began service between New 
"^'ork, Norfolk, City Point and Richmond, in 1867, using the steam- 
ers Hatteras and Albemarle, which carried passengers antl freight. 
.At that time the company was known as the Old Dominion Steam 
ship Company. 

Tile Old Dominion Company was an important factor in the 
development of Norfolk as a port, and its successor — Eastern Steam- 
ship Lines, Inc. — is carrying on in the later ilays. To illustrate 
how important this line was to Norfolk, especially at the turn of 
the Twentieth Century, the annual edition of the Norfolk N'irginian 
of 1897 stateti: "It is the longest tlail\- ocean passenger and fast 
freight line in the worKl and the service performed b)' the comjiany's 
fieet of screw steamships is unsurpasseti." 

Then the steamers of the main line from Norfolk to New '\'ork 
were: Princess Anne, 3,300 tons; Jamestown, 3,000 tons; York- 
town, 3,000 tons; Roanoke, 2,000 tons; Guyandotte, 2,400 tons; 
Old Dominion, 2,.3()0 tons; City of Columbia, L900 tons; and 
Richmond, 1,500 tons, 

[ 299 1 



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1 63 6 ^THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK— 

9 

■^J Today, Eastern Steamship Lines operate a fleet ot nineteen 

6 sleek greyhounds of the sea. Four of the steamers — Acadia, 7,500 

tons; Robert E. Lee, 5,000 tons; George Washington, 5,000 tons; 
and Madison, 4,000 tons — are on the Norfolk-New York line. 

In addition to the Norfolk-New York service, the company 
operates seven other lines — Richmond and New York; New York 
and Yarmouth; New York and Portland; Boston and New York; 
Boston and Saint John; and Boston and Bangor. During certain 
periods of the year the company conducts special cruises to Ber- 
mucia, the West Indies and other southern waters. 

Eastern Steamship Lines was one of the first transportation 
agencies to cooperate with the Norfolk Advertising Board in the 
board's work of developing the Norfolk area as a tourist center. 
The all-expense trips arranged by the company and the advertising 
placed for them in New England and in the New York area and 
the efficient manner in which the tours were conducted contributed 
in a major measure to Norfolk's success in resort efforts. 

The present officers of Eastern Steamship Lines are: A. B. 
Sharp, President, Boston; Colonel J. A. Coates, First Vice-President, 
New York; W. K. Irving, \'ice-President, Boston; Robert G. Stone, 
Chairman of the Board, Brookline, Mass.; H. E. Melzar, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer, Boston. R. L^. Parker, of New York, is Pas- 
senger Trafiic Manager and T. C. Benthall, formerly of Norfolk, is 
Mr. Parker's assistant. C. P. Brownley, Jr., is General Agent at 
Norfolk. Incidentally, M. B. Crowell, the agent at Norfolk in 
the days of the Old Dominion Steamship Company, according to 
the Norfolk Virginian of 1897, enjoyed the distinction of being the 
first settler of Newport News. He came to the Norfolk area in 
1875, from Springfield, Ohio, and became connected with the steam- 
ship line in 1882. 




/^■■^ 




Scene in Norfolk Harbor. 

[ 300 ] 



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=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 



ROBERTSON CHEMICAL CORPORATION 

In 1896 the entire country was on the eve of one of the greatest 
eras of industrial progress the world has ever known. Electric 
lights, the telephone, airplanes and automobiles had yet to be per- 
fected, and few dreamed that the approaching decade would witness 
such immense strides in the science ot agriculture. 

A young man, Walter H. Robertson, caught a vision perhaps 
of this approaching progress, so in 1896 the Virginia State Fertilizer 
Company had its beginning at Farmville, ^'irginia. Other powerful 
combines were already in the field, farmers in those days had not be- 
gun to realize the immense benefits to be derived from proper fer- 
tilization, but the new venture, adopting quality and service as its 
foundation, went bravely to work. A goal ot 500 to 1,000 tons was 
set for that first year; vmskilled help had to be trained, proper 
materials were hard to get, but in spite ot these handicaps that 
first year closed with a production record ot 2,500 tons. 

Each season showed a vigorous growth and provided an in- 
centive for greater effort, until it was finally decided to move the 
business to Lynchburg, where greater facilities were available. 

This move brought no check in the steady tide of progress, 
and finally the Lynchburg plant was sold to another company. 

Sensing the many advantages to be obtained from a coastal 
location, the company was reorganized in 1909 as the Robertson 
Fertilizer Company, and located at Norfolk, ^"irginia. The name 
of the Company was changed in 1921 to Robertson Chemical Cor- 
poration. 

Here at Norfolk was the perfect location so long sought by its 
founder. Here it was possible to import direct to its own plant 
the necessary Potashes, Phosphate Rock and other materials. 
Here modern equipment was installed, that the plant might manu- 
facture a still better product. 

From a little shack in Farmville to its present plant on the 
Elizabeth River at Money Point, Norfolk, is a big step indeed, 
and the intervening years furnish a record of growth of which the 
Robertson organization should be justly proud. 

The Robertson Chemical Corporation through its present 
ofScers, C. B. Robertson, President, and E. T. Hines, Treasurer, 
following the trail blazed by its founder, Mr. Walter H. Robertson, 
has indeed been signally successful. These gentlemen are public- 
spirited prominent Norfolkians and the success of the business is 
mainly due to their careful attention thereto and their golden rule 
progressive policies. 

f 301 1 





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E. LEE COX & BROTHER 




w. \v. cox 



The firm of E. Lee Cox t^v Brother, Funeral Directors, was 

originally established by Elijah Leander Cox in 1880 at Moyock, 

North Carolina, in his native county of Currituck, where his tamilv 

had settled long before the Revolutionary War. 
Mr. Cox served with distinction during the 

\\ ar-between-the-States. He entered the service 

ot the Confederacy shortly after the war began 

and attained the rank ot Lieutenant. At the 

close of the war he returned to his native county 

and married Elizabeth Wiginton Lamb, daughter 

of Robert and Matilda Lamb. Ten children 

were born, seven of which reached their majority. 
In 1887 he moved to Berkley, \ irginia, 

which at that time was a separate community, 

and established himself in the Funeral Directing 

business which he successfully operated until 1908 when he sold 

the business to his eldest son, E. Lee Cox, Jr., and retired. He 
died in 1911 in the 69th year of his life. 

For many years he was Senior Deacon of the 

Berkley Avenue Baptist Church and as long as 

he lived he was interested in the cavise of the 

Confederacy and was active in fraternal affairs. 

E. Lee Cox operated this branch of the busi- 

j ,jm ness with much success until July 1, 1930, the 

|h "^::^L date of his death. 

^^L A^BH| In 1923 E. Lee Cox purchased the H. C. 

i^^B iH^^H Smith Company's business, which was founded 
in 1882 and then located on Princess Anne Road 
in Norfolk as a branch, and after several months' 

operation was joined by his 

brother, \V. W. Cox, and the firm 

name was changed to E. Lee Cox 

i\ Brother. The beautiful colonial 

residence at 631 Westover Avenue, 

in the heart of the residential sec- 
tion of the city, was purchased at 

this time anci remodeled at con- 
siderable cost to meet the most 

modern and exacting re- 

quirements ot funeral service, 




w. w. cox, JR. 







V.' 



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l636=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 



and today is conceileci to he one of the best appoinreii funeral homes 
in the South. 

At the (.ieath ot E. Lee Cox in the \ear 1930 his interest was 
acquiretl by the surviving partner, \V. W. Cox, who was shortly 
thereafter joined b\- his son, W. \\'. Cox, jr., in the conduct ot the 
business. 

W. \V. Cox, the senior member ot the firm, is atfihated with 
the Baptist Church, Masonic Fraternity, Order ot Fraternal Ameri- 
cans, is a past presicient ot the Cosmc^politan Club ami connected 
with other religious, civic and traternal movements. 

W. \V. Cox, Jr., is a Methodist and is acti\'e in religious, civic 
and dramatic affairs. 

E. Lee Cox t^ Brother, being successors to both E. L. Cox 
and H. C. Smith, is the seconti oklest funeral establishment in 
Norfolk. 



^;C 



> 







-■'"'■^V 1 111 II 1 ■■•: i I If p-fi '.TMrS-L ..7., 










4;_ 



Ciranliv Street and City Hall A\eiuic. >h(»\vin^ Monticello Hotel. 

[ 303 1 







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^THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 




THE F. S. ROYSTER GUANO COMPANY 



F. S. Royster, the founder ot F. S. Royster Guano Company, 
was born in 1849, on a farm in Granvnlle County, North CaroHna. 
It was a typical Southern plantation of ante-bellum days, growing 

principally corn and tobacco. 

In 1870 he went to Tarboro to 
take a position as clerk in the store 
ot O. C. Farrar. He applied himself 
so industriously and so intelligently 
that in tour years he became a mem- 
ber ot the firm. 

In 1881 he established himself 
in a business ot his own and from 
his intimate contacts with the planters 
ot the region he learned much about 
their fertilizer needs. Fertilizers in- 
terested him and he burned the mid- 
night oil studying all that was known 
about agricultural chemistry in those 
days. 

In 1885, F. S. Royster began the 
manufacture of his own fertilizer, 
establishing a small factory in Tar- 
boro. The output tor the first year was 250 tons. 

In a few years it became necessary in order to supply the ever- 
increasing demand for F. S. Royster products to establish another 
plant, and Norfolk was selected because at Norfolk there was deep 
water and trunk line railroads and innumerable steamship and 
barge lines. 

To Norfolk came Charles F. Burroughs, to start the new plant. 
Two years later it again became necessary to increase the output 
owing to the demand for F. S. Royster fertilizer. The capacity of 
the new plant was only 7,000 tons per year and as a result ot Mr. 
Royster's faith in Norfolk, in Mr. Burroughs and in F. S. Royster 
fertilizer, he approved the recommendations made by his Norfolk 
manager and the foundations were laid at Norfolk tor a plant with 
an annual capacity ot 30,000 tons. 

In a short time the Norfolk factory was running behind in 
orders. Then it became absolutely impossible to keep pace with 
the demand. South Carolina called for Royster Fertilizer and the 
call was answered by the building ot a 40,000 ton plant at Columbia. 

1 304 1 




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•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



Then Georgia began piling up huge orders and it became neces- 
sary to build a factory at Macon. 

The fame ot Royster's was creating a wide demand. Next 
came Alabama, with plants at Birmingham and Montgomery; 
then Baltimore, with one ot the largest plants in the country, to 
supply the Northern and Eastern states; and then Toledo, to supply 
Ohio, Michigan and Indiana, and another demand and another 
new plant at Jackson in the Heart ot Mississippi to supply South- 
west. 

In the meantime, to insure a supply ot phosphate rock, it was 
necessary to buy and develop phosphate rock property in Florida; 
and the constantly increasing calls tor Royster's from far and near 
required not only new tactories, but increased capacity at old plants, 
until seventeen tactories, mines and mills, with an annual capacity 
of half a million tons, became necessary to fill the orders for 
"Royster's." 




First Plant at Tarboro, N. C— 1885. 

Today eleven sales offices with hundreds of salesmen are in 
constant touch with Royster's thousands ot dealers and all plants 
are operating to capacity in order to meet the demand for F. S. 
Royster Fertilizer. 

F. S. Royster, the founder of the company, died in 1928 and 
Mr. Burroughs became the head ot the organization. Other officers 
in addition to Mr. Burroughs, President, are: C. S. Carr, Vice- 
President and Treasurer; W. T. Wright, Vice-President and General 
Sales Manager; Wm. S. Royster, Vice-President; A. L. Griffin, 
Vice-President; and F. S. Royster, Jr., Secretary. 

f 305 1 



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•THROUGH THE YEARS IK NORFOLK- 



The growth of the F. S. Royster (niano Company has been 
phenomenal, because, with the atldition ot thousands ot new customers 
the old patrons have continued Royster's in increasing quantities, 
and throughout its history, Royster has maintained its individuahtv 
as distinctly a fertilizer company. 

The F. S. Royster Guano Company has remained a distinctly 
Southern institution- the product of Southern enterprise and 
Southern capital. The stock of the company is today owned by 
members ot Mr. Royster's family ami the men who have helped to 
make the company what it is. 



OLD DOMINION MARINE RAILWAY CORPORATION 

The Old Dominion Marine Railway Corporation, established 
in 1909, does a general shipbuilding and marine repair business. 
It is located in Norfolk harbor, at the junction of the Southern 
and Eastern branches of the Elizabeth River, at the foot of Chestnut 
Street, Berkley. 

Two marine railways are operated. No. 1 has a hauling capacity 
of 1,000 tons, with a cradle 250 feet long. No. 2 has a hauling 
capacity of 2,000 t jns, with a cradle 275 feet long. 

A pier 540 feet long and 12 feet wide, extends between the 
two railway slips from the shore to the port warden's line, with a 
depth of water alongside of 20 feet at low tide. This pier is equipped 
with compressed air and fresh water pipe lines and electric lighting 
wires for the convenience of vessels. 

A wood-working plant and joiner shop is located at the upper 
end of the yard, equipped with modern electrically driven machines 
for handling all classes of ship work. 

Beyond the mill are located machine, boiler and blacksmith 
shops, anil foundry, all equipped with up-to-date motor-driven 
machinery capable of turning out the best class of metal work. 

Portable acetylene and electric welding plants are maintained 
on a power-driven boat, which is also equipped with an air com- 
pressor for operating pneumatic tools away from the plant. 

The present officers ot the corporation are: A. Warren, Jr., 
President; J. H. Woodington, 1st ^'ice-President; P. C. Hastings, 
2nd \'ice-President; Geo. A. Broughton, Treasurer and General 
Manager; \V. A. Lamour, Naval Architect; (leo. T. Wrenn, Yard 
Foreman; N. (i. HoUard, Shop Superintendent; C. F. Schuler, 
Secretary. 

[ 306 1 



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GEO. W. DUVALL & CO., INC. 



Geo. W. Duvall & Company, Inc., known to many as the Nor- 
folk Iron Works, was founded by Geo. W. Duvall in 1860. Wm. H. 
Ridgwell became a halt partner several years later. Although the 
Company was incorporated in 1915 the descendants ot these two 
families have continuously owned and managed the business. It 
is being managed at the present time by Wm. H. Ridgwell and James 
A. Ridgwell, Jr., who are the great-grandsons ot Mr. Duvall and the 
grandsons of the above Mr. Ridgwell. 

The Company manufactures gray iron and brass castings, does 
general ship repairing and boiler and engine repairing and installing 
for industrial plants. 



/^^ 



^^iii^f^ 



BERKLEY MACHINE WORKS & FOUNDRY COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED 

The Berkley Machine Works and Foundry Company, Inc., 
was established in 1893 and today operates one of the largest machine 
shops and foundries in the Norfolk area. It is situated at the foot 
of Mulberry Street, Berkley, and has a trontage on the main 40-foot 
ship channel. 

The company engages in the manutacture ot locomotives and 
maintains a tuUy equipped plant with modern machinery tor making 
prompt repairs to industrial and textile plants and also general 
repairs to ships ot all tonnages and classes. There are modern 
machine, boiler, blacksmith and pattern shops, electric and acetylene 
welding plants, and brass and iron foundries. 

The present system ot street markings used in Norfolk was 
designed and manufactured by this company. 

Samuel G. Jones came with the company shortly atter the turn 
of the 20th century and under his capable management the company 
has expanded and shown a steady growth. 

Mr. Jones is one ot the active business leaders in Norfolk. He 
is never too busy to serve on a civic committee. Recently he has 
been serving as a member ot Nortolk Anniversaries General Com- 
mittee; also he was one ot the aides to the Grand Marshal for the 
big Celebration Parade held October 12th. 

The present officers are: Samuel G. Jones, President and 
Manager; Dr. Z. Vance Jones, Secretary-Treasurer; and Elizabeth 
D. Gentes, Assistant Secretary-Treasurer. 

f 307 1 



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=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



A. WRENN & SONS, INC. 



A. Wrenn 6c Sons, established in 1852 by Mr. Aurelius Wrenn. 
Atter his death, 1889, business was carried on by his two sons, 
McD. L. and C. O. Wrenn. They manufactured various styles of 
vehicles and a tull line of Wrenn's light buggies, over ten thousand 
of them were shipped out during the several years prior to 1902. 

In 1909 the concern was incorporated under the name of A. 
Wrenn & Sons, Inc. 

The manufacture ot horse-drawn wagons, buggies, surreys, etc., 
was continued until 1922 when, the automobile having supplanted 
the horse to a great extent. The manufacture ot automobile truck 
bodies took the place ot wagons and other horse-drawn vehicles. 
Since that time the business has changed to keep abreast of the 
times and, at the present time the manufacture of trailer bodies 
is a large item. 

In addition to the manufacturing end of the business, repairing 
and painting of vehicles has continued while the jobbing of Baker 
Trailers, B. K. Brake Equipment, trimming material and auto 
equipment such as extensions, helper springs, etc., is now a large 
part ot the business. 

The present otBcers ot the corporation are R. S. Holland, Presi- 
dent and General Manager; S. B. Bull, \'ice-President; H. S. 
Chappell, Vice-President and Superintendent; and Wm. P. Peb- 
worth. Secretary. 



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City Hall Avenue looking West. 1887. showing old Stone Hridge. 

[ 308 1 



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THE VIRGINIA SMELTING COMPANY 

(With credit to Mr. C. W. Johnston and to "Air Conditioning 

and Refrigeration" and "Bulletin of Virginia 

Section, A. C. S." for facts) 



In 1899 Mr. W. E. C. Eustis, of Boston, Mass., made a contract 
with the North and South Carolina Railroad Company, which was 
guaranteed by the Southern Railway Company, to construct a spur 
track to the Holloway mine in Virgilina, Mrginia. A freight rate 
for the copper ore of the mine from Virgilina to West Norfolk was 
established and Mr. Eustis as an individual constructed during the 
year 1899 the first metallurgical plant at West Norfolk, on land 
owned by the Atlantic and Danville Railroad. It is interesting to 
note that the assent of the Southern Railway Company was ac- 
knowledged in the presence of Mr. Fairfax Harrison, now President 
of the Southern Railway Company, but at that time one ot the 
minor officials of the road. 

The early work consisted in smelting in a cupola furnace, a 
mixture of Virgilina ore and pyrites cinder brought to West Norfolk 
from Boston, Mass., in barges. This pyrites cinder resulted from 
the roasting of pyrites ore by the acid works in New England. The 
pyrite ore was mineci by Mr. Eustis in his mine at Eustis, Quebec. 
The coke for smelting came from West \'irginia. The copper matte 
from the cupola was shipped to the smelters on New York Bay for 
further refining. 

In 1909 the property at West Norfolk was transferred to the 
corporation known as the \'irginia Smelting Company. At this the 
plant was materially enlarged and considerable quantities of silicious 
ores from Cuba were brought to West Norfolk by vessel. Messrs. 
Bier Sondheimer and Company were largely interested in a financial 
way in the mining operations in Cuba, and hence in these Cuban 
ores. This interest led to the next step in developments at West 
Norfolk, that of the formation of the Norfolk Smelting Company, 
to which compan)- during the winter of 1913-1914 the smelter was 
leased. 

The Norfolk Smelting Company added to the plant and after 
the smelter was leased, the \'irginia Smelting Company experimented 
with various processes for extracting copper from the fine pyrites 
cinder, which were being produced in larger quantities than formerly 
and which were not needed by the smelter. 

The experimental work culminated in the building of a plant 
in which these fines were roasted with salt, converting the copper 

[ 309 ] 



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111 them into a soluble copper compound. The roasted material 
was leached in large tanks, the copper being dissolved and the 
iron being left behind as an oxide. This iron residue, running 
some 06*^,^ Fe, was sintered on a sintering machine and this sinter 
shipped to iron furnaces where it was made into pig iron. 

When the Norfolk Smelting Company enlarged the smelter in 
1914, the \'irginia Smelting Company arranged to handled the gases 
trom this plant and remove from them the sulphur dioxide that 
was in them. For this purpose the ^'il•ginia Smelting Company 
built a series ot large towers packed in various ways to give a large 
surface exposed to the gases and water useci for scrubbing the gases. 

It is believed that the company was the first manufacturer 
in the world to produce a liquid sulphur dioxide for use in refriger- 
ation. 

The plant furnishes an example of the value of research in 
industrial technology, for its principal product today was an annoying 
waste gas in 1914. 

Two grades of sulphur dioxide are manufactured by \'irginia 
Smelting Company and sold under the trade name of "Esotoo." 
One of these is the extra dry product, water-white in color, free from 
oil, dirt, or other foreign substance. The other grade is "com- 
mercial," differing in water content but always below 0.1 percent. 
Both products are made from pure sulphur and involve no use of 
chemicals and thus are free from harmful impurities. 

The company maintains research laboratories at West Norfolk 
in order to (a) insure the utmost efficiency at the plant; (b) increase 
the possible application of sulphur dioxide in industry; and (c) 
to develop new protlucts. As a result of research work at these 
laboratories methyl chloride suitable for use as a refrigerant was 
dev^eloped. The product now bears the trade name "^'-METH-L." 

By-product zinc available at West Norfolk is utilized by the 
company in an economical and worthwhile manner to produce zinc 
sulphate crystals and a chemically pure powdered zinc sulphate. 

The present officers of the company are: A. H. Eustis, Presi- 
dent, and F. A. Eustis, Secretary and Treasurer. Charles \\ . 
Johnston is Manager. A. K. Scribner is .Assistant Manager. 

It is interesting to note that the Messrs. Eustis are twin brothers 
and that they began the work originally with their father, W. E. C. 
Eustis, first in Canaiia and then at West Norfolk. Both are gradu- 
ates of Harvard and took post graduate work at Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. 

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N. BLOCK AND COMPANY 



It is with justifiable pride to its tounder, Nathan Block, that 
the rirm of N. Block and Company, thirty-eight years in business 
in Norfolk, looks back over its career from a meager start to a place 
ot tront rank prominence in the scrap metal industry. 

Careful and expert service in the dismantling of plants, railway 
equipment, locomotives, etc., has played a major part in the success 
ot N. Block and Company. The firm has its office and sales ware- 
house at Water and Madison Streets and its salvage plant and 
storage yard covers eleven acres on the Belt Line Railroad at Money 
Point with waterfront facilities for direct ship loading. This plant 
is equipped with locomotive cranes, electric magnets, power shears 
and both track and truck scales. 

In 1923 when it was necessary for the Navy to scrap a number 
of its capital ships under the terms ot the Washington Naval Treaty 
this firm was the successful bidder for scrapping the battleship 
North Carolina, which was under construction at the Norfolk Navy 
Yard. They have just recently completed the scrapping of five 
destroyers at their Money Point plant. 

N. Block and Company is incieed a credit to the community 
and the)' have done much to advertise Norfolk ami to extend its 
prestige as a great port. 




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liuttLiN "B," Nortulk Bliit> — 111 ihc gay iiinclics. 

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THE NORFOLK & WASHINGTON STEAMBOAT COMPANY 

The Nortolk & Washington, D. C, Steamboat Company was 
incorporated by the General Assembly of Virginia, January 31, 
1890, the original incorporators being John Callahan, Y. D. Groner, 
and H. Libbey, of ^'irginia; Charles C. Duncanson, \V. E. Clark, 
Levi Woodbury and John Boyd, of Washington, D. C; Calvin 
B. Orcott, of New York; and J. T. Odell, of Baltimore, Md., for the 
purpose ot operating lines ot steam vessels tor the transportation 
of passengers and freight between the City ot Nortolk, Virginia, and 
the City ot Washington, D. C, and intermediate points on the 
waters ot the Chesapeake Bay, Hampton Roads, Potomac River 
and their tributaries. 

Since incorporation the Company has maintained a daily 
service, including Sundays, continuously from Nortolk and Wash- 
ington tor the past torty-six years. 

The present ot?icers of the Company are: C. F. Norment, Sr., 
Chairman of the Board; C. F. Norment, Jr., President; G. W. 
Forsberg, \'ice-President; O. S. Smith, Secretary and Treasurer; 
J. A. Riordon, General Manager; W. H. Callahan, Tratlic Manager; 
I. S. Walker, General Passenger Agent; J. A. Maxwell, Auditor; 
Daniel Sawyer, Superintending Engineer; G. E. Herring, Pur- 
chasing Agent; and P. G. Minter, General Agent at Norfolk. 





City Hall .\veniie looking West from Brewer Street — 1907 

[ 312 ] 



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9 

THE BALTIMORE STEAM PACKET COMPANY 

^% (Old Bay Line) 

The Baltimore Steam Packet Company, affectionately known 
as the "Old Bay Line," has been operating freight and passenger 
steamboats between Norfolk and Baltimore, since 1840. 

Although the organizers of this line were interested in the 

first steamboat to run on Chesapeake Bay, it was not until 1840 

I that the Company was formed to maintain regular service, having 

'; secured from the State of Maryland the first charter granted to 

,j any steam packet company permitting the transportation of freight 

and passenger boats on the Bay. 

After nearly a century of service the Baltimore Steam Packet 
Company — "Old Bay Line" — has become an institution almost 
■V national in character. In the minds of friends and patrons it is 

as much a fixture as the waters through which its steamers ply. 

It has always been the policy of the "Old Bay Line" to pioneer 
in all new inventions or ideas that would perfect its steamers and 
add to the comfort of the patrons of the line. 

, Each year brought improvements in methods ot construction 

^ and engineering. PVom the picturesque and quaint side-wheel 

\'\ steamboats "Pocahontas," "Georgia," and "South Carolina," which 

A, were launched in 1840, have evolved such steamers as the "State 

of Maryland," "State of ^"irginia," and "President Warfield," 

which have been likened to floating modern hotels. 

Through four wars — "Mexican War," "War Between the 
States," "Spanish-American War," and "World War," the "Old 
Bay Line" has carried on and rendered service. 

Serving Baltimore on the North, and Norfolk, Portsmouth and 
Old Point Comfort on the South, the "Old Bay Line" has seen the 
two areas grow and prosper in shipping, industry and commerce 
generally. It also has seen Norfolk developed to be the mecca 
annually for more than half a million tourists who visit the area's 
beaches and historic shrines and assisted materially in bringing this 
about. 

The principal officers of the company are: L. R. Powell, Jr., 
President; R. E. Dunn, Vice-President in Charge of Operations; 
C. G. Rogers, Traffic Manager; R. L. Jones, General Passenger 
Agent; E. P. Hook, General Agent at Baltimore; P. S. Gornto, 
General Agent at Norfolk; A. W. Miller, Port Engineer. "T 

[ 313 ] 



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THE CHESAPEAKE STEAMSHIP COMPANY 



The Chesapeake Steamship Company, in operating steamers be- 
tween Norfolk, Old Point Comfort and Baltimore, and between Balti- 
more, York River Landings, West Point and Richmond ; with direct 
connections to all points North and South, provides the traveling 
public with a passenger and freight service between these points that 
is unsurpassed. 

The business which began for the Norfolk area in 1896 is con- 
ducted 0;n service to patrons — service that is individual and collec- 
tive. The steamers are modern and up-to-date in every particular. 

The principal officers of the company are: A. L. Stephens, Presi- 
dent; H. R. Bowen, General Passenger Agent; A. J. Brannen, Traffic 
Manager, A. C. Matheson, Auditor and Freight Claim Agent; Charles 
Jorss, Secretary and Treasurer; F. P. Usher, Agent at Baltimore; 
C. L. Candler, General Agent at Norfolk, and J. W. Calvert, District 
Passenger Agent at Norfolk. 



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(.>UI .\tl.Tntic Hotel, Main ami Cjranhv !?trt-el^ — 1SS(). 

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^ 



HARRY D. OLIVER 



Harry Diggs Oliver is proprietor of the oldest funeral directors' 
establishment in the Norfolk area. 

The business was established in 1865 at the corner ot Church 
and Cove Streets, by Sterling T. Oliver, who died February 2, 
1884, at the age of 65 years, and who, like a great many other good 
business men, had no heir apparent to perpetuate his good name and 
business, but with that keen foresight that otherwise characterized 
him, he adopted at an early age and educated as his son, his nephew, 
Harry Diggs. Leaving him, a youth of eighteen years at his death, 
as the head and manager of a business that he had been years in 
bringing from a miniature beginning to an eminence that was his 
pride. 

By the terms of the last will ot the elder Oliver, his wife was 
left his executrix, and in whose name the business should be run, 
and held in trust till young H. D. should attain his "score and one," 
when he should be put in full possession and ownership, but during 
this time it was to be under the supervision and management of 
this minor heir. 

In 1898 the business was moved to its present location, 610-612 
Freemason Street. 

Harry Diggs Oliver was born at Norfolk, February 8, 1866, 
son of John B. and Sarah Elizabeth (Carr) Diggs, his father a native 
of Mathews County antl his mother ot Princess Anne County. 
Both are now deceased. He was educated in the public schools of 
Nortolk and graduated with honors trom Prot. Sullivan's School of 
Embalming in Baltimore in 1887. His progressiveness has made 
him a leadef among the funeral directors of the State and he was 
honored by election as President of the Virginia State Association of 
Funeral Directors and has taken an active part in the National 
-Association. He was a member of the State Board ot Embalmers 
tor twenty years and has done much to raise the standards ot the 
profession. Mr. Oliver has been interested in every civic matter, 
including good roads, and as a Democrat has interested himselt in 
the political fortunes ot his friends. He served at one time on 
the Nortolk Sinking Fund Commission. He is a member of the 
Rotary Club, the Virginia Club, the Country Club and the Norfolk 
Association of Commerce. He is a director of the Mutual Federal 
Savings and Loan Association ot Norfolk. Fraternally he is an 
Elk, is a fourth degree Knight of Columbus, F. O. Eagles, and during 
the World War was a member of the National Catholic Welfare 
Board. 

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VIRGINIA ELECTRIC AND POWER COMPANY 



The history of the Virginia Electric and Power Company in 
Norfolk has its beginning in 1849, at which time construction of 
the first gas manufacturing plant in the City was begun. The 
Gas Department antedates by many years the Transportation 
and Electric Departments. 

Eighty-seven years 
ago an enterprising group 
of local business men con- 
structed a gas plant at 
Mariner and W a 1 k e 
Streets and began the 
manufacture of gas from 
resin. Manufacturing 
conditions were crude as 
compared to modern 
methods and, due to the 
hazardous nature of resin, 
the plant burned twice. 
After the second fire in 
1853 the plant was moved 
to its present location at 
Starr Street and Monti- 
cello Avenue. Norfolk 
now has an efiicient and 
up-to-date w a t e r-g a s 
plant, serving the citi- 
zens of Norfolk and South Norfolk with this commodity. 

Gas manufacturing was originally begun tor street lighting 
purposes and, with the exception of a few gas lighted houses, the 
City of Norfolk was for several years the only customer of the 
plant. The rapid increase in the number ot uses ot gas is univer- 
sally known, and the size of the Norfolk plant has grown from an 
original holder capacity of 75,000 cu. ft. to its present day capacity 
of 5,250,000 cu. ft. 

The next oldest division of the Company is the Transporta- 
tion Department. Many of us can remember the days of the horse 
car, which tor several years served as the only means ot public 
transportation. But toward the latter part of the century, with 
the development of electricity, the horse car was supplanted by 
the street car, which was truly the marvel of its day. The develop- 

[ 316 1 




Electric Building, Bute and Boush Streets. 



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=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



ment of the use of buses soon followed and now both buses and 
street cars furnish economical transportation to all parts of our 
City. Because electricity developed so rapidly and became the 
motive power of the transportation system, it was natural that the 
electric and transportation facilities should grow up together. 

As the use of electricity spread, it took the place of gas as an 
illuminant, but other fields were found for the use ot gas and the 
growth of this commodity was stimulated rather than hindered by 
the competitive development ot electricity. 

In the early days of rapid growth and experimentation it was 
natural that many companies should be formed to serve the citizens 
of Norfolk with light and transportation. The names of the Norfolk 
and Ocean View Railway Company, the Berkley Street Railway 
Company, the Norfolk Railway and Light Company, and many 
others are familiar to us. All of these organizations by successive 
mergers and consolidations became the Norfolk and Portsmouth 
Traction Company, the predecessor of the Virginia Railway and 
Power Company, this latter company being incorporated on June 
29, 1909. The Virginia Railway and Power Company's operations 
were not confined to Norfolk alone, but included Richmond and 
other parts of the State. The Virginia Railway and Power Com- 
pany, which also owned the stock of the City Gas Company of 
Norfolk, was purchased July 1, 1925, by the Stone & Webster 
organization of New York, a concern with vast experience in the 
utility field and one whose efforts had gone far toward the rapid 
development of public utilities. On October 27, 1925, the name 
of the Virginia Railway and Power Company was changed to Vir- 
ginia Electric and Power Company. In 1930 the City Gas Company 
of Norfolk was merged with the Virginia Electric and Power Com- 
pany, beginning the present set-up of the Company in this City 
with its three departments, Electric, Gas and Transportation. 

The Norfolk Division of the Virginia Electric and Power Com- 
pany, comprising the Norfolk, Portsmouth and Suffolk Districts, is 
headed by Mr. R. J. Throckmorton, Vice-President, assisted by 
Mr. R. C. Brooks, Manager of the Gas Department; Mr. W. E. 
Brown, Manager of the Electric Department; and Mr. R. G. Carroll, 
Manager of the Transportation Department. The Portsmouth 
and Suffolk Districts are managed by Mr. J. T. Sullivan and Mr. 
George R. Rice. 

Thus we find that from the humble beginning in 1849 has 
sprung the modern utility that serves the citizens of the City of 
Norfolk. The Virginia Electric and Power Company points with 

[ 317 ] 



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1 



rightful pride to its help, and aid ot its predecessors in the rapid 
development ot Norfolk, and looks forward expectantly to its 
place in our City's future expansion. 



J. S. BELL, JR. & COMPANY, INC. 

For sixty years this well known firm has been associated with 
the retail and wholesale meat business of this Tidewater territory. 
The business is first recorded in an old City Directory as having 
been established in 1876 by the late J. S. Bell and his son, E. M. Bell, 
who had at that time a retail meat market in Market Square which 
is now Commercial Place, later on moving to the old Quimby Market 
at Queen and Church Streets where the business was conducted 
until the Ballentine Arcade was erected on the same site where 
they operated, serving the best in meats to the highest class trade. 

Many of the older residents of Norfolk well remember the name 
of J. S. Bell in connection with their marketing. After the passing 
away of J. S. Bell, Sr., his son, J. S. Bell, Jr., joined with his brother, 
E. M. Bell, conducting a wholesale and retail meat business until 
July, 1905, when this partnership was dissolved and Mr. J. S. Bell, 
Jr., continued with the wholesale business which now has grown 
and is known throughout the territory. 

The present business was incorporated in January, 1926, and 
since May, 1922, has been located in their own building at 641 
Chapel Street, from which distribution is made covering the local 
territory. The Company not only distributes meats and provisions 
but also has a large distribution of produce to the grocery trade. 
In 1925 there was added a Confectionery Department, which dis- 
tributes candy and fountain supplies to the drug and confectionery 
stores. 

The present officers of the Company are M. C. Bell, President; 
M. K. Dixon, Vice-President; and O. O. Witherspoon, Secretary 
and Treasurer. Mr. E. C. Ford is in charge of the produce depart- 
ment and Mr. Julian Gilliam is in charge of the confectionery de- 
partment. 

The Company operates a fleet of thirteen trucks with a personnel 
of thirty-two employed in all departments. 

The Company holds membership in the Association of Com- 
merce and in the Norfolk Tidewater Association of Credit Men. 

[ 318 ] 



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TATEM'S PHARMACY 

Tatem's Pharmacy was established in 1873 by S. B. McCluer, 
brother to the first minister of the Park Avenue Presbyterian Church, 
in a frame building on the southwest corner of Park and Brambleton 
Avenues. During 1878 this building was replaced by the present 
brick building and the second floor was used for the Hemingway 
School. In these rooms several of the present Brambleton Churches 
and their Sunday School classes were organized. 

This business changed ownership five times before the present 
owner took it over. In addition to its founder the business was 
owned at one time by William F. Ingram, who at present conducts 
a drug business on Church Street near the corner of old Queen Street, 
and who until the first of the present year was relief druggist for 
the present owner; the next owner was P. ^V. Cheatham, who was 
followed by George M. Meredith, who is now operating two drug 
stores at Virginia Beach; then came T. Ramsey Taylor, who dis- 
posed of his holdings to the present owner, E. Carlisle Tatem, and 
today the business is conducted as Tatem's Pharmacy with J. Albert 
Tatem as chief pharmacist. Few families in Norfolk can lay claim 
to such long residence as the Tatems. When the little town was 
just laid out in 1682 and the first lots sold one of the Tatems pur- 
chased one of the first lots on Main Street. Since that time the family 
has been intimately connected with the commercial and cultural life 
of the city and county. 





Boush Street in the early eighties. 

[ 319 ] 



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THE HISTORY OF TELEPHONES IN NORFOLK 

Norfolk with 25,000 telephones in operation in 1936 has made 
rapid strides since the first telephone system was established about 
May 1, 1879, by the National Telephonic Exchange Company, 
predecessor of the Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company 

which was superseded by the Chesa- 
peake and Potomac Telephone Com- 
pany of Virginia in 1912. From the 
50 telephones in operation when the 
first exchange system was established 
in Norfolk the city has developed into 
a population area requiring the services 
of three telephone central offices. 

Norfolk dial telephones were the 
first installed in any city and today 
the Norfolk dial office operates 22,700 
telephones, the Berkley office 800 and Ocean View 1,125. From 
these combined central offices about 240,000 calls are now made 
daily, according to a statement made by E. D. Peterson, Manager 
ot the company here. Telephones in Norfolk have been increased 
about 2,200 in the past ten years. During the same length ot time 
telephone calls have increased 50,000 daily. 

Norfolk, from an old directory dated May 31, 1879, had 82 
telephone subscribers including several telephones in Portsmouth 
which were operated from the Norfolk _ 
switchboard. These included the Ports- 
mouth Morning Times anci the Bank 
of Portsmouth. 

Norfolk telephone users today may 
talk with about 70,000 cities, towns 
and communities in the United States 
and to some 70 foreign countries and 
geographical locations throughout the 
world. When telephone service was 
first established the subscribers could 
speak only among themselves. There were no trunk lines connecting 
other cities, towns and communities even nearby. 

The Norfolk Telephonic Exchange, the first telephone organi- 
zation doing business in Norfolk, was licensed under the patents 
of Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone. The officers 
of the company which was incorporated in June of 1879, more than 
30 days after the establishment of the central office included C. W. 

[ 320 ] 




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4 



Grandy, Jr., President, James D. Tracy, General Manager and John 
R. Todd, Secretary and Treasurer. The directors in addition to 
the officers were W. H. Taylor, R. A. Dobie, John B. Whitehead 
and James G. Bain. The central office was located at 124 Main 
Street. 

Early Norfolk telephone subscribers included the Atlantic Hotel, 
Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company, R. B. Allen, W. F. 
Allen, Baltimore Steam Packet Company, Bain and Brothers, 
Bank of Commerce, Bank of Portsmouth, Biggs, Kader and Com- 
pany, Burruss, Son and Co., N. Burruss, J. M. Butt, Butt and 
Neville, Battle, Bunn and Company, Bell, Irvine and Company, 
C. Billips, Clyde Lines, Corprew and Hunter, Chesapeake and 
Ohio Railroad Company, City Gas Light Company, Cotton Ex- 
change, Citizens Bank, M. L. T. Davis and Company, Dobie and 
Cooke, Eastham, Powell and Company, Enterprise Mills, Evans and 
Burwell, Exchange National Bank, Farmers Bank, Francis and 
Company, M. Glennan, C. W. Grandy and Sons, Albert H. Grandy, 
E. G. Ghio, W. A. Graves, Goodridge, Field and Company, Hope, 
James Barron and Company, Hamburger Brothers, James Barron 
Hope, Hymans and Dancy, W. Y. Johnson, Howard N. Johnson, 
William Lamb and Company, Lyman and Company, Public Ledger, 
Norfolk Landmark, Barton Myers, Merchant and Miners Trans- 
portation Company, A. A. McCullough, H. M. Nash, Niemeyer, 
Etheridge and Brooks, North Carolina Transportation Company, Old 
Dominion Steamship Company, P. O'Connor, J. W. Perry, Purcell 
House, Roanoke River Transportation Company, Henry Roberts, 
Reynolds and Brothers, John L. Roper, Rountree and Company, 
James Reid, James Reid and Company, Washington Taylor and 
Company, Portsmouth Times, James Thayer, C. J. Upshur, Barnes 
Vaughan and Company, Vickery Company, H. D. Van Wyck, 
Virginia Club, Norfolk Virginian, Virginia and Tennessee Air Line, 
W. Talbot Walke, Williams and Hardy, John E. Wood, Henry P. 
Worcester, T. A. Williams and Company, S. R. White and Brothers, 
Thomas B. Ward and John B. Whitehead. 

The number of telephones in Norfolk had increased to 323 by 
1885 but in the meantime a central office had been established in 
Portsmouth, so that the Norfolk increase was really larger than 
this statement would make it appear. J. W. Crews, of Richmond, 
for many years connected with the Telephone Company and now 
retired, came to Norfolk May 1, 1885, as manager, relieving a Mr. 
Wilson who had been sent to Norfolk from Boston. He was in 
charge here until 1902, when he was transferred to Savannah, 

[ 321 ] 



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l656=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



3 
6 



Georgia, as manager ot that district. At the time of his transfer, 
the number of telephones at Norfolk had increased to 826. 

Norfolk's first toll service, according to Mr. Crews, was estab- 
lished about 1890, when a line was constructed from Norfolk by 
way of Willoughby Beach and Old Point to Hampton and Newport 
News, where it connected with a line to Richmond, Charlottesville, 
Staunton and Roanoke. 

Across Hampton Roads, between Willoughby Beach and Old 
Point, a three-conductor, Okonite cable — the longest submarine 
telephone cable on the Atlantic seaboard — was placed to connect 
the land lines. 

Later this cable was replaced with a large, armored cable con- 
taining 25 conductors and this in turn has several times been re- 
placed with modern high-grade long distance cables. Today this 
route is one ot the principal long distance outlets tor Norfolk. The 
original line was constructed tor Colonel William Lamb, who was 
the general agent tor a large Philadelphia Coal Company, but hiter 
was taken over by the telephone company. 

The long distance lines of the American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company were placed in service between Washington and 
Norfolk, October 4, 1897, the long distance switchboard and the 
telephone business ofiice then being located at the corner ot Main 
and Atlantic Streets. 






Ji 




Granhy Street looking North from City Hall Avenue — 19US. 

f 322 1 



r 

7 

3 
1936 



1636 
19 
5 
6 



=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 



/^■■ 



DAVID PENDER GROCERY COMPANY 

The history ot the David Pender Grocery Company is replete 
with constant steps of progress. The first Pender Store was opened 
in Norfolk in an unpretentious location, a little different from dozens 
of other stores surrounding it. 
David Pender, a young lad from 
Tarboro, N. C, was its pro- 
prietor. 

The personality that Mr. 
Pender built into this store and 
his unusual type of service soon 
made it so popular that its busi- 
ness was increased until the store 
outgrew its quarters and devel- 
oped into what was to be the 
South's finest and most com- 
plete food market. This store 
still stands at the corner of Mar- 
ket Street and Monticello Ave- 
nue, as a monument to industry 
and perseverance. It is today 
the most complete market in 
the entire South and one of the 
largest along the entire P'astern 
Seaboard. 

In 1919 the store grew to 
such proportions in volume of 
business that it was difficult to 
meet the demand for Pender service. A branch store was opened 
and thus was marked the beginning of the extensive organization that 
now operates more than 400 stores and 120 meat markets through- 
out Virginia and North Carolina and two modern bakeries — one 
in Norfolk and the other at Charlotte. 

On January 1, 1926, when the number of stores had been in- 
creased to 244, Mr. Pender decided to retire from business and 
arrangements were made whereby control of the company was sold 
to the public. The new management put into effect further plans 
to increase the number of stores and to give the people of Virginia 
and North Carolina the best possible food products at the most 
economical prices. Step by step the new interests developed an 
organization and increased its stores until today the Pender Grocery 
Company is one of the most vital factors in the business life of the 

1 323 ] 




HUNTER C. PHELAN 
President 




I 



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1636 
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6 



'THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



community and ranks as one of the outstanding business enterprises 
in America. 

The company employs more than 1,500 full time men and women 
and nearly 1,000 part time employees. Its annual payroll for the 
two States is $1,750,000. In Norfolk there are about 750 em- 
ployees, with an annual payroll of approximately $675,000.00. In 
1935 the company paid a total of $125,000.00 in Federal, State 
and local taxes, exclusive of income taxes, sales taxes, and indirect 
taxes such as the tax on gasoline. The Norfolk tax bill was $20,- 
000.00. These figures illustrate the value of the Pender Grocery 
Company from civic, commercial and employment standpoints. 
The steady work assured to the employees of the company by 
reason of the Pender Grocery Company's popularity in the homes 
in the territory served, is a guaranty ot a large volume of business 
as a whole for the city of Norfolk. 

The Pender Grocery Company is ever ready to participate in 
any civic enterprise. It maintains multiple memberships in the 
Norfolk Association of Commerce and subscribes a substantial sum 
of money annually to the Community Advertising Fund adminis- 
tered by the Norfolk Advertising Board. It also maintains mem- 
berships in other local associations and contributes to many worthy 
causes in Norfolk as well as in other cities and towns throughout 
Virginia and North Carolina. 

The present officers of the company are: Hunter C. Phelan, 
President; A. M. Scarry, Executive Vice-President; W. R. Miller, 
Vice-President in Charge of Bakery; R. H. Marshall, Comptroller; 
Lawrence Lockwood, Treasurer; J. W. Wood, General Manager; 
J. S. Chitwood, Sales Manager; Saxon W. Holt, Jr., Advertising 
Manager. George H. Lewis and W. B. Baldwin are Norfolk mem- 
bers of the Board of Directors. 



& 



R. R. RICHARDSON & CO., INC. 

Verily as a man is known by his deeds, a construction concern is 
known by its works, and in this respect the Norfolk contracting firm 
of R. R. Richardson and Company, with ofiices in the National 
Bank of Commerce Building, may take justifiable pride in many of 
its completed projects as testimonials of service, efiiciency and 
ability. 

Established in 1913, their first major contract was the con- 
struction of the Martin Building on Granby Street occupied by 
Smith & Welton. When the Naval Operating Base was constructed 

[ 324 ] 



19 



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36 






1636 
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3 
6 



■THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



during the World War they built the administrative group and other 
buildings at a cost exceeding one million dollars. 

Past major construction contracts ably handled by this con- 
cern are many and include such representative types as the Arts 
Museum Building, the Barry Robinson Home for Boys, the new 
Armory at Newport News, the General Baking Company plant, the 
Imperial Tobacco Company warehouses and docks, a hospital unit 
for the City of Norfolk, a unit for the U. S. Marine Hospital, pier 
sheds at the City Terminal, the Crockin-Levy Building, St. Andrew's 
Church, the Virginia Beach Theatre, many schools in and around 
the city, the Security Storage and Safe Deposit Company plant and 
many as important edifices of various diversified types. 

R. R. Richardson is president of the firm and R. B. Walls is 
secretary-treasurer and general manager. 



M 




Confederate Monument, Commercial Place and Main Street, showing 
Portsmouth ferry terminals — 1909. 

[ 325 ] 




'J3 



I 

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1936 



I636=THR0UGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

5 SMITH-DOUGLASS COMPANY 

^ Oscar F. Smith started this business in June, 1920, in what 

was little more than a shack, at Buell, \'irginia, near Norfolk. He 
had very little money and the crudest of manufacturing equipment, 
but he knew fertilizers and he knew truck farming in the Norfolk 
territory. He had one definite and distinct purpose, which was to 
help make truck farming more profitable in that specific territory. 
He didn't scatter his shots. 

In 1921 he haci to enlarge his building and again in 1922 and 
1923. In 1924 another factory was built alongside the first and in 
1925 this second factory was enlarged. Each year up to and in- 
cluding 1934 additions have been made to buildings, or equipment, 
or both, until at present the total floor space of all buildings is 
215,000 square feet. While the first ciefinite purpose of helping truck 
farmers has never been lost sight of, other lines of fertilizers have 
been added until today the Company's scope of activities includes 
service to every division of agriculture. 

From the beginning of the business in June, 1920, R. B. Row- 
land was in partnership with Mr. Smith and the original name of 
the company was Smith-Rowland Company. Mr. Smith owned 
the majority interest. 

At Mr. Rowland's request, after some six months' operation 
(about January, 1921), the partnership was dissolved and Mr. 
Rowland left the business. 

The company was then incorporated as the Smith Reduction 
Corporation. Mr. Rowland returned in 1923, and repurchased a 
stock interest, but the company continued operation as the Smith 
Reduction Corporation. 

In 1927 Mr. R. B. Douglass joined the Company as Vice- 
President, and the name was changed to Smith-Douglass Company, 
Inc. 

The hrst two plants were served only by railroad. What is 
now the main plant was located in 1926, on deep water, with private 
docks and discharging facilities. This plant receives and assembles 
the highest quality of raw materials, from the four corners of the 
globe. One may watch with interest the arrival of the guano from 
the whales of the Arctic and Antarctic, potash from Germany, 
France and New Mexico, blood and animal tankage from South 
America, bone meal from India, nitrate of soda from Chile, bird ^ 

I :^2b I 



I 



3 
1936 



izS£^'' 



1636 
9 
5 
6 



=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK= 



guano from Peru and other South American countries, and phosphate 
rock from Florida, all ot which constitute those essential toods which 
enrich the soil and give plant lite. 

Even in the comparatively short lite ot the Company there 
have been many changes in methods ot operation. In the beginning 
practically all the fertilizer was shipped by rail — only a little by 
water. Today, an important portion ot the produce leaves the 
factory on trucks. Truck deliveries are macie to a distance of 
250 miles. 

This has necessitated changes in storage facilities and en- 
largement of the buildings where bagged fertilizers are carried in 
stock, and ample space has been provided tor loading as many as a 
dozen trucks at one time. 

In furtherance of the policy of closer direct contact, the Com- 
pany established in 1929 a branch tactory at Danville, \'irginia, 
for the purpose of serving the farmers of that community. This 
plant has been so successful, that it was enlarged in the tall of 1933. 
The Kinston, North Carolina, plant was built in 1930. In the tall 
of 1933 a plant was opened at Murfreesboro, N. C, to serve better 
the tanners in that district. In the summer of 1935, the plant at 
Washington, North Carolina, known as Washington Fertilizer 
Company or Phillips Fertilizer Company, was acquired, and be- 
ginning with the spring 1936 season, is being operated as a tactory 
branch. 

The Company maintains a branch ot?ice in Boston, Mass., for 
the purpose ot purchasing certain raw materials in New England, 
which materials are assembled at Boston and then transported to 
Nortolk by water, at a tremendous saving over railroad treight 
rates. 

The growers ot this district have responded to S-D policies, 
methods and quality. Otten it is said that the trade mark S-D 
stands for Square Deal. From experience, growers have come to 
believe that, and their faith has not been unjustified. 

And it is by protecting its customers — by acting on the prin- 
ciple that its own weltare is dependent on that ot its customers, 
that Smith-Douglass has grown from a shack to a great institution. 

The present officers ot the company are as toUows: O. F. 
Smith, President; R. B. Douglass, Vice-President and Treasurer; 
R. B. Rowland, Jr., Vice-President and Secretary. 

I 327 I 



^'' .-1i ^\ 






19 



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1636 
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5 
6 



THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



•5? 






PENROD, JURDEN & CLARK CO. 



Realizing the importance and many favorable advantages of the 
Port ot Norfolk, both for the importation of logs from foreign coun- 
tries and the manufacture and distribution of finished cabinet woods 
and veneers, the Penrod, Jurden &: Clark Company established a 
plant at Norfolk in the spring of 1932. 

The Penrod, Jurden and Clark Company was formed by the 
consolidation of Penrod Walnut Company, Kansas City, Mo.; Des 
Moines Sawmill Company, Des Moines, Iowa; and Kosse, Shoe 

and Schleyer Company, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

Penrod, Jurden & Clark 
Company are manufacturers, 
importers and exporters of Am- 
erican Walnut Lumber and Ve- 
neers and Foreign Cabinet 
Woods, including Mahogany. 

The Norfolk branch is con- 
fined chiefly to the manufac- 
ture of high grade veneers and 
hardwood lumber. The proci- 
ucts are shipped to all sections 
of the United States where the 
furniture and cabinet industry 
thrives, with possibly the great- 
est volume going to the large 
consuming markets of Virginia 
and North Carolina. 

The Norfolk branch specializes in foreign woods. Beautiful 
and rare woods as the Mahoganys of Central Africa and Central 
America, Rosewoods of South America and India, Oriental Wood 
from Australia, and the many and varied woods from Europe and 
the Orient, are brought to Norfolk, to be converted in this plant. 

The company operates other mills in Kansas City, Mo.; Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio; and Des Moines, Iowa. 

The officers of the company are: John C. RodahafFer, Presi- 
dent; Albert J. Heidt, \'ice-President; ^'ernon L. Clark, \'ice- 
President; George Colder, Secretary and Treasurer; Frank L. 
Montgomery is General Manager of the Norfolk plant. 

Mr. RodahafTer was the first President of the Veneer Asso- 
ciation and Mr. Heidt was recently elected as the association's 
third President. 

[ 328 ] 




Oriental logs from Australia at plant of 
Penrod, Jurden & Clark Co. 



®; 



e 



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936 



1656— THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 



/. 



SOUTHEKrS BREWERIES, INC. 

(1895-1936) 

Many changes occurreti in Norfolk aftecting the Brewing In- 
dustry in the span ot 41 years between the establishment ot a brewery 
on the site ot the old Lesner Park and the reconditioned and modern- 
ized brewery which now occupies that location. 

With the advent ot prohibition Norfolk's only brewery ceased 
operation. Only a portion ot the property was utilized until the 
tall of 1933, when the present ownership began the rehabilitation 
ot the plant. 

From 191(i until 1933 the onU' operation carried on in the 
property was the manutacture ot truit beverages and the conduct 
of a small storage garage accommodating a tew trucks ot neighboring 
manutacturing plants. .A brewery, which had been a landmark on 
upper Church Street, passed trom public view and lay idle tor 17 
years. What had been a modern plant tor its perioti, rapidK' de- 
preciated, practically a total loss and tax burden to its owners. For- 
gotten were the number ot persons whose livelihood and that ot their 
families depended upon the successful operation of the Consumer's 
Brewery. 

With repeal, a new company purchased the property and with 
local capital, labor and materials, reconditioned the buildings and 
installed the most modern of brewery equipment, and in the Spring 
of 1934 began the merchandising of their products — SOUTHERN 
BEE',R and ale — which soon became leaders in \'irginia antl the 
two Carolinas, recjuiring the re-ec^uipping ot a new bottling plant 
at the end of the first year with machinery capable ot a greater 
capacity. 

In its day the Consumer's Brewery was a leader in the held of 
safeguarding its product and the public health through the metlium 
of sanitation, it was the first brewery in America to install glass- 
lined tanks and maintain a laboratory for control of plant methods. 
Southern Breweries, Inc., successors to Consumer's Brewery, have 
likewise spared no expense in safeguarding the public health through 
the purity ot materials used and brewing technique. The brewery 
at the present time is equipping a modern chemical and bacterio- 
logical laboratory to carry on plant control and research. 

Southern Breweries, Inc., each year pays the City ot Norfolk 
and the Commonwealth of \'irginia the sum of $50,000.00 in taxes, 
and to the Federal Government, approximately $300,000.00. 

The brewerry operates a fleet ot trucks in local and long distance 

I 320 I 




193 



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9 
5 
6 



THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



ilelncr)' ser\'ice ami einplovs rliroughout the \eai" 75 persons, vvhn, 
with their tamihes, are resiiients ot the City ot Norfolk. The payroll 
is approximately $75,000.00 annually. Every iloUar localh' that 
can be spent on this market, is spent by the compan\', indicating 
clearly that Southern Breweries, Inc., is a major factor in the economic 
aiul commercial lite ot Tidewater \'irginia. 

The present officers ot the ccMnpany are: V. (i. King, Presi- 
dent; Harold F. Ricker, ^'ice-Pres!dent; David T. Gallo, Secretary 
and Treasurer; and Ralph H. Daughton, General Counsel. 







t:/ 



Cavalier Ci)iintrv C'liili, Biid Neck Point, near Norfiilk. 



330 



1936 



1636 

5 
6 



•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



■'-^;. 



'% 



^ 



SPONSORS FOR "THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK" 



Abbott, Proctor t<c Paine 
Acme Photo Company 
Dr. Walter Jones Adams 
John S. Altriend 
Atlantic Hotel 
x^mes & Brownley, Inc. 
Atlantic Permanent Building & Loan 
Association 

John Joseph Baecher 

Ballard Fish & Oyster Co., Inc. 

Batchelder ik Collins, Inc. 

Robert P. Beaman 

J. S. Bell, Jr. & Co., Inc. 

Berkley Machine Works iV l^"ourulr\- 

Co., Inc. 
Berkley Permanent Building iN: Loan 

^Association 
Blair Junior High School 
Preston Blake 
N. Block t<v: Compan)- 
A. L. Bonwell 
A. W. Brock 
C. F. Burroughs 
Burrow, Martin i^ Co., Inc. 
Russell S. Barrett 
Brith Sholom Centre 
E. W. Berard, Jr. 

Mrs. A. O. Calcott 

J. W. Calvert 

Baxter C. Carr 

Cavalier Hotel 

Chamberlin Hotel 

W. L. Chase & Co., Inc. 

G. W'. Cherry 

Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co. 

Colonial Oil Co., Inc. 

Mrs. Allen ^L Cook 

E. Lee Cox & Bro. 

F. H. Cox 



The Couper Marble Works 
W. J. Crosby &: Co., Inc. 
Chesapeake Ferry Company 
Chesapeake Building Association 
Cc^mmonwealth Building i<c Loan Asso- 
ciation 

K. 1). Denby 

J. B. Dey, Jr. 

Roy W. Dudley 

George W. Duval! t^ Co., Inc. 

Thomas C. Dugan 

C. NL Etheridge 
Eureka Brick Co., Inc. 
I'rank A. Evans 

Sarah Lee Fain 
J. H. Fanshaw 
Isaac Fass, Inc. 
Joseph E,. Franklin 
Mrs. Wm. Freeman 

First Federal vSavings tV Loan Associ- 
ation 

J. Leslie Ciale 
\\'. A. CJarlette 
H. W. (iillen 

D. H. Goodman 
C. W. Grandy 

The Great Atlantic i^ Pacific Tea Co. 

E. V. Griffin 
Lucius Gregory 

(jreat Bridge Chapter, D. A. R. 
H. B. Goodridge 

Sam R. Heller 

Miss Blanche Baker Hill 

Miss Fdizabeth Gregory Hill 

Hofheimer's, Inc. 

Robt. M. Hopkins 

Curtis R. Hudains 




331 



193 



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6 



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9 

5 
6 



•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 





SPONSORS FOR "THROl GH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK""— Continued 



R. M. Hughes, Jr. 

John Lyle Harrington 
P. S. Huher 

LilHan M. Johnson 
C. M. Jordan 

Rosamond (Mrs. \V. (t.) Larmour 
John A. Lesner 
S. ^^'. Lyons, Jr. 

Joseph Marcus 
V. A. McCord 
B. D. Melchor, Jr. 
Merchants cM PLinters Bank 
T. Wm. Middendorf, Jr. 
y. H. Miles ^ Co., Inc. 
R. I.. Miles, Jr. 
Monticello Hotel 
R. H. Moore 

House of Arther Morris, Inc. 
Morris Plan Bank of \'irginia 
Mutual Federal Savings & Loan Asso- 
ciation 
Mrs. Ellie Marcus Marx 
F. J. McGuire 

National Bank ot Commerce 
T. H. Nicholson 
Norfolk County I*"erries 
Norfolk Dredging Co. 
Nortolk-Portsmouth Bridge 
Norfolk Public Library 
Norfolk Southern Railroad 
Norfolk Tidewater Terminal, Inc. 
Norfolk & Washington, D. C, Steam- 
boat Co. 
Norfolk & Western Railway Company 
S. T. Northern 
Enoch R. Needles 
Norfolk Federal Savings & Loan Asso- 



ciation 



Old Dominion Marine Railwav Corp. 
H. D. Oliver 

Ocean View Mutual Building iS: Loan 
Association 

Jesse J. Parkerson 

J. A. b. Parrish 

David Pender 

Da\'id Pender Grf)cery Co. 

David Pender, Jr. 

Travis T. Phaup 

C. S. Phillips 

Post & Flagg 

Penrod, Jurden 6v: Clark Co. 

F. D. Peterson 

John P. Ray 

J. Davis Reed 

R. R. Richardson 6: Co., Inc. 

Robertson Chemical Corp. 

[' . S. Royster Guano Co. 

Edmund S. Ruflin 

Fergus Reid 

John H. Rodgers 

Wm. B. Roper 

C. L. Robinson 

h. J. Schmoele 

A. B. Schwarzkopf 

Seaboard Air Line Railwa\' Co. 

Seaboard Citizens National Bank 

Sears, Roebuck &: Company 

Mrs. Robert W. Shultice 

Smith-Douglass Co., Inc. 

Southern Breweries, Inc. 

The Southgates 

Chas. Syer, Jr. 

Mrs. Geo. W. Sims 

W. G. Swartz Compan) , Inc. 

G. Serpell 

Dr. G. W. Simpson 



f 332 1 



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6 



■THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



SPONSORS FOR "THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORKOLK^'Coniinued 



George Tait i^ Sons, Inc. 

Tatem's Pharmacy 

Walter H. Taylor,' III 

Mrs. Lewis Fhroin 

W. R. Tolleth 

S. E. Tudor 

George H. Taylor 

Tidewater Perpetual Bldg. is; Loan 
Association 

Twin City Permanent Building Asso- 
ciation 

L T. \'an Patten, Jr. 
Virginia Beach Amusement Park 
Virginia Electric & Power Co. 
Virginia Pilot Associaticjn 
Virginia Smelting Company 



Everett Waddey Co. 

Blanche K. Webh 

Charles Webster 

R. W. Weiss 

Chas. R. Welton 

Whaley Engineering Corp. 

John Earle White, Jr. 

C. S. N\'hitehurst 

Woman's Club of Norfolk 

J. M. \\'oodruff 

A. Wrenn & Sons, inc. 

Oliver Wynne 

Nicholas G. Wilson, M.D. 

O. O. Witherspoon 

Eldridge H. Whitehurst 

L. H. Windholz 




Grave of Commodore James Barron, V. S. N., in I'rinity Episcopal Church Yard, 
Portsmouth, Virginia. Commodore Harron fought and killed Stephen Decatur in the famous 
duel now history. 

I 333 ] 



7 

3 

1936 



s 



1 






1 63 6 ^THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 
5 
6 




It 

# 

lip 
m 
m 



liiiiPi^ii iii iln', 'I- 



Reflec'liii^ tlu^ roiiiiiiiiiiiiy 

Like a mirror licM u|> lo ikiIiiit. iiii oiilf^landiiiji Itaiik 
accurately reflects tlie financial life of the community 
it serves and all the territory contiguous to it. The 
summation of the years (lurin<; which Norfolk <leveloj>c<l 
into the commercial aiul hanking ca{)ital of the Tide- 
water Area may he seen in the character and standing! 
of "Commerce" today — a hank for all the people. And 
in '"Commerce" you will find also the economic history 
of the future in the nuiking. 




2.'i6 Main Street, original location 
;inil home of tlie JN'ational Bank of 
Coninieiie for many years, eon- 
trasted willi the lioirie of "Com- 
nieree" ttnlay al Alain ami Allantir 
Streets. 






National Ba\k of Commekie 



Midtown at Granby and Bute 
Church Street at Freemason 



Main Street at Atlantic 



i 
Hampton Boulevard at 38th Street ^7 

Virginia Beach on Atlantic Ave. 



MIMnKK 1K1)I;HAI, 1)1 POSIT I ^ S U K A NC K CORPOIl ATIO.\ 



334 ] 



5 
1936 



1636 
P 



=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



5 



The Citizens Bank of Norfolk Established April 

20, 1867, AND Consolidated with the Seaboard 

National Bank, July 21, 1928 




DIRECTORS: 



=^ 



D. B. A mes 
Barron F. Black 
D. Carpenter 
John I. Clark 
Jos. W. DeJarnette 
Jas. W. Derrlckson 
R. W. Dudley 
0. J. Egerton 
P. S. Huber 
M. S. Hawkins 
J. B. HiidRlns 
Arthur P. Jones 



Louis Mansbarh 
J. Jett McCornilck 
L. W. Mitchell 
E. L. Parker 
Abner 9. Pope 
W. L. Prieur, Jr. 
E. J. Robertson 
Richard W. Ruffln 
G. Serpen 
Oscar F. Smith 
Chas. Syer, Jr. 
S. Heth Tyler 



'\: 



^ 



CAPITAL DEPOSITS 
1867- ♦42,500- ^71,968.62 

1877" ♦50,000-^316,37L36 
1887' ♦100,000-*795,003.60 

1897'^300,000'^1,103,398.87 



1907-^300,000-^2,358,795.01 



1917-^60a000-H181J58.54 

1927^^1,00a000'^5,857,691.15 
1936-^750,000^^5,154,948.45 



G. Serpei.i. 
Chairman of the Hear,! 




OFFICERS 


M 


Hugh G. Brown 
atiager Trust DepiirlmenI 


Abner S. Poi'e 
President 


L. W. Mitchell 
J'ice-President 


S. W. McGann 
Assistant Cashier 




Victor L. Howell 
Auditor 


R. W. Dudley 
Executive Vice-PresiJinl 


E. W. Berari) 
Cashier 


Hugh G. Whitehead 
Manager Granby Street Beam h 




S. Heth Tyler 
General Counsel 


J. BlI.ISOI.Y HUDCINS 

rice-President 


M. B. Langhorne 
Assistant Cashier 


CHAS. J. SVVEETMAK, JR. 

Manager Berkley Branch 


R. W. Porter 
Manager Personal Loan lJcf>l 



MEMBER FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORA IION 



NORFOLK 



f 



The Seaboard Citizens I 

National Bank 7 

\IRGINIA ^ 

1956 



[ 335 ] 



1636 THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

5 Mutual Co-operation Assures 

II Community Progress 

j 

The Nortolk-Portsmouth-Herklex' Leao;ue ot Local Mutual 

Building and Loan Associations is glad to co-operate in the 

celebration of the 300/// anni\ersarv of the original Norfolk 

land grant and the 200th anni\'ersar\' of the establishment 

of Norfolk as a borough, bv the contribution of this space, 

..^^ and is gratified that the members of this League have had 

,,-^ the pri\ilege of contributing to the development > 

•^ and extention of home o\\'nership in .>| 

1 this cit\ and community U 



:f i^C-' 



ATLANTIC PKRMANF.NT BUILDING AND LOAN ASSN. 
BFRKLKY PLRMANENT BUILDING AND LOAN ASSN. 
CHF.SAPLAKP". BUILDING ASSOCIATION 
COiMMONW I .ALTH BUILDING AND LOAN ASSN. 
FIRST FFDFRAL SA\INGS AND LOAN ASSN. 
Ml'TUAL FFDFRAL SAMNGS AND LOAN ASSN. 
NORFOLK FFDFRAL SAVINGS AND LOAN ASSN. 
OCEAN VI FW MUTUAL BLDG. AND LOAN ASSN. 
TIDFAA ATFR PFRPFTUAL BLDG. AND LOAN ASSN. 
TWIN CFIY PERMANENT BUILDING ASSN. 



336 ] 



,51 

'"5 



1936 



1656 
9 
5 
6 



>^S??'??>>w 



A 




I J?t„.^liSi!^'-=^^=^^ 




TOURNAMENT I 



«i 



I S 



NI5 MSTCH 





THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 

The CAVALIER 

f'irgiiiia Brack, lirginia 



Situated on an eminence o\erlooking the Atlantic Ocean, at 
\ irjrinia Beach, Mrginia, The CavaHer — the Aristocrat of the 
Atlantic — offers the utmost in st}"le, comfort, convenience and 
smartness. 

Goli Two spuity championship courses. 

Kiatng Famous strings of \ irginia and Keniuck\' thorough- 
breds — 65 miles of bridle paths. 

I I'UniS Two championship clay courts. 

Plunge \ glass-covered loggia in which is enclosed the Cava- 
lier's beautiful salt water plunge — regulation size. 

Archery ]„ a natural gallery. 

I'lshing Surf casting, hook and line, and deep sea — boats 

available. 

liatning \^ j|^g Cavalier's private beach club, on its own ocean 

front. Private cabanas. 

ctocial Llje .... IJancing afternoons and evenings at famous Cavalier 
Beach Club . . . One of .'\merica's premier dance 
orchestras noted for its rhythm . . . Cavalier string 
ensemble at luncheon and dinner . . . Bridge . . . Teas 
. . . Social life as the guest may desire. 

-hi .1 inrr'ii an Plan Uotfl . . . ratfs <tuJ hiinklrl i Inrrfutly 
jurniihij DTI rifjtifsl 

RoLANO Eaton 

Managing Director 
^flilZlI^r'B \'irginia Beach, Va. 





||i--'4tt§^ 




[ 337 J 



I 

7 

3 
1936 



1 63 6 —THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 
5 

^ ''Down to the Sea 
IN Ships" 



Oysters and fish have played an important part in the busi- 
ness life of Norfolk and Porlsniouth and today the seafood in- 
dustry ranks as one of the most important industries in Tide- 
water Virginia. 

The history of Norfolk and that of the "Seafood Industry" '^ 

is a mutual history of romance, adventure, hardship and prog- 
ress — an epic that forever crowns a seaport and its seafood 
industry and the men who go "down to the sea in ships." \', 

The history of Norfolk's Seafood Industry may be said to ;^ 

date back to the early days of the Colony, for its pioneer settlers y] 

depended greatly on seafood for their existence. ,^: 



V 



Today, the wholesale seafood dealers of the twin cities 
ship Norfolk's famous seafood to all parts of the United States 
and Canada. 

ISAAC FASS. Inc. 

BALLARD FISH & OYSTER CO.. Inc. 
J. H. MILES & COMPANY, Inc. 
W. J. CROSBY & COMPANY, Inc. 
AX . L. CHASE & COMPANY, Inc. 



Norfolk - Portsmouth, Virginia 1 



t:-— 1936 

Jjb J 



1636 
5 



•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



300 YEARS 



CONTINUOUS PUBLIC SERVICE 



Since 1636 our boats have been a watermark on the pages 
of Norfolk harbor history. 

Today, four modern ferries maintain a fast schedule be- 
tween Norfolk and Portsmouth, only a short distance 
across the historic Elizabeth River. 



f^ 



No Waits 

No Delavs 



Continuous service between Norfolk 

and Portsmouth and connecting the 

downtown business districts 

of the two cities. 



All Main Highway 
Connections 




ONE OF OUR MODERN DIESEL-ELECTRIC FERRIES 



NORFOLK COUNTY FERRIES 

I Operated jointly by City of Portsmouth and Norfolk County i 
CHARLES U. FREUND. Gen. Supt. 



PORTSMOUTH 



VIRGINIA 



339 



I 

7 

3 
1936 



^r-'iviiT^^^x 



y 



1636=— THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 

9 

g Direct Ferry Routes 

Across 

Historic Hampton Roads 

Connecting Mith 

i 

li All Main Higliways 



The shortest route to three of America's greatest historic shrines — 
^^^^ JAMESTOWN, where the American Nation began; WILLIAMS- 

BURG, famous old colonial capital restored hy John D. Rocke- 
'^ij^A feller, Jr.; and YORKTOWN, where Cornwallis surrendered to fei 

^ George Washington. 



'^, 



ir 

. t 

( oiistant, efficient, safe and comfortable service between two of i 

Virginia's largest communities — NORFOLK .\ND NEWPORT 
NEWS — and also similar direct service to OLD POINT COM- 
FORT and FORTRESS MONROE. ;- 



f5 The connecting link between the HISTORIC VIRGINIA PENIN- 

SULA and famous VIRCilNIA SEASHORE, including OCEAN 
VIEW, CAPE HENRY, WILI.OUGHBY AND 
^TRGINIA BEACH. 



Chesapeake Ferry Company . 

Norfolk, Virginia "7 

3 
— , 1956 



THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 




ELECTRIC PLANT 




Eighty-five years ago Norfolk's first gas com- 
pany was established on the site of tlie present 
Union Station. Horse cars plied the streets, 
electricity was unknown, boots and saddles were 
the style of the day. Measured by man's "four 
score and ten" Norfolk is old in years, but in 
human progress she was conceived but yesterday. 
Truly, we have come a long way in a short time. 



Virginia Electric 
and Power Company 




GAS HOLDERS 




STREET CARS 



341 



I 

7 
3 
1936 



l636="THPOUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

5 
6 




Home Office Building, Boush street and Olney Road 

Norfolk, Va. 



,*'i^ 



j-ii-*i\ 



1. 




KMMKKK 



[OUNDED in 1927, the Colonial Oil Com- 
pany, Inc., distributors of Pure Oil Company 
Products, is now one ot the leading oil com- 
panies in this section. It is well equipped to serve you 
with vour every motoring need throughout Eastern 
Virginia and Eastern North Carolina. Along the high- 
ways and in every township, vou will find conveniently 
located Blue and White Pure Oil Courtesy Stations. 



^: 



<*i?v 




Colonial Oil Company, Inc. 

Distributors of Pure Oil Company Products I 

^ 7 

3 

— 1936 

342 




1636 
9 
5 
6 



THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



1885 




1936 



Progressing With Norfolk 

AND THE SOUTH 



1 



It is with some pride and a profound sense of responsibilit)" that the head 
of this Company supported by an able staff of executives, enters the fifty- 
second year of business existence of the Ro\'ster Company. Pride, not la 
the mere size which the business has grown lout in the reputation for 
quality and service which underlies this growth. Responsibility toward the 
man\' thousands of users, that the faith the}' place in Royster Brands shall 
be justitied in e\'en greater measure- -if such be possible — than e\'er before. 




I'it'iu of KorfoU- Pliinl 



F. S. Royster Guano Company 



ROVSTER BUILDING 

NORFOLK, MRGINIA 



W 



"J 



I 

7 

3 
1936 



1636 

9 

5 



THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 



^%*5S^ 



<^EHl 



of 



40 Years 

Leadership and Progress 



Since 1896 the name ROBERTSON has 
been identified and recognized as a leader in 
the Fertilizer Industry throughout Virginia 
and North Carolina. 

A modern plant, complete in all depart- 
ments, is located on the waterfront at Mone\' 
Point, Norfolk. Other plants are located at 
South Hill, \'a., and Raleigh, N. C. 

Products of the Company are Sulphuric 
Acid, Superphosphate, Land Plaster and 
Commercial Fertilizers. 

"Robertson's 'Proven' Fertilizers" — 
the Better Ingredients Fertilizers — are for- 
mulated to meet the climatic conditions of the 
territory served, namely: Virginia, North 
Carolina and East Tennessee. 



ROBERTSON CHEMICAL 
CORPORATION 



OiiicF.s: \\ ainwrighl 

Building, Norfolk, \'a. 



Pi.AXTs: Xorfoik, \ a. 



South Hill. \'a. 



Raieieh. N. C. 




1936 



=THROUCH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



1636- 

5 CHAMBERLIN HOTEL 

6 OLD POINT COMFORT, VIRGINIA 

II lidewater Virginia's Largest and rinest iTotel 

The Chamberlin Hotel at Old Point Comfort, famous as a year round resort, 
is situated directly on Chesapeake Bay in the heart of the most historic resort area 
in America. It is the nearest large hotel to Williamsburg, Yorktown, and James- 
tow'n, three of the outstanding points of interest for tourists and three of America's 
greatest shrines. 

For the tourist the Chamberlin offers the ultimate in accommodations at 
reasonable rates. 18 hole golf course designed by Donald Ross; miles of bridle 
paths; private beach club; glass enclosed swimming pool; health studio; sun 
porches and spacious verandas ; fishing, boating, tennis and other sports and 
recreations. 
Il European Plan Rates begin at $3.00 

THE CHAMBERLIN HOTEL 

Under the Direction of 
SIDNEY BANKS 




PETTY WADDILL, 

Resident Manager 



Formerly Managing Director of The Cavalier Hotel 
V'irginia Beach 





For 36 Years 

Serving You Better 

With the Finest of Foods 

At the Most Economical Prices 

PENDER FOOD STORES 

'■'■Tidewater' s Own Chain" 



[ 345 



I 

7 

5 
1936 



1656 

9 

5 



•THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



i8 



95 

Tidewater's 
First Brewery 

Beer was rirst made in Noifnlk 41 
years ago. This plant was built on 
the historic site of old Lesner Park, 
which was the fashionable show 
place of the community. Even then 
the law of cleanliness became a \ir- 
tue of the brewer's art and GL.^SS 
EN.AMELED T.ANKS FOR STOR- 
AGE .\.\'D processing— FIRST 

in the united st.^tes — 
were installed. 



BUY 

BOOST 
DRINK 

Southern 
Beer 



Made In Norfolk, 



1936 

Southern 
Breweries 

The first brewery to open its doors 
in X'irginia after the repeal of the 
Eighteenth -Amendment, Southern 
Breweries, Inc, operates the larg- 
est and most modern brewery plant 
in the state. Its output is also the 
largest in the State. 
Southern Beer and Ale is well 
known throughout V'irginia and the 
Carolinas — where its purity and 
mild flavor is making it increasing- 
ly popular. 



Af» 





7?^£ Pride of the South 








M*llid!l=l:a 

*AADE IN NORFOLK, VA.. BY SOUTHERN BREWERIES. INC. 



.146 ] 



f 



^t 



r'1 




1636 
9 



■THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



Making History 



We have a pride in the part we have had in making Norfolk's histor>- of progress. 
Since 1889 we have active!}- stressed Home Ownership and Thrift. Thousands of 
homes exist today because of the financial assistance gi\'en by this association 
and millions of dollars have been accumulated through our regular savings plan. 
Our Full Paid and Installment shares are Federally insured up to $5,000 in any one 

name. 

Our growth has kept pace with the growth of Norfolk until today 
we are the largest huxldvng and loan association in the southeast. 

We offer to the people of Norfolk and the surrounding area the most modern and 
progressi\'e plans of savings and home financing, combined with the same friendli- 
ness and co-operation we ha\'e gi\en our members throughout the forty-seven years 
of our history. 

MUTUAL 

Federal Savings and Loan Association of Norfolk 



\Tf' 121 W . IWZEWELL STREET 

i1 



NORFOLK. VIRCINI.V 



JOHN A. LESN '.R. President 




Abbott, Proctor & Paine 

120 Broadway, New York 
Consolidation of 

ABBOTT, PROCTOR £c PAIXE and l.I\ 1\( IS I'ON Sc COMPANY 



Mcnibcrs New York Stock Exchange 



New \'ork Curb Exchange 
New Vorii Cotton Exchange 
New York Produce Exchange 
New York Cocoa Exchange, Inc. 
New York Coifee & Sugar Ex::h., 



Inc. 



Chicagt) Board of Trade 
Chicago Stock Exchange 
Chicago Meicantile Exchange 
CoinmoditN' Exchange, Inc. 
Montreal Curb Market 



Canadian Connnodity Exchange, Inc. 



Bernard C Smith, Manager 

NORFOLK BRANCH OFFICE 



117-119 T.'\ZEVVELL STREET 



PHONE 247 14 



347 



I 

7 

3 
1936 



1636 
9 



■THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 





300 §tat& ago 

. . . Three hundred >'ears ago the founders of Norfolk builded better than they 
knew . . . they laid broad, deep foundations to support what could have been 
only a \ision to them at that time. Now that \ision has become a reality. 



50 icarsi ^so 



. . . Fifty years ago Berkley's first financial institution was started and its 
founders builded better than they knew. We take pride in the fact that our in- 
stitution has contributed so largeh' to the advancement made by Norfolk, and 
that in the past fift}' years we have been so closely allied with the progress that 
Norfolk has made. 



l^obap 




We are equipped and read}' to meet the demands of the future, and our 
resources are ample and are dedicated for desirable loans for buying, 
building, repairing or refinancing — and thus to build a better Norfolk. 

The Berkley Permanent Building and Loan Association, Inc. 

221 W. Berkley Avenue Norfolk, Virginia 

Branch Offices: 29 Selden Arcade— M. & P. Bank. South Norfolk 

illcrcf)antsi anb planters; pank 

BERKLEY — CAMPOSTELLA — SOUTH NORFOLK 
NORFOLK, \'IRGINIA 

Organized 1900 I 

Capital ---------$ 250,000.00 

Surplus and Profits ----- 475,000.00 j, 

Resources -------- 4,200,000.00 ' 

OFFICERS 

S. L. Slover, Chairman of the BuarJ 
Jesse J. Parkerson, President F. B. Townsend, Assistant Cashier 

C. L. Old, rice-President J. Paul Smith, Assistant Cashier 

John Cuthrell, lice-President Ciuv R. Beale, Assistant Cashier 

H. G. Martin, Vice-Pres. & Cashier W. Mac Goodman, Assistant Cashier 

V. L. SvKES, Assistant Cashier James G. Martin, Jr., Trust Ojficer 

DIRECTORS 

C. L. Old L. L. Sawyer Howard G. Martin W. C. Arrington B. Galumbecic 

S. W. Lvons, Jr. S. L. Slover J. C. Sleet A. J. Shumadine J. F. Walker 

C. R. Carver Wm. H. Darden James G. Martin, Jr. F. B. Townsend M. A. Glasser | 

Alvah H. Martin John Cuthrell W. P. Butt R. W. Martin B. D. Wood I 

E. T. Humphries J. M. Lawrence J. R. Sears J. H. Privott Jesse J. Parkerson | 

MEMBER FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION ^ 

Berkley s Oldest Bank 5C 

1956 



1636— THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 

9 

5 POST & FLAGG 

V^ Established 1888 

120 ATLANTIC STRE.P.T NORFOLK, VIRGINIA 

James B. McCaw, Jr., Manager 

STOCKS and BONDS 

COTTON-COFFEE-GRAIN- PROVISIONS 

Telephone 26535 





J\I embers 

NEW YORK AND OTHER STOCK and COMMODITY EXCHANGES 



Main Office 

49 BROAD STREET NEW YORK 



The World's Largest Store 

Serving More Than 12,000,000 Customers 
CELEBRATES WITH NORFOLK 

Because Sears, Roebuck and Co. serves more than 12,000,000 customers a year 
and does an annual business of over $400,000,000 we are the world's largest 
store. There is no other company or business in the world which has in its files 
the names of 12,000,000 customers with which it does a regular business. 

This tremendous business was made possible because of the fact that we have 
always offered merchandise of the finest quality — the best of service and the 
lowest prices. 

Our slogan of "GUARANTEE SATISFACTION" has instilled into the minds of 
our customers supreme confidence to the extent that at all times our customers are 
essentially right. They can always expect a square deal from Sears, Roebuck and Co. 





NORFOLK, VIRGINIA 



349 ] 



I 

7 
3 
1936 



1 63 6 ^THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 




5 
6 





III PLUME STREET. NORfO'-K.VA, 



yj/HE artistic character of Nor- 
folk has been greatly influenced 
over the past half century 
by 

THE HOUSE OF 
ARTHER MORRIS 

which continues to 

emulate all the name 

implies 

* 

FURS . GOWNS . HATS 

COATS . SUITS 

Accessories for All Occasions 

Matchabelli Perfumes 
• 

(El|? BnitHi* of 

Artl|?r iioms 

111 West Plume Street 



1873 - 1936 

6 J Tears 
Dependable 
Drug Store Service 

From the small beginning in a 
rural drug store, when Hramble- 
ton was a suburb of Norfolk, we 
have grown and prospered with 
the development of the 
Norfolk area. 

Tatem's Pharmacy 

J. Albert Tatem - E. Carlisle Tatem 

PHARMACISTS 

Park and Brambleton Avenues 




Old ami New Lighthouses at Cape Henry, near Norfolk 

where the first permanent F^nglish settlers in America 

landed April 2fi, 1607, planted a cross and gave thanks to 

God for their safe voyage and claimed the 

country in the name of their King. 



Whaley Engineering 

Corporation 

Prnicess Anne Road and \'irginian Ry. 
Norfolk, Virginia 



Keeping pace uit/i the progress 
of Norfolk since IQIQ 



J 



[ 3S0 ] 



7 

3 
1936 



1 63 6 —THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK= 



1848 




LdvinK Cups presented by employees on 
"intli and 75th Anniversaries 



1936 
88 Years Distinctive Service 

Is the proud record of Norfolk's oldest business firm. The Con- 
federate Monument on Commercial Place and the LeKies Mau- 
soleum in Elmwood Cemetery are among the outstanding works 
designed and erected by us. 

The COUPER MARBLE WORKS 



Charles C. Couper 



294 B.\NK STREET 



NORFOLK, VIRGINIA 



1868 



^'Norfolk's Building Material Pioneers'" 

Batchelder & Collins, Inc. 



1936 



p. O. BOX 1086 
'i\^J Telephone 21 108 



BATCHELDER & COLLINS 

Cement, Lime, Wall Plaster, Sewer Pipe Box 
Bricks, Shingles, Laths 

Office, 141-145 Water Street 



Reprint Irom Ad in old City Directory 



OFFICE AND WAREHOUSE 
GRANBY ST. and N. & W. F!. R. 



4> 



iM 



'■^ai^'' 




Kstal)lislioil 1 So'2 



1636 
9 
5 
6 



■THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 



Incorporated 1909 




A. WRENN & SONS, Lie. 



DISTRIBUTORS 

TRUCK BODIES 

TRAILERS 



DistriWutors 
MOTOR TRUCK EQUIPMKXT 



PAINTS 

TRIMMING SUPPLIES 



B-K 

\ A( TIM HKAKES 



BODIES 

BUILT - REPA1RI:D - REPAINTED 

420 to 424 Union Street 
NORFOLK, VA. 



MANUFACTURERS 

SPECIAL 
TRUCK BODIES 



PENROD, JURDEN & CLARK CO. 

MANUFACTURER?;. IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS 

AMERICAN WALNUT. LIMBER AND VENEERS 

Norfolk. Va: Kansas City, Mo. FOREIGN CABINET WOODS Cincinnati, Ohio; Des Moines. Iowa 





View of Norfolk Plant and Storage Yard 



Established ISftO 



Incorporated 19IS 




Geo. W. Duvall &: Company, Inc. 

NORFOLK IRON WORKS 

Steamboat Building and Repairing 
Machinists, Boilermakers, Blacksmiths and Coppersmiths 

IRON AND BRASS FOUNDRY, PATTERN SHOPS 
Diivall's Patent Tube Ferrule 

Nos. 921, 932-1008 \\'atei- Street NORFOLK, VIRGINIA 



[ 3S2 ] 



I 

7 
3 
1936 



1636— THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK= 

9 

5 Leaders for Seventy Years 

6 ^ 



J .S. R£I,L, Sr 



[Established I81l>.j 



KDWAKD M. BELU 




J. S. BELL & SON, 

Dealers in 

Beef, Pork. Mutton, Veal, &c. 



also MftDufacturerB of 



Pure Lard and Superior Sausage, 

Quimby Market, Cor. Cburcb and Qaeen Sts., NORFOLK, TA. 



Advertisenient from ISSh Cil\ Directory 

Jo u>o JdcH, Jfo (& C^-ompaiiy, IiiCc 

Wholesale Meats and Provisions 



641-643 Ckapel Street 



rNorfolk, Vipgiiaia 




"You Can Live A Little Better 
If You Buy A Little Better" 

You ina\- be assured of a saving on Quality 
Merchandise when you bu\- Food Products 
under these brand ;nanies — 




FOOD STORES 




A & P BRAND 

ENCORE 

lONA 



ANN PAGE 
"OUR OWN" 
NECTAR 



SULTANA 

RAJAH 

SUNNYFIELD 



and the World's Finest Coffees 
EIGHT O'CLOCK RED CIRCLE 



BOKAR 



! 

A & P FOOD STORES / 

3 
1956 



[ 3S3 



1 63 6 ^THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ 



9 
5 
6 



Norfolk Tidewater Terminals, Inc. 



XORFOI.K. \ IRCUNIA 




IvxpcLlitious Handling 
Assured 



Unlimited 
Berthini,' Space 



Directly Served By 

Eight Trunk Line Railroads 

Thru Belt Line 



52 Acres of 
Fireproof \\'arehouses 

l.dw Insurance Rates Sprinkler System 



Modrrn 0-i't'rsfa.\, Ctmst^visr (in J httt-riimsial T crminitl 




For rates, space or other detailed information write, wire or telephone 

NORFOLK TIDEWATER TERMINALS, Inc. 

Norfolk, \ irginia 

Radio and Cahle Address: "Tideterm Norfolk Virginia" 

\V. B. McKiNNEV, PnsiJi-nl James A. Moore, ricc-Pra. Sf Gen'l Mgr. 



timfBL5?r'lME3 



<&, 



W 




MR \ IHW (l[- N(1Rr-OLI< PI.AN'T 

SMITH - DOUGLASS COMPANY, Inc. 

Norfolk, Virginia 

[ 354 ] 



7 

5 
1936 



1636— THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 

9 

5 Telephone Progress 



I 



in Norfolk 



The first telephone exchange was established in Norfolk in 1879 and 
by Ma}' 31 of that \'ear was serving 81 subscribers. 

Today there are more than 22,700 telephones in the cit\' of Norfolk 
from which an average of 202,550 calls originate dail}'. These 
telephones can be connected quickl)' and eco^nomically with about 
17,800,000 other telephones in the United States and with an 
additional 15,000,000 throughout the world. 



The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company 

\V*^ r J/- • ■ 

-"''* oj y irgifiia 



120 West Bute Street 



Norfolk 21311 



Norfolk Dredging Company 

CONTRACTORS and KNGlNKt'.RS 

I^argest ami most modern dredging equipment in t/ie Port of Hampton Roads 
River and Harbor Improvements Bot/i Hydraulic and Huclzet 



O. F. Smith, Jr., President 



Box 486— Norfolk, Virginia 



South end of Campostella Bridge 



[ 3SS 



I 

7 

3 

1936 



1636— =TH ROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK 

9 

X 1850 - 1936 

6 KEEPING FAITH WITH NORFOLK 

I The successful operation of a Drug Business during a period that has experienced 
three wars, six major panics and dozens of business depressions is the best evidence 
of Burrow, Martin & Company's stability, far-sightedness and square dealing. 

EIGHTY-SIX YEARS AGO THIS BUSINESS in a very small way was estab- 
lished. From our first business day we have built a reputation for high standards 
of efficiency, quality drugs and merchandise, satisfactory values and service. Dur- 
ing our EIGHTY-SIX YEARS of business these basic principals have never for 
one moment been forgotten. Through all of these \'ears we have been known to our 
thousands of customers as exponents of these ideals. This has resulted in making 
Burrow, Martin & Company one of the largest establisments of its kind in the south. 



BURROW, MARTIN&CoInc 

414 MAIN ST. 267.N0 330 CRANBV ST. 241 CHURCH ST. 



FOUR LARGE PRESCRIPTION DRUG STORES 






1868 



/^TTK 



THOROBRED 



1936 



Best By Test For Over Sixtv - Eight Fears 

WHY NOT PLANT THE BEST ? 

GOOD SEEDS need not be expensive but "CHEAP" seeds usually 
are. Tait's THOROBRED SEEDS are grown where they attain 
perfection, are tested for purity and germination and stand ace high 
in the Monthly Bulletin issued by the \'irginia Department of 
Agriculture, also "Through The Years In Norfolk" they have con- 
tributed greatly to the development of the Norfolk area as one of 
the great trucking centers in America, and have been used exten- 
sively by homeowners in creating beautiful lawns and flower gardens. 
They have pleased the most particular farmers, home and market 
gardeners for more than Sixty-Eight Years, and the\- will please 
YOU. Give them a trial and be convinced. 




GEORGE TAIT & SONS, Inc. 

Seed Growers and Merchants 



[ 356 ] 



I 

7 

3 

1936 



1 63 6 ^THROUGH THE YEARS !N NORFOLK- 

9 SEASIDE PARK 

5 





Seaside Park at V^ir^jlnia Beach has a frontage of 1500 feet on the Atlantic Ocean 
and is equipped with a large outdoor salt water swimming pool located directly 
on the beach and alongside the two-mile ocean promenade. The park also has 
pavilions for dancing and picnics and the amusement devices are of the latest 
design. The hath houses are spotlessly clean and suits and equipment 
are guaranteed to he absolutely sanitary. 

See famous Peacock Ball Room — Music by outstanding dance orchestras 
Enjoy moonlight evenings in beautiful gardens 

The Finest Amusement Park in TiJeii-iiler ririjinia Life (/iiarjs intJ heaeh patrols insure safe bathing 

VIRGINIA BEACH AMUSEMENT PARK, INC. 

operating 

SEASIDE PARK — VIRGINL\ BEACH, VIRGINIA 





A MAP OF THC 

VIRGINIA SEASHORE AREA 

HISTORIC SHRINES, BEACHES, 
AND PRINCIPAL CITIES 




[ 357 ] 



19 



I 

7 

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36 



l636=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK^ = 

9 

5 Samuel G. Jones Dr. Z. \'ance Jones E. D. (jentes 

President and Manager Secretary-Treasurer Ass't Secretary-Treasurer 

^ Berkley Machine Works &: Foundry Co. Inc. 

K S T A B L I S H E D I S 9 M 

N o r f o 1 k : \' i r g i II i a 

For fortv-three years -we have kept pace ivi't/i 
the industrial growth of Norfolk 

EsiABI.ISHEU 19()!t 

©lb dominion iWarme l^ailtoap Corp, 

NORFOLK, VIRGINIA 

SERVICE — DAY AND NIGHT — SUNDAYS AND HOLIDAYS 



-3r. 



,:? A. WARREN, Jr. Phoke Berkley 12 Office) W. G. LARMOUR 

v^» President Phone Berkley 51 (Machine Shop) Nav. Arch.tect 

Q 

J H wooDiNGTON Two Railways 2000 and 1000 Tons ceo t. wrenn 

1st Vice-President oi- t-»mi at !■• T^'l l\Ti Yard Foreman 

Ship nuilders, Machinists, Boiler Makers 

p. C. HASTINGS ' HIT/--- '^ "^ HOLLAND 

2nd Vice-President BraSS aild IrOIl CaStlDgS Shop Superintendent 

GEO A. BROUGHTON ,,, . , , , ,t' i , ■ C F. SCHULER 

Treas, &Genl Mgr, t, 1 e C t r 1 C and A C e t V I C n e Welding Secretary 

E ST A B I. I S H K. D 1 H 9 S 

N. BLOCK S£ COMPANY 

Iron^ Steel a/irl Metal Scrap 

Contractors' and Industrial Equipment 

Boilers, Machinery, Tanks, Rails, Pipe, Wire Rope 

Structural Steel, Etc. 

WAl'KR AND MADISON STREETS 

Norfolk, \'irginla. 



R. R. RiCHAKDSox, EstablishctI 1913 R. B. Walls, 

PrrsiJcnt SnTi'tury-Trfas. 

R. R. Richardson & Company, Inc. 

GENERAL CONTR.\CTORS 



■^rs&^ 



Xationai, Bank of Commerce Bl'ii.disg 

NORFOLK, \A. 

I 358 1 



.So 



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1936 



l636=THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 



5 
6 



'=*r 






CAPE HENRY PILGRIMAGE AND CROSS SHRINE 

(See Pages Nos. lei-lG^) 

The Cross Shrine at Cape Henry was planned and erected by the National 
Society, Daughters oi the American Colonists, largely through the eiforts of the 
members of the Council of Thirty, Assembly of Tidewater \'irginia Women, 
with Mrs. Frantz Naylor, Speaker of the Assembly serving as Chairman o( the 
Council. It was dedicated on April "Zd, 1935, by Mrs. Joseph Starke Calfee, 
President of the National Society, upon the occasion of the Annual Cape Henry 
Pilgrimage of that year. 

The base stone of the Cross bears the following wording: 

CAPE HENRY MEMORIAL 
Here, at Cape Henry , first landed in America, 
upon 26 April, 1607, those English Colonists 
who, upon /J May, 1607, established at 
Jamestown, Virginia, the first perma- 
nent English Settlement in 
America. 



Erected by 

The National Society 

Daughters of the American Colonists 

April 26, /c^jj;. 



The first organized Cape Henry Pilgrimage was led by The Honorable 

Harry Flood Byrd, now United States Senator and then Governor of \'irginia. 

Mrs. Naylor originated the idea and appointed the various s.ub-committees. 

(^ Ex-President Herbert Hoover, with Mrs. Hoover and governors from many states, 

led the pilgrimage in 1931. 

President Roosevelt, twice prevented from participating in the ]iilgrimage 
on account ot the situation in Washington wrote: 

(In 1935) 

"1 deeply regret that It is not possible for me to come as one more pilgrim to Cape 
Henry upon the occasion of this anniversary so deservingly celebrated each year by the 
Assembly of Tidewater V'irginia Women. Vou are gathered here to dedicate this me- 
morial of the first landing of our earliest English forbears to take up their permanent 
home upon America's shores. The occasion is unlijue in its significance, for there are 
blended traits that conquer, the will to dare and the will to endure. No more fitting 
symbol of the meaning of 1607 could have lieen chosen than this granite cross — the gift 
of the National Societv of the Daughters of the American Colonists. I am happy to extend 
my heartiest congratulations to the women of these honored organizations who are work- 
ing so loyally to perpetuate the memory of the brave deeds of the past." 

(And in 1036) 

"I am s'ad t*J learn thai the .\s>etnhl\' of Tidewater Virginia W^onien is to make 
another pilgrimage to Cape Henrv in honor of the landing of the first permanent English 
colonists on American soil. We do well to commemorate these key events in our history. 

"A pilgrimage such as yours is sure to quicken and enlarge the interest in our Colonial 
beginnings of all who participate, and I wish for the undertaking the fullest measure of 
success." 



ADDENDA — "Banks and Bankers." Page No. 89 

EXCHANGE BANK — CAPITAL OF $1,800,000 

It must be remembered that the Exchange Bank was a State bank with 
branches in Richmond, Petersburg, .Abingdon, Alexandria, Lynchburg, Salem, 
and elsewhere. Including the Norfolk bank, and allowing an equal amount ot 
capital tor each branch and the main office, the amount per bank was probably 
a little in excess of $'200,000. 



I 359 1 



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1636 
9 
5 
6 



■THROUGH THE YEARS IN NORFOLK- 




Reverse Side Design Norfolk 
Commemorative Half Dollar 






Tf 



'ip- TS 



^. 



193''- 



VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSIBI 

REFERENCE DIVJSIO.^ ^ 

936 INDili'tivDENCii B:...L^vA.a) 
VIRGIKIA BEACH, VlRGiNIA 2o455 



REFERENCE _^ 

bo NOT REMOVE FROM iMfXf 



yfummA wkm ?m!fG smm. ^^'^^^ 






M 



■Through the years .n Nori 30057787 RDOl 
■ R-PA 975.5521 T531 



AlflEDE bD23ED 



Virginia Beach 
Public Library 

REFERENCE 

FOR USE IN LIBI^RY 
ONLY